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Making scholarly publications accessible online


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Developing and monitoring communities has become increasingly easy on the web as the number of interactive facilities and amount of data available about communities increases. It is possible to view …

Developing and monitoring communities has become increasingly easy on the web as the number of interactive facilities and amount of data available about communities increases. It is possible to view connections on social and professional networks in the form of mathematical graphs. It is also possible to visualise connections between authors of academic papers. For example, Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic Search, and, now have large corpuses of freely available information on publications, together with author and citation
details, that can be accessed and presented in a number of ways. In mathematical circles, the concept of the Erdős number has been introduced in honour of the Hungarian mathematician Paul Erdős, measuring the collaborative distance" of a person away from Erdős through links by co-author. Similar metrics have been proposed in other fields. The possibility of exploring and
improving the presentation of such links online in the sciences and other fields will be presented as a means of improving the outreach and impact of publications by academics across
different disciplines. Some practical guidance on what is worthwhile in presenting publication information online are given.

Published in: Education, Technology
  • @dsrosenblum David, thank you for your interesting comment and sorry for the very slow reply! Yes there is somewhat of a divide between different people just as you say. Some people do change the attitudes with time as the Internet develops, others do not. The benefit of participating is that you increase the potential readership for your publications. Not participating means that readership is limited to more traditional routes. Personally I would prefer as wide a readership as possible For other authors, this is not such a priority or the effort involved is too high.
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  • Jonathan, this is a very nice review of community Web sites. What I find a bit troubling is that there are many people I know who choose to participate on these sites, but many others who choose not to (and who are fairly militant in their reasons for not participating). Is there a clear sense of what the benefits are of participating *and* a clear sense of what the'costs' are of not participating?
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  • Hi Conrad, thanks for the interesting link. In turn, you may also be interested in this paper:

    From a Community of Practice to a Body of Knowledge: A Case Study of the Formal Methods Community
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  • Hi Jonathan with the Etienne Wenger/CoP references you might like to read the paper I wrote a few years back for the KIDMM/ISKO event ‘Making and Organising Knowledge in Communities’; access via this URL:
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  • Introduction
  • A Body of Knowledge (BoK) is an ontology for a particular professionaldomain. A Community of Practice (CoP) is the collection of people developingsuch knowledge. In the paper we explore these concepts in the contextof the formal methods community in general and the Z notation community, ashas been supported by the Z User Group, in particular. The existing SWEBOKSoftware Engineering Body of Knowledge is considered with respect to formalmethods and a high-level model for the possible structure of of a BoK is providedusing the Z notation.
  • CoP books.
  • 1. Domain: A CoP must have a common interemethodsst to be effective. All the participants inthe group must be able to contribute in some way within this domain. Otherwise itis just a collection of people with no particular purpose. For example, the Z notationhas formed the nucleus of a CoP in a formal context.2. Community: A CoP also needs a group of people who are willing to engage withat least some others in the group, so ultimately the entire group is transitively connectedas a single entity, from a global viewpoint. This aspect is critical to theeffective development of knowledge. The group of people interested in the Z notationstarted at the Oxford University Computing Laboratory through the inspirationof Jean-Raymond Abrial in the late 1970s and early 1980s. It has gradually spreadaround the world since then.3. Practice: The CoP must explore both existing knowledge and develop new knowledge,based on existing concepts, but expanded through actual application in apractical sense. This leads to a set of common approaches and shared standardsin applying them. The Z notation is based on predicate logic and set theory, bothvery standard concepts in mathematics that were originally formulated a long timebefore the development of Z. Schema boxes were added to the mathematics for theconvenient structuring of realistic specifications. Initially case studies were specified.More recently, Z has been used for major industrial software engineeringprojects of a significant scale where system integrity is an important factor.
  • 1. Design the CoP to evolve naturally: communities are naturally dynamic and theability to adapt to the current needs of the CoP at different points in its developmentis important.2. Create opportunities for open discussion: often an outsider can add value to theCoP by bringing in ideas that may not have evolved in the community if it wascompletely isolated.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Making scholarly publications accessible online: Erdős and beyond Prof. Jonathan P. Bowen London South Bank University Museophile Limited, UK
    • 2. Introduction• Prof. Jonathan Bowen• Mathematics, art, engineering, computer science, software engineering, museum informatics• Career: Oxford, Reading, LSBU (Emeritus)• Visitor: King’s College London, Brunel, Westminster, Waikato (New Zealand, 2011), Pratt Institute (New York, USA, 2012)• Electronic Visualisation and the Arts (EVA London conference, 10–12 July 2012)
    • 3. Overview• Communities• Publications• Co-authorship• Citations• Databases – Google Scholar – Microsoft Academic Search –• Visualization
    • 4. Communities• Community of Practice (CoP) – collection of people developing domain knowledge• Academic communities – researchers, professors, science, arts, ...• Body of Knowledge (BoK) – ontology for a particular domain• Interdisciplinarity vs. Multidisciplinarity
    • 5. Community of Practice (CoP)Social sciences concept• Wenger, E.: Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1998)• Wenger, E., McDermott, R.A., Snyder, W.: Cultivating Communities of Practice: A guide to managing knowledge. Harvard Business School Press, Boston (2002)• A brief introduction by Etienne Wenger, 2006:
    • 6. Fundamental elements of a CoP1. Domain: Common interest to be effective. E.g., software engineering.2. Community: Group of people willing to engage with others. E.g., researchers.3. Practice: Explore existing and develop new knowledge. Industrial liaison vs. basic research.
    • 7. Cultivating a CoP1. Design the CoP to evolve naturally.2. Create opportunities for open discussion.3. Welcome and allow different levels of participation.
    • 8. Example – two communities (arts and science)FacebookTouchGraphconnections
    • 9. Technology GoogleFirst webserver, 1999– already in a museum!
    • 10. Google• Museum label
    • 11. Google Scholar• – publications & citations• h-index (top h publications with h or more citations)• i10-index (at least 10 citations)
    • 12. h-index Top h publications with h or more citations
    • 13. Microsoft Academic Search•• Publications, citations, h-index• g-index (top g with a total of at least g2 citations)
    • 14. g-index Top g with a total of at least g2 citations
    • 15. Academic Searchco-author graphTop 30 co-authors asmeasured bythe number ofpublications
    • 16. Academic Search citation graph • Top 34 authors by number of citations
    • 17. See alsoAcademic Mathematics Genealogy Search websitegenealogy graphSupervisors andstudentsAlonzo Churchand Alan Turing
    • 18. Alan Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) • Centenary year in 2012 – • Andrew Hodges (Turing biographer) – Alan Turing: the Enigma (1983) – • The Turing Digital Archive (3,000 images) – King’s College Cambridge – • Jack Copeland’s Turing Archive (facsimiles) –
    • 19. Turing’s Worlds (23–24 June 2012) • Department of Continuing Education, University of Oxford – Ivor Grattan- Guinness et al.
    • 20. Happy Birthday Alan Turing!• Also Ivor Grattan-Guinness, historian of mathematics and logic (born 23 June 1941)
    • 21. The Erdős number• Paul Erdős (1913–1996) – Hungarian mathematician –ős – Erdős number 0 – Co-authored over 1,000 publications• 511 co-authors – Erdős number 1 – Co-authors of Erdős co-authors • Erdős number 2 • Etc.
    • 22. Academic Searchco-author pathRobin Wilson,mathematicianand EVALondon 2012co-author
    • 23. The Bacon number• Kevin Bacon (born 1958), film and theatre actor• Cf. Erdős number, but for film credits• “Erdős–Bacon number”ős–Bacon_number Sum of person’s Erdős/Bacon nos (as low as three!)• Further numbers for other fields?
    • 24.• Academic networking website• Cf. LinkedIn (professional networking)• Includes affiliation to university and department• Allows easy addition of books, papers, answers, talks, teaching documents, research interests, CV, status updates, websites, etc.• Add keywords for publication searching• Monitoring of access statistics
    • 25. home page E.g.,
    • 26. statistics E.g.,
    • 27. search engine accesses E.g.,
    • 28. document accesses Last 30 days
    • 29. document accesses Last 30 days
    • 30. top documents Last 30 days
    • 31. keyword searches Last 30 days
    • 32. country accesses Last 30 days
    • 33. top country accesses Last 30 days
    • 34. Non-free citations websites• E.g., Web of Knowledge• Thomson Reuters:• UK:• OK if your university subscribes• But not all do ...
    • 35. Free publications websites• ACM Digital Library – CS professional body• BibSonomy – social bookmark and publication sharing system• CiteSeerX – publications database• DBLP – CS bibliography, individual effort• Issuu – personal documents (PDF, ...)• Mendeley – reference manager, academic social network• ResearchGate – for scientists, make your work visible, 1.7 million members• Researchr – find, collect, share, review scientific publications
    • 36. ACM Digital Library• Computer science professional body• Editable personal publications page•
    • 37. ACM Digital LibraryPersonal page features
    • 38. DBLP – Computer Science Bibliography• University project – personal publications page• Major computer science journals and conferences•
    • 39. DBLP – Computer Science Bibliography• University project – personal publications page• Major computer science journals and conferences•
    • 40. Mendeley – www.mendeley.comProfessional networking, managing/sharing papers
    • 41. Mendeley – www.mendeley.comProfessional networking, managing/sharing papers
    • 42. Mendeley – www.mendeley.comProfessional networking, managing/sharing papers
    • 43. Summary • Plethora of sites • Check you profile on a selection • Choose one or two effective ones“If we knew what it was wewere doing, it would not becalled research, would it?”– Albert Einstein (1879–1955)
    • 44. Conclusion• – virtual community• Academic Search – visualisation• Google Scholar – visibility Prof. Jonathan Bowen (FBCS, FRSA)
    • 45. Paper:Visualising Virtual Communities: From Erdős to the Arts• EVA London 2012 conference proceedings• Jonathan P. Bowen & Robin J. Wilson• Email: