6. ScenarioTammy Fuller, a middle school social studies teacher, is surprised when she scores Adam’s test. He seemed to be doing so well. He is rarely absent, pays attention, and participates in class activities. Why is his test score so low? Tammy makes a mental note to watch him more closely, because his behavior and test performance are inconsistent.In her second unit, Tammy emphasizes both independent and cooperative work, so she prepares study guide questions and has students answer them in groups. As she moves around the room, she notices that Adam’s sheet is empty. When she asks him about it, he mumbles something about not having time the night before. Because the success of the unit depends on students’ coming to class prepared, Tammy asks Adam to come in after school to complete his work.
7. Scenario (cont.)He arrives promptly and opens his book to the chapter. When Tammy stops to check on his progress, his page is blank; in another 10 minutes, it’s still empty.As she sits down to talk with him, he appears embarrassed and evasive. When they start to work on the questions together, she discovers that he can’t read the text.• How can we classify Adam’s problem?• What characteristics are associated with this disability?• How can Adam be supported? • Assistive technology? • Ipad apps?
9. Scenario“For instance, there’s Rodney. You’ve seen him on theplayground. He’s cute, but his engine is stuck on fast. I canbarely get him to sit in his seat, much less work. When he sitsdown to do an assignment, he’s all over his desk, squirming andwiggling. The smallest distraction sets him off. He can usually dothe work if I can get him to stick to it, but it’s a challenge. I’vetalked to his mother, and he’s the same way at home.”•What is the nature of Rodney’s disorder•What are the general characteristics associated with thisdisorder?•What can teachers do? • Assistive technology? • Ipad apps?
10. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) • Often connected with a learning disability• Characterized by: • Easy distractibility and failure to listen • Inordinate need for supervision • Impulsiveness • Frequent calling out in class and difficulty awaiting turns• Three subcategories: • Inattentive • Hyperactive-impulsive • Combined (includes characteristics of other two)
11. Scenario Kyle comes in from recess sweaty and disheveled,crosses his arms, and looks at the teacher defiantly. Theplayground monitor has reported another scuffle. Kyle has ahistory of these disturbances and is a difficult student. Hestruggles with his studies but can handle them if provided withenough structure. When he becomes frustrated, he sometimesacts out, often ignoring the feelings an rights of others. Ben, who sits next to Kyle, is so quiet that the teacheralmost forgets he is there. He never causes problems; in fact, heseldom participates in class. He has few friends and walksaround at recess by himself, appearing to consciously avoidother children.•What disorder do both boys demonstrate”•What are the general characteristics associated with this disorder?•What can teachers do? • Assistive technology? • Ipad apps?
12. Behavior Disorders: GeneralCharacteristics• Impulsiveness and • Externalizing Behavior difficulty conducting Disorders socially acceptable • Hyperactive interactions with others • Hostile• Acting out and failure to • Cruel follow school or • Defiant classroom rules • Internalizing Behavior• Poor self-concept Disorders• Lack of awareness about • Socially withdrawn the severity of their • Guilt problems • Shy• Frequent absences from • Depressed school and low academic • Anxious performance • timid
13. Autism Spectrum Disorders• General characteristics may include • Social withdrawal • Deficiencies in cognitive and language processes • Lack of verbal and nonverbal communication • Repetitive stereotypic behavior (rocking, flapping arms, turning in circles) • Narrow and extensive attention to objects • Average to above average intelligence to varying degrees of intellectual disorders
17. Instructional Adaptations to Help StudentsWith Hearing Disabilities2. Supplement auditory presentations with visual information and hands-on experiences.3. Speak clearly and orient yourself so students can see your face.4. Minimize distracting noise.5. Check frequently for understanding.
18. Roles for Teachers in Inclusive Classrooms1. Identifying students with exceptionalities2. Teaching students with exceptionalities content and cognitive skills3. Helping students with exceptionalities learn social skills4. Developing classmates’ understanding and acceptance
19. Principles of Instruction For Teaching Students With Exceptionalities 1. Utilize the effective teaching practices that promote learning for all students.2. Provide additional instructional support.3. Design seatwork and homework activities to match the needs of students with exceptionalities.4. Adapt and supplement reading materials to meet the learning needs of students.5. Actively teach learning strategies.6. Implement plans for the social integration and growth of learners with exceptionalities.