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A2 media revision section b

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  • 1. A2 MEDIA: SECTION B REVISION Lesson Objectives: To review Section B of the Media Exam.
  • 2. Exam Format  Answer both questions in Section A.  1(a) progression of skills – both AS and A2 coursework  1(b) applying theory – A2 coursework  Spend one hour on this section (30 minutes on 1(a) and 30 minutes on 1(b).  Answer one question in Section B on the Media and Collective Identity topic.  Spend one hour on this question.
  • 3. Section B – Media and Collective Identity
  • 4. Assessment Criteria
  • 5. Examiners’ Reports
  • 6. Examiners’ Report
  • 7. Key Advice  Contemporary texts – the majority of your essay should be focused on media texts produced since 2009 (though you must include some reference to historical texts to achieve Level 4).  Include critical analysis of theory.  Develop a balanced argument – weighing up different views.
  • 8. Collective Identity and the Media  What is the relationship between media and collective identity?  Does the media inform collective identity or not?
  • 9. Media influence on collective identity  The media must have some effect on understanding of identity (Gauntlett).  Media as ideological state apparatus (Althusser).  Moral panics (Cohen).  Cultivation theory (Gerbner).
  • 10. Limited Media influence on Identity  Identity is complex (Gauntlett) – including collective identity – youth identities rather than youth identity?  Hall – audience response – negotiated/oppositional  Fiske – audience more powerful than producers – no such thing as the ‘audience’.  Demos study – young people/teachers reject media representations.
  • 11. Argument  The key to doing well in this question is to develop an argument.  Media texts tend to represent young people negatively. These representations reinforce hegemonic values. Whilst the media has some influence on our understanding of identity, identities are complex and audience responses will vary. Some contemporary representations attempt to challenge dominant negative representations.
  • 12. Argument Simplified  Media representations generally aim to encourage consensus/conformity.  Negative representations of youth show what is unacceptable in society.  As a result youth identity seen negatively.  However this may have a limited effect in understanding of identity.
  • 13. Structure  Introduction – carefully chosen quote introducing argument, focus and texts.  Historical representation – 1950s JD movies and Rebel Without a Cause  Contemporary Negative representations – Hoodies and Altar Boys study/DEMOS study; Harry Brown  Attack the Block/Misfits  The Selfish Giant  Conclusion – sum up argument, prediction for the future.
  • 14. Discussing the Media Texts  How are young people represented?  Why are they represented in this way?  What are the social implications (effects) of the representation?  How does this link to theory?  What does the text suggest about the relationship between media and collective identity?
  • 15. Historical Representations  JD movies of the 1950s reflected anxiety about juvenile delinquency, perceived crisis of masculinity – reflecting adult anxieties (Giroux).  How are young people represented?  How does this link to theory?  What does this tell you about the relationship between media and collective identity?  Constructed by adults – reinforces hegemonic values.  James Dean as icon.
  • 16. Contemporary Negative  Hoodies or Altar Boys  Harry Brown  Negative, extreme representations.  Link to theory.  How would audiences respond? Negotiated/oppositional.
  • 17. Misfits/Attack the Block/Selfish Giant  Use of negative stereotypes in more sympathetic context.  Perpetuating stereotypes or challenging them? (Wearing)  Issue of social class – complexity of collective identity – is working class youth identity the same as middle class youth identity?
  • 18. Conclusion  Sum up argument – how is youth represented in the media? What is the effect of this?  What is the relationship between media and youth identity?  Prediction for the future – how/why might representations change/stay the same?
  • 19. Section B – Final Tips  Refer to at least two types of media.  Refer to historical and future.  Most of essay should be focused on contemporary (since 2009) representations.  Link to theory throughout.  Clear, balanced argument in relation to effect of media representations/link between media representations and collective identity.