Part 2: Skill and skill analysis. 2. Skill, in the context of coaching sport is the ability to perform a learned physical task while adapting to the constraints of the environment through practice. 3. The skill I have chosen is putting from the sport of golf. 4a. The skill of putting is a closed skill. It is a closed skill because it is performed in an expected setting. The individual carrying out the putting stroke is free to complete the skill without having to make rapid evaluation of the situation (Schmidt 1982 cited in Kreighbaum & Barthels 1996:301). 4b. The skill of putting is a discrete skill. It is a discrete skill because it has a definite beginning and ending. The skill of putting has three phases; a preparation phase, an execution phase followed by the follow through phase ((Kreighbaum & Barthels 1996:301). 4c. The overall performance objective (OPD) of putting is to hit the golf ball precisely enough so it goes in the hole. When the ball is struck too hard, too soft or on the incorrect line the ball will fail to go in the hole. Therefore, the whole process would have to be started again in a more accurate fashion. 4d. The discrete parts of the putting stroke are as follows: i) The backswing: The backswing begins with the first visible movement of the hands and arms in a backwards motion, and ends when the arms and hands stop moving in a backwards motion. ii) First part of follow through: The first part of the follow through begins with the first noticeable forward movement of the hands and arms and finishes just before the putter impacting with the golf ball. iii) Impact: Impact begins with the first observable contact the putter makes with the golf ball and finishes when the ball makes its first evident advance towards the target (the golf hole). iv) Second part of follow through: The second part of the follow through starts when the golf ball leaves the putter head and ends when the arms and hands have stopped moving in a forward motion towards the target.5. The concerns associated with analysing skill reported in the literature are as follows: i) The first concern when analysing skills by means of using image analysis techniques such as cinematography and videography is the need for sport specific recording equipment and analysis processes. The above equipment needs to be reliable and suitable so that the data collected is accurate (Bloomfield, Ackland & Elliott 1994:16). The purchase of the equipment and software that is needed for successful analysis is extremely expensive. ii) The second concern linked with analysing skill and the use of image analysis techniques is that the coach needs to ensure that the equipment gives accurate, consistent and adaptable pictures and information (Foran 2001: 46-47). This requires the coach to be experienced with this type of technology which is forever changing. iii) The third concern with analysing skill and using image analysis techniques is how time consuming and tedious collecting and analysing the data can be (Bloomfield, Ackland & Elliott 1994:16). The athlete needs to have the correct markings and be set up correctly to ensure the film collected is accurate and can be compared appropriately to supplementary data.
TITLEAn Analysis of Safe Coaching Practice and Risk Management Unit EDPE243 Movement and Skill Annette Freak Semester 2, 2010 Report by Julie Papps Due: Friday September 3, 2010
Introduction:In Australia coaches have a legal commitment to provide reasonable care and ensure thatparticipants are protected from preventable injury and illness (Petit: 2006). Safe coaching practiceinvolves risk management and safety (Petit: 2006; Australian Sports Commission: 2010). Riskmanagement is defined by NSW Department of Sport and Recreation (2010 online) as a course ofaction that is taken to minimise potential legal liability. Safe coaching practice also involvespreventing injury and illness through the use of different policies procedures and practices thatneed to be followed. (Petit: 2006; ASC 2010 BCGPC online; NSW Department of Sport andRecreation 2010; Australian Sports Commission 2010) indicate such policies and procedures toinclude: • Child Protection • Anti discrimination • A coaches’ code of ethics • A player’s code of conduct • The sun smart policy • Smoke free policyThere are also several practices that should be followed to ensure safe coaching practice. Petit(2006); ASC (2010 BCGPC online) show such practices to include: • Conducting working with children checks on all coaching staff whether paid or volunteer. • Having all participants complete health questionnaires. • Prior planning of training sessions. • Providing a safe environment by checking the practice area, equipment and facilities prior to each session. • Coaches providing close supervision. • Developing clear rules for activities and conduct and ensuring participants follow these rules. • Keeping accurate records. • Warming up prior to activity, and cooling down after activity. • Coaching staff need to know minor incident management procedures.The aim of this report is to compare the theory of the policies, procedures and practices listedabove with how the coach applies them to the golf coaching clinic.Methods:The processes and procedures that were used to gather information about the coach’s practicesincluded a face to face interview with the coach and observation of two coaching clinics. Prior tothe interview a list of questions relating to safe coaching practice was prepared. The questions thatwere asked in the interview were as follows: • How long has the coach been coaching for? • What coaching experience does the coach have? • What accreditation does the coach hold? • What is the coaches understanding of safe coaching practice? • What steps does the coach take to ensure the clinic area is safe? • What does the coach do to ensure children feel safe and protected while attending the clinic?
• Does the coach have a session plan organised for each clinic session? If so what does this plan entail? • What practices does the coach follow to prevent injury or illness? • What would the coach do if a child was injured under his care?Following the interview with the coach field observations were collected over two sessions. Thefirst session observation was made of the setup of the clinic area and the actual clinic session. Thesecond field observation included taking photographs of the important safety aspects of the clinicsession when possible.Results:Child Protection:As shown in Appendix A, the coach and staff working at the golf course where the clinic sessionsare held, whether paid or volunteer, have all had working with children checks completed. This isto avoid children coming in contact with possible prohibited persons.Pre-participation screening:As noted in Appendix A, the coach advised in the interview that the participants are not requiredto complete a medical history form prior to the first clinic session. The coach stated that “parentsusually advise him if there are any medical conditions that need to be addressed”.Sun smart and smoke free:During the interview the coach explained during summer all clinic participants must wear a hatand sunscreen and should also carry a drink. The coach also mentioned that smoking is notpermitted on the golf course premises.Session setup:From the information collected in the interview and field observations, the coach believes that themost important aspect of safe coaching practice is session set up. The coaching area needs to beset up effectively to ensure participants safety. This is supported in appendixes A and B andshown in Fig 1 below.This photo shows the safety aspects of the clinic area. The red cones define the individual station areas. They are positioned far enough apart so each player has enough room to swing. Each participant’sgolf clubs are safely The red cones are also behind each used to contain each individual station. participant’s golf balls.Fig 1. Shows participants of golf clinic standing within their nominated stations.
Session Plan:The coach organises a session plan prior to each session. The coach follows the ‘pumpgolf’training session format supplied by the Professional Golfers Association (PGA).The session plan used during the first field observation is shown in Fig 2 below (ProfessionalGolfers Association Australia: 2010: 17):SKILL:Learning to read the green and gain a better understanding of the break.DRILL:1. Rolling a ball across the green to a partner with feet sprawled open, trying to make the ballfinish within your partners feet.GAMES:‘Lowest Wins’ - Rolling a ball around a 6 hole putting course trying to read the greens. - 6 hole competition seeing who can play the 6 holes in the least amount of rolls.EQUIPMENT:Putting green, golf balls, putting hole signs.Fig. 2. Sample session plan.Rules and Procedures for Safety:As shown in Appendixes A and B the coach ensures that each participant knows the safe playrules before the session begins.Fig 3 below shows the coach explaining the rules and expectations of the coaching session. Coach explaining rules and session. Participant’s listening to instructions.Fig. 3 shows participants learning the rules prior to training session.While observing the clinic session one participant ran out from the individual station he wasallocated to re-hit a poorly hit golf ball. The coach advised the participant immediately that theparticipant was breaking the rules and that the participant needed to return to his station. The participant leaving the station area to hit golf ball. Participant in correct station but could potentially hit participant outside the station area. MarkedFig.4 Participant breaking coaches rules. individual station
To avoid injury the coach ensures all participants put the golf clubs on the ground and that allparticipants go on to the field to collect golf balls together.Fig 5 below shows this: The plastic cones are also used to collect the golf balls to keep them contained. All participants and coach picking up golf balls together. This avoids injury if a participant ran out in front of another. There are no golf clubs taken with the participants when collecting the golfFig.5 shows all participants picking up golf balls together.Involving Parents:The coach ensures that participants are dropped off and picked up by their parents directly to andfrom the clinic area. This is to ensure child safety and is explained further is appendix A. Parent Participant CoachFig.6. A parent picking up participant after training session.Discussions:An important part of safe coaching practice is child protection. NSW Sport and Recreation (2008)advise that coaches have a legal and moral responsibility to keep children safe from abuse and toprotect them from people who are unsuitable to work with children. As shown in the results aboveand in Appendix A the coach and staff, whether paid or voluntary, have all undergone workingwith children checks. Another way the coach follows the child protection policy is to have parentsdrop off and pick up participants from the actual clinic area, rather than picking participants upfrom the car park. Therefore, the participants are never left alone.Petit (2006) reveals that coaches need to ensure they choose activities suitable to each individualparticipant and should be aware of any health issues or medical conditions the participant’s might
have. To obtain this information participants should be asked to complete a medical history formwhen joining the sport (Petit: 2006). This information aids coaches should an emergency everarise. As demonstrated in the results, the coach advised that participants are not required tocomplete a medical history form when joining. The coach stated the reason for this is because“parents usually inform the coach of any medical conditions participants may have”. This is notideal as the coach does not have any participants medical information in writing, thus, can not callon the information if or when required.When conducting a safe coaching clinic, the Professional Golfers Association Australia (2010: 13)recognise the key considerations to consider include allowing sufficient room to hold the session,following a session plan, explaining rules to participants prior to the start of the session and beingaware of safety issues at all times. To ensure the hitting area is safe the coach should ensure thereare sufficient designated hitting areas, exclusion zones and watching zones. The ProfessionalGolfers Association (2010:13) advises it is also advisable to create a defined line at the front ofthe hitting zone. This indicates to the participants where no one is allowed to cross. The resultsshow that the coach achieves a safe coaching area by setting up individual hitting stations andadvising participants of the rules prior to each coaching session.The coach also follows a detailed session plan as shown above, therefore, each clinic is organisedprior to each session starting. While the coach does not use a rope line as such to define whereparticipants can not cross, the plastic cones used to identify individual hitting stations as shown inFig. 1 signify this line appropriately.(ASC 2010:online:m3; Petit 2006: 55) report that certain sun smart techniques should befollowed, such as, wearing a hat and sunscreen and drinking constantly to avoid heat triggeredillness. The coach advised that participants in the clinic sessions are reminded of the abovetechniques constantly during the warmer months.Conclusion:Overall the strategies used by the coach are very appropriate in comparison to the policies,procedures and practices noted above. As demonstrated in the results and discussions, the coachensures the safe setup of each clinic session by checking the playing area and equipment, usingappropriate safety instruments and aids and follows sun smart and smoke free techniques. Inaddition the coach sets out a detailed session plan prior to each coaching session to ensure eachclinic is structured and organised. The coach adequately follows child protection rules andlegislation by ensuring all staff have working with children checks completed (NSW Sport andRecreation: 2008; Petit: 2006).Apart from the coach not having health questionnaires completed by participants, the coach’sstrategies compare very well to the overall policies, procedures and practices discussed in theliterature.
REFERENCESAustralian Sports Commission 2010. Beginning Coaching General Principles Course. Retrieved 21 July 2010 from https://learning.ausport.gov.au/uploads/certificates/originals/%7B1956c8e0-1c39- 4371-a362-a967ae3df1e8%7D.pdfAustralian Sports Commission 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010 from http://www.ausport.gov.au/participating/officials/tools/safety_and_ethics/SafetyKreighbaum, E. & Barthels, D. 1996, ‘Observing and analyzing performance’, in Biomechanics, Allyn & Bacon, Boston, pp. 300 – 312.Foran, B. 2001, High performance sports conditioning. Retrieved 24 August 2010 from http://books.google.com.au/books?id=9OYzJTKdaD8C&pg=PA46&dq=sport+skill+analysis&hl= en&ei=5Z5_TLD0OojsvQOY6KnAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEA Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=sport%20skill%20analysis&f=falseNSW Department of Sport and Recreation 2008, Child protection in sport and recreation, 3rd edn, NSW Sport and Recreation. Retrieved 24 August 2010 from http://www.dsr.nsw.gov.au/assets/pubs/wwcc/cp_clubguide.pdfProfessional Golfers Association Australia (2010) Pump Golf Resource Manual, PGA Australia.
APPENDIX Appendix A: Interview transcript with coach. EDPE243 MOVEMENT AND SKILL INTERVIEW OF ACCREDITED COACH Find out what policies, procedures and practices they use to prevent injury and illness.Questions:1. What coaching experience do you have and how long have you been coaching for?The coach has been coaching in a professional manner for 20 years. The coach teaches anyone from beginner tojunior classes, ladies and men’s clinics, to advanced players including professionals. The coach currently coaches aplayer who is a two time winner on the Ladies European Golf Tour.The coach holds AAA accreditation.2. Do you have a session plan organized for each clinic session you hold? If so what does this plan involve?The coach has been coaching for many years and basically follows the ‘pumpgolf’ training session format supplied bythe Professional Golfers Association (PGA).An example of this session plan is as follows:SKILL:Learning for to read the green and gain a better understanding of the break.DRILL:1. Rolling a ball across the green to a partner with feet sprawled open, trying to make the ball finish within yourpartners feet.GAMES:‘Lowest Wins’ - Rolling a ball around a 6 hole putting course trying to read the greens. - 6 hole competition seeing who can play the 6 holes in the least amount of rolls.EQUIPMENT:Putting green, golf balls, putting hole signs.3. What is your understanding of Safe Coaching Practice?The coaches understanding of Safe Coaching Practice is that it all starts with safety in the set up. Before theparticipants arrive for the clinic the coach sets up stations which are defined by plastic cones. This shows theparticipants the boundaries of their individual stations.He also has the teaching aids he will require set up before starting in a separate stationed off area.Safe coaching practice also means being organised for the session prior to the day. Each child is given a quick rundown at the end of the session the previous week on what they will be working on in the next session.It is also important to ensure that the kids know the rules before they start each session. The coach goes over thesequickly prior to starting the clinic each week.The coach does not have participants fill out a medical form before starting in the clinics. He does have contactdetails for all parents and carers. The coach advised that parents usually advise him if there are any medicalconditions that need to be addressed.4. What steps do you take to ensure the clinic area is safe?- As mentioned above the coach makes sure each individual station is marked off before the kids arrive. He also hasall training aids set out in a particular area.- The coach gets the kids to sit down for the first few minutes to explain the rules that need to be followed and alsowhat they will be covering in that particular session.- Once the kids actually pick up a golf club when the coach is showing how to do something he actually gets the kidsto hold the golf club by the club head instead of the grip so the dangerous part of the club is in their hand.- When the golf balls that have been hit need to be picked up, the coach asks everyone to put the clubs down andeveryone goes out together and picks them up to avoid anyone getting hit.5. What do you do to ensure children feel safe and protected while attending the clinic?The procedures the coach follows to ensure participants feel safe include:
- Having a Junior Development Officer as part of the club so the kids can approach him with any problems or questions. He is a first year trainee professional who has only recently finished in the junior ranks himself so can relate to the kids quite well. - Parents are required to walk the kids to the clinic area to drop them off not just drop them in the car park. The coach walks with the kids altogether back to the pro shop where parents are waiting to pick up their kids. If the parents aren’t there when its time to finish the kids have to wait inside the pro shop with the staff and if it is a reasonable amount of time the coach will call the parents. - The coach and staff working in the pro shop have all had working with children checks done. - The kids know the rules are they are reminded of these rules prior to each session.6. What practices do you follow to prevent injury or illness?- Ensuring the clinic area is set up appropriately to ensure players are far enough apart so as not to hit each other.- Having rules in place that all participants are aware of and adhere to.- The coach starts with warm up stretching before hitting any shots to ensure muscles are warm. This is followed upwith some little short chip type shots to get the body used to the movement of hitting the golf ball.- Having a policy that if participating on hot days that everyone is wearing a hat, sunscreen and has a bottle of waterhandy. On cold days ensuring everyone is rugged up appropriately and not having much downtime between activitiesfor the kids to cool down too much.7. What would you do if a child was injured in your care?- Assess injury and follow RICE procedure.- There is access to an accredited first aid person on the premises at all times.- There is access to a first aid kit and oxygen if necessary.- Contact parent to advise of injury.8. Do you have any children in your clinic with a disability? If so what strategies do you use to include them inthe clinic?The coach has taught several kids with disabilities. He assesses their capabilities prior to starting the clinic. He hasthem join in the clinic with all other participants. They have their own station and are made to feel welcome andincluded like all other participants. Their equipment can be slightly modified so they can participate in most activitieswith everyone else. Participants with walking difficulties are not required to go and pick up all the golf balls they aregiven another task of filling in the divots made by everyone at their station with sand while everyone goes out andpicks up the balls. This way they are felt included and have a job like everyone else.9. How do you include parents in your structure?Parents are welcome to come and watch, listen and help at any clinic session. When the kids participate in actuallyplaying a round of golf parents are encouraged to walk around with the group and help with rules, counting scoresand course etiquette. The coach collects parent’s phone numbers and emails to keep them up to date on when different skills tests are coming up, when school holiday golf days are being held and to communicate different general information that parents need to know.
Appendix B: Field Observation NotesThe golf clinic today was on a particular skill of putting. I arrived at the clinic site about 15 minutes before the sessionstarted. Coach A had the area set up into different individual stations that were far enough apart so that each child hadenough room to putt a golf ball without encroaching on another participants swing area. These individual stationswere marked with plastic cones.There were 5 different stations. Each individual station also had a training aid placed at it. Each individual station hada different training aid.When the participants arrived the coach got the participants to sit down and explained the following: 1. Rules of safety to ensure everyone stays safe. Eg: - Everyone is to stay within their marked stations unless told otherwise. - Golf clubs are to stay on the ground until told by coach A to pick them up. If you are not using the golf club but it is in your hand you are to hold the club by the head end instead of the grip end therefore the dangerous part of the club is in the participant’s hand. 2. Reminded the participants on the importance of looking after the equipment and golf course.- After the explanation the coach got the participants to roll a ball from their individual stations to the golf hole theywere assigned to.- Coach A then told the participants to pick up their golf clubs and he showed them how to hold the golf club (putter)properly. Coach A went to each individual station and looked at each participant individually and corrected their grip.- The coach rotated through each station and gave positive feedback when good shots were hit and gave constructivefeedback and showed participants how to improve on the next shot when poor shots were hit.- After each participant had had their two shots the coach told participants to put all clubs down and everyone wentand collected their two balls together. This activity was repeated 5 times until all participants felt comfortable withtheir efforts. A couple of the participants tried to run out and pick up their balls before they were told but the coachpulled them up instantly.- After the last attempt at the previous activity the coach introduced all of the different training aids at each individualstation. He rotated through each station and showed the participants how to use each aid. Once again the participantswere given two balls each and were advised that they would rotate through each station but were to stay where theyare until advised to move to the next station. This exercise ran smoothly with the coach observing and helping whereneeded.- After they all rotated through each station coach A asked each participant what they learned from each teaching aid.- The last exercise was a 4 hole competition. Each participant had to stand at a different plastic cone and put to adifferent hole and rotate through each station but was not to move until the player in front of them had moved to thenext station. Each player had only one ball and their goal was to get around the 4 holes with a score of 8 or better,which equates to 2 shots / hole or better. This gave each participant the pressure of competition while still in a clinicsetting. This competition was undertaken for two rounds. Once again the participants followed instructions.- The coach then advised that this was the end of the session and everyone had to pack up their individual stations andreturn all equipment to one central area. Once the area was packed up the coach explained what next week’s sessionwould involve and what shots they will be practicing.- All participants walked back to the pro shop where all parents were waiting to pick up their children. NOTE: Coach kept participants interested by keeping them busy with different activities and being able to participate at the same time, therefore avoiding participants getting bored and messing around.