Bach Handel & Vivaldi

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A brief PowerPoint presentation on the three leading composers of the Baroque period of Western musical history.

A brief PowerPoint presentation on the three leading composers of the Baroque period of Western musical history.

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  • 1. Bach Handel & Vivaldi the 3 leading composers of the Baroque period
  • 2. There were more than 800 composers whose music was published during the Baroque period. Of these, there are about 65 whose names are still known today, mostly by musicians.
  • 3. But among those 65 Baroque composers whose music is remembered today, 3 names stand out far above the rest: • Johann Sebastian Bach • George Frederick Handel • Antonio Vivaldi
  • 4. Johann Sebastian Bach (also called J.S. Bach) German Composer 1685-1750
  • 5. Johann Sebastian Bach Occupations: organist & church choir director harpsichordist, violinist, violist music teacher composer
  • 6. Johann Sebastian Bach Composed: • Sacred choral music, including over 200 cantatas • Organ music, including Preludes and Fugues • Harpsichord music • Works for chamber orchestra
  • 7. Following the development of a new system of tuning for musical instruments called Equal Temperament that enabled keyboard instruments to play in any key, Bach composed this collection of 24 preludes and fugues in every major and minor key, which was the first major work in the history of music to utilize every key (tonality.)
  • 8. Prior to the adoption of Equal Temperament tuning, instruments that had fixed or mechanical tone production could only play in a few related keys without sounding badly out of tune. The adoption of Equal Temperament and Bach’s composition of The Well-Tempered Clavier paved the way for a new system of harmony in which any of the 12 chromatic tones could be used harmonically in any key.
  • 9. For this reason, The Well-Tempered Clavier is considered one of the most important and influential works in musical history. Bach wrote this music for other musicians, and for future generations to study. His dedication in the printed music states: "For the profit and use of musical youth desirous of learning, and especially for the pastime of those already skilled in this study."
  • 10. Johann Sebastian Bach is widely considered to be the greatest composer of the Baroque period and one of the greatest composers of all periods of musical history. Musical Examples: Prelude No. 1 in C from The Well-Tempered Clavier http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0egJr6nvCQI (2’21”) Prelude and Fugue in D Minor http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ATbMw6X3T40&feature=iv&src_vid=ipzR9bhei_o&annotation_id=annotation_78634 (8’28”)
  • 11. George Frederic Handel German/English composer 1685-1759
  • 12. George Frederik Handel Occupations: violinist, harpsichordist, conductor, opera composer, theatre manager stock investor
  • 13. George Frederik Handel Composed: • Sacred choral music, including 29 oratorios (such as Handel's Messiah) • Operas (42) • Many works for chamber orchestra including 27 concerti grossi and 16 organ concerti
  • 14. Handel's most important work is probably his oratorio, Messiah, which contains some of the best-known choral music ever written, most notably the "Hallelujah Chorus.“ Handel is also known as the earliest composer in musical history whose operas are part of the standard repertory. Opera companies all over the world perform Handel’s operas on a regular basis.
  • 15. George Frederik Handel Musical Example: Aria: “Ombra mai fu” from the opera Xerxes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MhN-fOdD7Jc (3’44”) Audio feature on the relationship between Bach and Handel: http://www.kuhf.org/programaudio/engines/eng1186_64k.m3u (3’35”)
  • 16. Antonio Vivaldi Italian Composer 1678-1741
  • 17. Antonio Vivaldi Occupations: Catholic priest violinist music teacher conductor
  • 18. Antonio Vivaldi Composed: • More than 500 concertos including more than 200 for violin solo and orchestra •  Sacred choral works, including his best known choral work, Gloria in D •  More than 40 operas
  • 19. Vivaldi's most important work is The Four Seasons, a group of 4 concertos for solo violin and string orchestra.
  • 20. Antonio Vivaldi Musical Examples: Excerpts from Vivaldi’s The Four Seasons Spring: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tTsyN9tsnQ (1’00”) Summer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=watQ28Fx2Mg (1’00”) Autumn: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mGqF4ZgjLnc (2’09”) Winter: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uC-USAB530A&feature=related (2’15”) Excerpt from Vivaldi’s Gloria in D “Cum sancto spiritu” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azS9Km5kK8g (2’55”)