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  1. 1. Synergy Lesson Objectives: To be able to explain synergy, using appropriate terminology.
  2. 2. Merchandise What different types of movie merchandise can you think of?
  3. 3. Synergy <ul><li>Synergy is when the interaction of two or more forces working together creates a greater effect than the sum of their individual efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>Media synergy is the way in which different elements of a media conglomerate work together to promote linked products across different media. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Disney Synergy The film of ‘High School Musical’ promotes the DVD which promotes the soundtrack which promotes the advent calendar which promotes the doll which promotes the sequel which promotes the Disney Store which promotes the film…
  5. 5. How does synergy work? <ul><li>Synergy works when different elements within a media conglomerate promote (e.g. film studio, record label, video game division) create linked products (e.g. film, soundtrack, video game). </li></ul><ul><li>Each distinct element promotes the others. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ‘ Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone’ (2001) In 2000 AOL and Time Warner merged. The promotion of ‘Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone’ by AOL Time Warner is a good example of synergy. Adverts for the film were shown on HBO and the WB, both American TV channels which are subsidiaries of Time Warner. The soundtrack was released on Atlantic Records, part of Warner Music. Articles about the film appeared in newspapers and magazines owned by Time Warner. AOL’s internet service was offering merchandise, and ticket promotions tied to subscriptions for AOL’s services.
  7. 7. Synergy in the American Film Industry <ul><li>Dalecki, 2009, ‘Hollywood Media Synergy’. </li></ul><ul><li>Read through the article and note down key points. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Key Words Sequelization Convergence or convergent Megafranchise Vertical integration Horizontal integration Ancillary revenue Multiple media platform Cross-promotion Constant media synergy Franchise Theatrical box office spectacle
  9. 9. Hollywood Media Synergy <ul><li>When and why did Hollywood switch its focus to megafranchise movies? </li></ul><ul><li>How are megafranchise movies defined? </li></ul><ul><li>How important are sequels to the Hollywood film industry? </li></ul><ul><li>What is ancillary revenue? How important is it? </li></ul><ul><li>How important are videogames to the film industry? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Horizontal Integration <ul><li>Hollywood has moved from vertical integration to horizontal integration. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this they now focus on producing films which can cross-promoted with other media texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancillary revenue has now become more important than box office revenue. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Constant Media Synergy <ul><li>Every piece of media within the same-brand umbrella promotes every other piece of media under than that umbrella. </li></ul><ul><li>“The Disney Stores promote the consumer products which promote the parks which promote the television shows. The television shows promote the company.” Former Disney CEO Michael Eisner </li></ul>
  12. 12. Multimedia Supertexts <ul><li>‘ the industry can scarcely be treated in terms of movies and videogames and theme-park rides as separate entities or isolated media texts. Rather, they are related aspects...of entertainment supertexts, multimedia narrative forms... The essential text within these media franchises is the Hollywood blockbuster film’ Thomas Schatz </li></ul>
  14. 14. Indiana Jones Megafranchise <ul><li>Products of the Indiana Jones franchise include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 films </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A comic book series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A television series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attractions at 4 different theme parks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A wide range of toys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A pinball machine </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Spectacle <ul><li>Megafranchise films rely on the use of spectacle. </li></ul><ul><li>High budget productions with expensive set design and special effects. </li></ul><ul><li>This works as a ‘barrier to entry’ to lower-budget films, allowing the major studios to continue to dominate the film industry. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Synergy? <ul><li>Write a short paragraph explaining what you understand by synergy. </li></ul>