Mainstream concepts in urban design_Barrie Shelton


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Mainstream concepts in urban design_Barrie Shelton

  1. 1. Urban Precinct Studio – week 4<br />Twentieth century urban design<br />– mainstream concepts of space and structure<br />Barrie Shelton <br />
  2. 2. Fall and Rise ofUrban Design<br />1900-50’s <br />Rise of Town/City Planning = Civic Design<br />1960/70’s<br />Scope of Planning widens at expense ofUrban Design<br />1980/90’s<br />3. Rise ofUrban Design<br />Urban Designtoday? <br />
  3. 3. Planning in Australia<br />Non-physical<br />Social Planning<br />Economic Planning<br />Law <br />Administrative Processes<br />Policy<br />Physical<br />Town Planning / Civic Design<br />Urban Design<br />(1989 Master of Urban Design programs commence in Australia)<br />1900<br />1920<br />1940<br />1960<br />1970<br />1980<br />1990<br />2000<br />
  4. 4. Urban Design - history of theory, concepts, approaches and models<br />
  5. 5. Thematic content<br />City as a work of ART <br />Late C19th - eg Sitte, Burnham …………..…..<br />City as a MACHINE <br />c. 1920 - Le Corbusier, Stein ……………<br />City as TEXT <br />c. 1960 - Lynch, Cullen, Jacobs …………………..<br />Recenttimes<br />new urbanism, vertical <br />city, etc (Calthorpe, <br />Yeang, Koolhaas ……………..<br />
  6. 6. Changing spatial concepts/paradigms<br /><ul><li>City as ART c. 1900
  7. 7. City as MACHINE </li></ul>1920 - post WWII (‘street is dead’)<br /><ul><li>City as TEXT </li></ul>1960 - late 1980’s<br /><ul><li>BeyondText</li></ul>1990’s -multiple strands <br />- more dynamic concepts <br />- “organized complexity”<br />‘The street is dead’<br />Koolhaas<br />
  8. 8. BUILDINGS and SPACES<br />as the <br />Positive or Figure<br />(Rubens & Nolli)<br />
  9. 9. Street Blocks and Streets as the positive or figure<br />
  10. 10. City as a work of Art<br />SITTE<br />1889<br />
  11. 11. before<br />after<br />Camillo SITTE - spatial composition<br />
  12. 12. Hegemann & Peets 1922<br />American Vitruvius<br />
  13. 13. “At the beginning of the 20th century two great new inventions took form before our eyes: the aeroplane and the Garden City, both harbingers of new age: the first being gave man wings and the second promised him a better dwelling-place when he came down to earth.”<br />(Lewis Mumford, 1946)<br />City as a Machine<br />
  14. 14. Ebeneezer Howard<br />City <br /> deficient<br /> Country <br /> deficient<br />City + Country<br />= Garden City<br />sufficient + efficient<br />
  15. 15. Le Corbusier<br />Manifesto or INTENT: <br />We must<br /><ul><li>decongest the centres of our cities
  16. 16. augment their densities
  17. 17. increase the means of getting about them
  18. 18. increase the open space
  19. 19. break up the corridor street
  20. 20. create broad vistas</li></ul> - from The City of Tomorrow 1924<br />
  21. 21. Le Corbusier - Solutions<br />Bulldoze traditional streets and courts<br />New building forms - opposite in character to those they replace<br />Building forms reflect function<br />12-60 storey slab and point blocks in continuous parkland<br />Elevated or”floating’ buildings <br />With terraces and roof gardens<br />Old monuments to be isolated and freed from adjacent congestion<br />
  22. 22. Le Corbusier - Solutions (cont)<br />Increase density and open space<br />Few roads - tunneled heavy traffic - elevated fast traffic, standard traffic on a 400m grid<br />Many pathways for people in a picturesque parkland<br />Land-use zoning - business - public - residential - recreation - industry - green belts<br />Self-contained buildings with local recreation facilities, shops and services (super-block)<br />Vertical Garden City<br />
  23. 23. Plan Voisin 1925<br />
  24. 24. Walter Bunning Homes in the Sun(Aus) 1944<br />Howard <br />Perry <br />Stein <br />Corbusier<br />
  25. 25. C. 1960 - Reaction to the Modernist or ‘Machine’ City: City as Text- of amorphous green space- of buildings as isolated objects - of roads rather than streets- of segregated traffic - vehicles and pedestrians- of separated activities (zoning)- of illegible structures, spaces, landscape- without local identity (placelessness)<br />
  26. 26. C.1960watershed - Who responded?<br />Kevin Lynch The Image of the City 1960 <br />What does it mean? How does it read? - syntax, structure, grammar, legibility - most explicitly textual <br />Gordon Cullen Townscape1961 <br />How does it feel? How does it read? recovering the art of relationship - making memorable and dramatic places<br />Jane Jacobs The death and Life of Great American Cities 1961 <br />How does it work? How does it read? – the most comprehensive critique)<br />
  27. 27. Kevin Lynch Image of the City 1960<br />elements<br />District - area of common character different from the next<br />Path - line of movement or vision<br />Edge - strong linear break or boundary between areas of different character<br />Node - centres of gravity with a radiating field (eg cross street)<br />Landmark - prominent objects that are key points of reference<br />
  28. 28. Gordon Cullen Townscape 1961<br />A lament for the lost “art of relationship” or townscape<br />Groups of buildings create conditions that are more than the sum of their parts<br />A single building is architecture - groups are townscape<br />They give visual pleasure that none can give separately - create a “surplus” enjoyment<br />
  29. 29. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />8<br />7<br />6<br />5<br />4<br />6<br />5<br />3<br />2<br />1<br />7<br />Cullen<br />8<br />
  30. 30. Jane Jacobs 1960<br />The city is “a system of organised complexity”<br />Urban vitality and safety, and the pattern and form of streets are interrelated<br />Urban vitality and safety depend on:<br /><ul><li> a minimum density
  31. 31. sidewalks in constant use
  32. 32. streets and public spaces being watched
  33. 33. clear boundaries between public and private spaces</li></ul>These conditions were lacking in the ‘garden cities’<br />
  34. 34. Jane Jacobs’ principles<br />More than one primary use<br />Range of people whose lives are lived to different schedules<br />Short street blocks; many corner sites, passing and congregation points<br />Mix of building types, conditions and ages<br />High concentrations of people who live, work and own locally, and identify with the place<br />200 plus dwellings per hectare<br />
  35. 35. Modernist’s mistaken assumptions - Jacobs<br />“the street is bad as an environment for humans”<br />Houses to face green space, not streets<br />Frequent streets were wasteful of space<br />Basic unit of the city is the superblock, not the street<br />Shops, offices, etc to be separated from houses<br />Neighbourhood demands can be calculated<br />Good planning must aim for (an illusion) of isolation and suburban privacy<br />That the basic unit of ‘good planning’ is self-contained<br />
  36. 36. Circa 1960<br />the rise of “Text” as metaphor<br />A new kind of urban design literature - learning from experience<br />1960’s + 1970’s<br />Theory to underpin the text metaphor<br />Alexander, Smith, Broadbent<br />Design primers - circa 1985<br />Responsive Environments 1985 <br />Finding Lost Space 1986<br />New Theory of Urban Design 1987<br />Renewal of interest in pre-Modern texts <br />Re-publication of Sitte (1986) <br />Re-publication of Hegemann & Peets (1988)<br />
  37. 37. 1985 +<br />the urban design ‘primers’<br />7 key qualities for good city form:<br />PERMEABILITY - street structure<br />VARIETY - mixed uses<br />LEGIBILITY - readable spatial structure<br />ROBUSTNESS - flexible use<br />VISUAL APPROPRIATENESS - interpretation and meaning<br />RICHNESS - urban detail<br />PERSONALISATION - opportunity for modification and embellishment<br />Offers prescriptive & detailed method for achieving these - analysisand realisation (‘putting it all together’)<br />
  38. 38. Responsive Environments<br />Permeability (connection)<br />
  39. 39. Roger Trancik Finding Lost Space 1986Key words: context, incrementalism, integration<br />AIM - To recover ‘lost space’, restructure it, and generate a sense of ‘place’ <br />PROCESS: 1. Study, 2. Analysis, 3. Identifying ‘Lost Space’ and restructuring possibilities, 4. Design intervention<br />THEORIES: <br />Figure-ground - Linkage - Place - form, movement and meaning <br />STRATEGIES - Links (sequential movement) - Lateral Enclosure (edge continuity) - Integrated Bridging - Axis and Perspective - Indoor/Outdoor Fusion<br />
  40. 40. Trancik’s Case Study: Gothenburg<br />
  41. 41. Trancik’s references<br />Sitte, Peets, Burnham<br />Howard, Le Corbusier, Stein, F L Wright, Gruen<br />Jane Jacobs - Lynch - Cullen<br />Appleyard, Bacon, Bakema, Barnett, Cook, Erskine, Crane,Hertzberger, Rob and Leon Krier, McHarg, Maki, Newman, - Norberg-Schultz, Peterson, Rossi, Team X, Venturi & Scott Brown, Peter & Alison Smithson, Van Eyck, Woods<br />
  42. 42. Christopher Alexander +A New Theory of Urban Design1987<br />Piecemeal / incremental growth<br />Each building increment to contribute to a larger whole, more significant than itself<br />Projects to be experienced (‘seen’) and expressed as a vision<br />Every building to create coherent well-shaped adjacent public space<br />Entrances & spatial structure of buildings to be coherent and consistent with their positions in the street and neighbourhood<br />Structure of each building to generate smaller wholes in its fabric<br />Every whole must be a ‘centre’, & produce a system of surrounding centres<br />Wholes within wholes - each increment to be made to ‘heal’ the city<br />
  43. 43. mainstream<br />today<br />example alternatives<br />Yeang Tschumi <br />Lineage…………………………………………..................................................<br />Hillier, Marshall<br />Bentley, Trancik, Alexander<br />Lynch, Cullen, Jacobs<br />Sitte <br />Other ways of seeing<br />Urban Design theory, models and principles are essentially Western generated<br />Urban design circa 2000<br />