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GOwind - extended version

GOwind - extended version

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GOwind_extendedversion_v3 GOwind_extendedversion_v3 Presentation Transcript

  • Ghent Ostend Wind Research Institute Extended version Founded in Ghent on 06 April 2011 Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 1
  • GOwind! Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 2
  • Powered by AUGent Association Ghent University (AUGent) is grouped around Ghent University, one of the two major universities in Flanders, Belgium. In total it is home to 5.000 researchers and 32.000 students. It has 11 faculties, of which the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture is one of the biggest with 2200 students and 850 (a.o. 150 professors) researchers working in different fields ranging from architecture, ICT, materials as well as electrical, mechanical and thermal energy systems. The associate partners relevant for GOwind! are the university colleges HoGent (Ghent, Belgium) and HoWest (Kortrijk, Belgium). Both are strongly connected to the local SME-market and can rely on excellent and extensive test infrastructure. AUGent promotes application focused research and industrial collaborations translating research results into economic activities More info and links at www.gowind.ugent.be Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 3
  • Disciplines vs. themesUniversityassociationAssociationpartnersFaculties Societal themeResearchgroups Traditional structure focussed on disciplines SET is an application and domain specific multidisciplinary cluster that pools the expertise from the research groups to bring added value in the societal theme of sustainable energy technologies. Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 4
  • SET and GOwindTo be a single point of contact for external partnersSupport existing industrial activities• To stimulate application focused research activities in answer to the multi disciplinary challenges residing in industry, i.e.:Create new industrial activities• To identify and build up a portfolio of research results that can be translated in economic activities (spin-offs, licences)• To set out and coordinate the actions (IP, valorisation projects, ad-hoc financing, contracts) required in creating these economic activitiesGOwind!, the SET philosophyon wind energy showingour commitment to this theme Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 5
  • Table of contents1. Research topics2. Test infrastructure3. Research groups4. GOwind! and the knowledge triangle5. Contact Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 6
  • Small, large and off-shore Small and medium turbines Large turbines Off-shore turbines Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 7
  • Research topics Condition monitoringDrive train Blades Tower Foundations Grid coupling Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 8
  • BladesBLADES Composite blades • Structural design of composites • Fatigue of composites models • Nondestructive inspection of composites using optic fibers • Structural health monitoring using ultra sound polar plots • Self-healing composite materials Smart blades • Combined fluid-structural simulation Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 9
  • Structural design of compositesAdvanced calculation environment: CAE/CAD: SolidWorks, Catia Finite elements: Abaqus, LS-Dyna Composite draping modules: Catia/CPD, Simulayt Optimization software iSight UM software for kinematics and multibody dynamics Access to HPC cluster with 2000+ cores Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 10
  • Structural design of composites  Adhesive joints in composite materials and hybrid materialsSimulation of “mode I” crack growth in a Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 11
  • Fatigue of composites Damage behaviour of fibre-reinforced composites under biaxial fatigue loading Shape optimization with evolutionary strategies: coupling of Java master routine, ABAQUS FEA analysis and Python scripting in a fully automated loop for complicated optimization problems. Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 12
  • Fatigue of composites Load sequence effect on damage-cycle history 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Damage [-] 0.6 high-low sequence low-high sequence 0.5 0.4 0.3 Cycle-mix effect on damage-cycle history 0.2 1.0 0.1 0.9 0.0 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 0.8 No. of cycles [-] 0.7 Damage [-] 0.6 small blocks large blocksResidual stiffness models account for 0.5 0.4stress redistribution and load history 0.3dependence of damage evolution 0.2(in contrast to Miner’s rule) 0.1 0.0 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 No. of cycles [-] Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 13
  • Self healing composite materials New SIM project on self-healing polymers and composites - Focus on cold-curing resins for infusion of wind turbine blades - Collaboration with Momentive Specialty Systems (formerly Hexion) Simulation of crack growth and self-healing -> regaining of static and fatigue strength Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 14
  • Nondestructive inspection NDT-characterization of fibre-reinforced composites C-scan of a delaminated carbon/epoxy composite Polar scan Carbon/epoxy - UD Carbon/epoxy-fabric Glass/polyester - UD Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 15
  • Simulation of Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of interaction between deforming or moving structures and the surrounding fluid (gas or liquid) Improved prediction of load on wind turbine blades • Flow-induced vibration of turbine blades • Additional motion when wake of blade passes tower Linked to so-called smart rotor blades • Blade shape changes over wind speed and rotor speed to alleviate loads Fluid-structure interaction code Tango • Used in several ongoing research projects, on own cluster and HPC • Validated with internationally accepted benchmarks • www.FSI.UGent.be FSI2 benchmark: Flexible beam behind a rigid cylinder in a horizontal channel Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 16
  • Tower/FoundationTOWER/FOUNDATION Foundations • Scour protection around mono-pile foundations Wave slamming • Prediction of wave run up • Predicition of structural stress Tower • Impact of imbalance of blades onto tower Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 17
  • Scour protection mono-piles Test setup for scour protection Optimal size of bricks (riprap) Design method for cost-effective scour protection based on dynamically stabile erosion protection strategies Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 18
  • Offshore foundations Wave run-up of off-shore structures Simulation results are validated with experimental results Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 19
  • Coupled tower/blades sim Kinematic analysis of rotating vertical axis wind turbine with effects of imbalance (due to small mass differences between blades), resulting in precession motion. Body Element Model Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 20
  • Drive trainDRIVE TRAIN Generator • Design, simulation and prototyping of electrical machines • Capex vs. Opex: impact of magnetic material choices on energy yield Control • Maximum power poin tracking techniques for small wind turbines • Model predictive control • Sensorless control of electrical machines • Vector control of permanent magnet electrical machines Polymer bearings • Fretting fatigue • Polymer tribology Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 21
  • Axial-flux generators Axial flux generator for small wind turbines show excellent (low) cogging torque and high efficiency Electrical, mechanical and thermal design and simulation of the generator Prototype building Experimental results Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 22
  • Impact of magnetic material Optimisation of annual yield (opex) for two magnetic materials with a different cost (capex). Does a more expensive material choice pay off? Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 23
  • Control of electric machines Efficient control, control of dynamics, field weakening at high speed Induction machines, permanent-magnet machines (PMSM) Modelling dynamical behaviour, stability studies Stability study of a digitally controlled vector controlled PMSM drive with PMSM drive rotor position estimator by using the root locus method Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 24
  • Modeling of SMWT Full system model of small and medium wind turbines including the turbine rotor, the generator and the power electronics. An important parameter in predicting the energy yield from wind turbines is the Cp. Three traditional models are used. However in reality this Cp is almost never observed due to suboptimal maximum power point tracking algoritms. Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 25
  • Sensorless control Position sensors for electrical machines are costly and vulnerable. This leads to additional black-out times. The use of sensors can be avoided by interpreting the electrical signals of the electrical machines, this is sensorless control. UGent has patented technology in this field. Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 26
  • Grid interactionGRID INTERACTION Grid coupling of decentralised units • Multi-level converters • Power electronics for improved power quality • Advanced control in µ-grid operation • LESTS aspects on eco-industrial parks Farm operation Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 27
  • Multilevel convertors Grid connecting wind turbines and large (offshore) wind parks can benefit from power-electronics operating at higher voltages. Such higher voltage allow to reduce the power loses. Multi-level convertors allow DC/AC conversion (or vice versa) respecting the voltage limitations of the switches A careful balance of the capacitor voltages is required Such balancing techniques were developed at UGent a.o. based on MPC for three phase convertors. Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 28
  • Grid coupling Full three phase power grid inverters for decentralised energy resources. The inverters implementing a three-phase damping control strategy. Such control strategy results in the inverter behaving resistively towards unbalance and distortions in the grid voltage. Hence, the grid inverter supports the grid and improves power quality. Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 29
  • Wind turbines in µ-grids Small and medium wind turbines can be incorporated into a µ-grid wether or not connected to the distributed grid. This incorporation requires special control strategies and power electronics. Our approach does not require any additional communication. Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 30
  • Model Predictive Control Wind parks: SELFISH CONTROL (one section) vs. SOLIDARY CONTROL (global optimization) MPC using LIDAR information Challenges: • Control over communciation networks • Hierarchical control Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 31
  • Eco-industrial park The potential of wind energy can only be realised if wind turbines become more accepted by the different stake- holders. This is facilitated by technical advances as well as non-technical aspects. One way to structure and tackle these is using and investigating the LESTS: • Legal aspects • Economical aspects • Social aspects • Technical aspects • Spatial aspects Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 32
  • Condition monitoringCONDITION MONITORING Optical sensors embedded in blades for condition monitoring Accelerometers to detect vibrations and wear Argus data-acquistion and communication platform to collect sensor readings Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 33
  • Structural health monitoring Multi-axial optical fibre sensors + smaller diameter 80 m -> ideal for embedding in composite structures Embedded optical fibresensors showing no stiffness degradation, and small permanent strain Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 34
  • Structural health monitoring New FP7 project “SMARTFIBER”, aiming at embedding wireless miniaturized strain sensors inside the composite blades Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 35
  • Vibrations• Starting from a macroscopic discretisation of a physical structure bearing in mind its basic function (e.g. Motor, axis, gear-box, ... )• Goal is to gain a global insight in where to measure and where and how to control• The approach allows to include the impact of: • Non-linear vibrations (amplitude dependent damping, ... ) • Control-loops (e.g. Motor/generator control with PID)• Approach is ideally suited for • Complex systems with only few sensors • Evaluating and design passive compensation systems for absorption of vibrations Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 36
  • Vibrations Torsional vibrations of coupled rotors: • Transient vibrations • Stationary vibrations • Techniques for absorption of vibrations • Experimental test setups. Rotor dynamics: • Analysis and experimental modelling • Non-linear vibrations • Model reduction • Experimental test setups Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 37
  • Argus Modular platform with user-friendly interface for remote monitoring of plants of decentralised energy resources Allows to include the sensor read out of numerous sensors e.g. wind speed, direction, humidity, inverter temp., grid injected power Possibility to remotely reset the power inverter IP network (internet, VPN …) Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 38
  • ExploitationEXPLOITATION Wind conditions • Floating LIDAR Noise • Generation • Propagation • Annoyance research Repair and maintenance • Planning • System for lifting person and goods Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 39
  • FLIDAR Involved as subcontractor in the OWI project Floating LIDAR Structural analysis and stabilisation of buoy Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 40
  • Polymer tribology We have large experimental and simulation capabilities, to test tribology at different scales. Focus on polymer tribology Polymer parts in wind energy systems can be used for: • Bearing separators • Braking systems • Pitch and yaw drive components Such parts are able to leverage on the fact that • Complex lubricating systems can be avoided • Less maintenance is required even in the presence of foreign agents • They weight less • These are corrosion resistant Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 41
  • Tests on Large scale bearings Experimental Bearing stress distribution during loading cycle Numerical Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 42
  • Fracture and plasticity Setting up models understanding the physical process Model validation and correlation between simulations and measurement results Performance parameters Experiment Finite element simulation (digital image correlation) (parametric Python scripting) First principal strain (-) Validation of model 0.035 Better interpretation of experiment 0.000 Parametric studies Performance parameters Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 43
  • Fretting fatigue In the gearbox (tool long at break position) In the blade pitch bearings (too long in fixed position)UGent tool For FE simulation and modeling To simulate the crack initiation To simulate the crack propagation F(x) q(x) σ axial σ axial Lap-joint Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 44
  • Acoustics Microphones array allows identification of sources and feeds propagation models. Shortterm and longterm monitoring of windturbines at different sites, e.g. off- shore during piling (C-power) and operation (BelPower). 80 16 75 14 Geluidsniveau (LX, 10min in dBA) 12 70 Windsnelheid (m/s) 10 65 8 60 Avg of L99 6 Average of Leq 55 Average of L10 4 50 Average of L50 2 Avg WindSpeed (10m-m/s) 45 0 250 500 750 0 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 3250 3500 3750 4000 4250 4500 4750 5000 5250 Productie (kW) Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 45
  • Acoustics Annoyance research te Oostakker (turbines @ Volvo). Most noise is generated in the direction in which the turbine blades are coming down and in case of higher wind speeds. 0.7 0.6 N 0.5 NE 0.8 S Risk of high annoyance 0.4 Risk of high annoyance 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 N NE E SE S SW W NW Rotations per minute Wind direction Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 46
  • Planning Industrial management and planning. Lean manufacturing. Impact in terms of efficiency and cost of material kitting, sequencing and downsizing in the line assembly. Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 47
  • R&M activities of wind turbines Repair and maintenance activities on wind turbines need to be minimised. Still such activities are required and one needs to be able to perform them on a save, (cost)efficient and (energy)efficient manner. This project develops an efficient, user- friendly electrical pulley for R&M activities on wind turbines.(in collaboration with FallProtec, Lux) Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 48
  • Table of contents1. Research topics2. Test infrastructure3. Research groups4. GOwind! and the knowledge triangle5. Contact Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 49
  • Simulation toolsExpertise and know how in using, a.o. Matlab/simulink Mathcad CAD Abaqus Fluent Ansys Catia Comsol Python scripting Own software tools+ HPC cluster with 12000+ cores! Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 50
  • SWT-Field Laboratory Field laboratory @ Greenbridge, Ostend (B) 10 turbine masts operating as a field laboratory (not demo) for research institutes and manufacturers Rearch infrastructure includes: • Noise camera’s and microphone array to investigate noise propagation • Acoustic camera for structural health monitoring • Meteo-mast • Mobile data aquistion system incl. strain gauges, speed, torque, voltage and current sensors Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 51
  • Materials TribologyFatigue Fracture µ-tomografie Stress Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 52
  • Electrical test infrastructure Power electronics and electrical machines, e.g. • 240kVA power source • Test rigs for electrical machines • Vibrations Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 53
  • Tribological characterization Wind turbine Configuration Applications Laboratory Soete•Braking systems•Glides for yaw •Stick slip testerbearing •Bearing tester•Bearing elements Morell Radial BearingGliding elements(POM, PA) Medium scale flat Large scale flatRing Segments Composite tester Plint Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 54
  • Large scale fracture and plasticity Optical strain measurement (digital image correlation) Metal structure Plasticity 2500 kN Notch Fracture mechanics“Medium wide plate” tension test Laboratory Soete large scale test rigs: Tensile forces up to 8000 kN Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 55
  • Fatigue on different scalesOptical measurement of deformations(monitoring of fatigue crack growth) Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 56
  • Table of contents1. Research topics2. Test infrastructure3. Research groups4. GOwind! and the knowledge triangle5. Contact Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 57
  • Research groups (1) Mechanics of Materials and Structures – J. Degrieck, W. Van Paepegem • Structural design of composites • Fatigue of composites • Nondestructive inspection of composites • Wave slamming on offshore structures • Structural health monitoring Acoustics – D. Botteldooren • Noise sources and propagation from wind turbines and monitoring • MER-reports (Environmental Impact Reports) • Annoyance research Coastal Engineering – J. De Rouck, P. Troch • Sour protection of foundation Mobility and Spatial Planning – G. Van Eetvelde • Use of wind turbines in eco-industrial parks Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 58
  • Research groups (2) Mechanical Construction and Production - Laboratory Soete – P. De Baets • Frictions, bearings, fretting fatigue, Electrical Energy Laboratory – J. Melkebeek, A. Van den Bossche, L. Dupré, L. Vandevelde • Electrical, magnetic and thermal design of electrical machines • Power electronics • Grid coupling and incorporation in µ-grids SYSTeMS – R. De keyser, M. Loccufier • Control theory for low level control of individual components, model predictive control for master control of wind turbines/farms, analysis and prevention of vibrations Fluid Mechanics – J. Vierendeels • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) • Simulation of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) Industrial management – H. Van Landegem • Lean manufacturing, cost and efficiency impact of industrial planning Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 59
  • Research groups (3) Wireless & Cable – Luc Martens • Impact of wind turbines on radar signalsUGent – Associate partners HoGent – Electrotechnics – P. Sergeant • Design and testing of electrical machines HoWest – Electromechanics – K. Stockman, J. Desmet • Grid coupling • Test infrastructure for electrical machines • Vibrations Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 60
  • Table of contents1. Research topics2. Test infrastructure3. Research groups4. GOwind! and the knowledge triangle5. Contact Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 61
  • Knowledge triangle Applied research bounding on the fundamental research • GOwind! part of SET and energy research at Ghent University Entrepreneurship • Power-Link: networking partner in energy • Greenbridge: incubator, science park and demonstrator Education • Two Masters in Energy Technologies • Institute for permanent education Networking • Power-Link vzw Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 62
  • Master thesis projectsAcademic year 2011-2012 Modelling and emulation of small wind turbines Stability of LIDAR measurement buoys for the registration of offshore wind velocity profiles Out-of-the-box design of a 50 meter rotor blade for MW turbines Numerical simulation of the flow around wind turbine blades Feasibility study on a tidal energy converter coupled to wind turbines on sea Numerical study on the interaction between waves and monopile windturbines… much more to come in academic year 2012-2013 Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 63
  • More information Jeroen De Maeyer p/a UGent-EELAB Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B-9000 Ghent T +32 9 264 79 14 M +32 471 58 88 32 Jeroen.demaeyer@ugent.be www.GOwind.ugent.be Jeroen De Maeyer Confidential – Gowind! 64