EDPE245 Human Physical Performance 1Describe the quality of movements that are expected for children in the 5-12year age range.INTRODUCTION:Physical activity positively affects a child’s growth and development. Every person,from infants to children, adolescents to adults are involved in the lifelong processof learning how to move with control and competence. This is in response to dailychallenges in an ever-changing environment (Gallahue, D & Ozmun, J. 2006: 48).This essay will discuss the quality of movement that is expected from childrenaged five to twelve years, additionally the factors that account for diversity inmovement quality in children will also be examined. There are several phases andstages involved in movement development. The phases include the ReflexiveMovement Phase, Rudimentry Movement Phase, Fundamental Movement Phaseand the Specialised Movement Phase (Gallahue, D & Ozmun, J. 2006: 49-57).Gallahue & Ozmun (2006: 59) reveal that the process by which individualsprogress from the reflexive movement phase, through the rudimentary andfundamental movement phases and finally to the specialized movement skillphase of development is influenced by several factors. The factors that account fordiversity in movement quality include individual, environmental and task limitations(Thies, K & Travers, J. 2006: 162).BODY:Movement development in children begins with the reflexive and rudimentrymovement phases. Gallahue & Ozmun (2006: 50) illustrate that reflexes are thefirst forms of human movement. They are involuntary and form the basis for thephases of motor development. The next stage is the rudimentary movement phaseis the first phase of voluntary movement. This phase is generally from birth to twoyears of age. Gallahue & Ozmun (2006: 51) reveal that rudimentary movementsengage stability movements such as head and neck control and control of chestmuscles. This phase also engages manipulative tasks of reaching, griping andreleasing, and the locomotor movements of crawling and walking. The abovephases give the infant a strong base for a lifetime of movement.By the age of seven a child should be able to fulfil the criteria of the fundamentalmovement phase. This phase of movement consists of three separate butfrequently overlapping stages; the initial stage, the elementary stage and themature stage. Gallahue, Cleland, & Donnely (2003: 52) define the fundamentalmovement phase as “an organised series of basic movements that involve thecombination of movement patterns of two or more body segments and arecatagorised into stability, locomotor or manipulative movements”. At theconclusion of this phase, the quality of movements expected from childrenincludes being able to perform various stabilising, locomotor and manipulativemovements such as running, jumping, throwing, catching, kicking and hopping.This movement phase does not develop purely through growing older. Children
need opportunities for practice, encouragement and instruction in a learningenvironment in order to fully develop fundamental movement skills (Gallahue, D &Ozmun, J. 2006: 52). Gallahue & Ozmun (2006: 53) state that without the aboveopportunities it is nearly impossible for a child to achieve this movement phaseand will hinder development in the next phase.The specialised movement phase consists of three stages; the transitional stage,the application stage and the lifelong utilisation stage. Once children reach the ageof twelve it is expected that they are able to fulfil both the transitional andapplication stages mentioned above. Gallahue & Ozmun (2006: 53) point out thatskills in the specialised movement phase are simply an advance in skillsdeveloped during the fundamental movement phase. For that reason, successfuldevelopment of skills in the specialised movement phase depends on superiorfundamental movements. Gallahue & Ozmun (2006: 53) determine that throughoutthis phase stability, locomotor and manipulative skills are polished, combined andexpanded upon and used in play, advanced games and daily living situations, forexample, hoping and jumping is applied to jump rope, dancing steps and triplejump. By the age of twelve children begin to make decisions either for or againstparticipation in certain activities and selected sports (Gallahue, D & Ozmun, J.2006: 53).The first factor that can account for diversity in movement quality is human factors.This relates to the structure and function of the body. Pangrazi & Beighle (2009:24) state that children differ in build, skeletal age and physical maturity, and thesedifferences affect a child’s ability to perform in physical activities. All body systems,including the muscular, respiratory, cardio and nervous systems must bedeveloped to an optimal level for an individual to be able to accomplish a skill ortask (Thies, K & Travers, J. 2006: 162). Obesity is another issue that affects anindividual, as dead weight reduces relative strength and therefore the child is lessable to perform physical tasks (Pangrazi, R & Beighle, A. 2009: 24-26).ENVIRONMENTAL PARAGRAPH:Task limitations are also a contributing factor regarding the diversity of movementquality. Thies & Travers (2006: 162) explain that the goals of a particularmovement such as speed or accuracy goals influence the child and the child’sresponse. Another influence on the participant is the equipment used in manysporting activities such as bats, rackets and balls. The size shape and weight ofequipment are all factors into the success an individual may have whenparticipating in physical activity (Thies, K & Travers, J. 2006: 162). If a child’sequipment is the wrong size, shape or weight, then the participant is unable to fulfiltheir potential in the activity.
CONCLUSION:Motor development is a progressive change in movement behaviour throughoutthe life cycle. Motor development involves continuous adaption to changes in anindividual’s movement capabilities in a never-ending effort to achieve and maintainmotor control and movement competence.