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  • 1. Unit EDPE245 Human Physical Performance 1 Assignment 2 – Case Study Report Dr John Haynes Semester 1, 2011Assignment completed by Julie Papps Student Number: 220076557
  • 2. INTRODUCTION:When it comes to children, socialisation is one of the most important developments a childwill embark on. Socialisation into sport is defined by Delaney & Madigan (2009: 77) as “aprocess where individuals are encouraged to partake in sport either as a participant orspectator so that individuals can interact with one another and learn about society’sexpectations of behaviour so they can participate and function within society”. The mostcommon ways children develop socialisation skills includes observing and modelling others,trial and error, and social interaction (Payne & Isaacs. 1995: 41). There are several importantfactors that have been identified as affecting the social development of children in sport.These factors include the influence of important people in the child’s life, a child’s socialsituation, the family socioeconomic status, gender and perceived ability and self esteem(Haywood 1995: 305 & Brustad 1996: 318).The people most likely to influence a child’s socialisation process include family members,teachers, coaches and peers. Payne & Isaacs (1995: 41) reveal that the level of social supportgiven to a child from these people greatly influences the level of participation in physicalactivity. In most cases the parents are the primary influence over a child’s movement choiceand success. Johnson (1989: 23) explains that parental physical activity and the amount oftime parents spend with children in physical active pursuits were two of the most influentialfactors in socialisation. Parents can encourage children to engage in active play, games andsports or they can support sedentary play and activities (Haywood 1995: 306). Thisencouragement will almost definitely influence whether or not a child will participate inphysical activities and sport. In addition, this author also illustrates that teachers andcoaches also strongly influence a child’s socialisation by strengthening the process begunearlier in a child’s life by family members. Teachers and coaches can also introduce childrento new and exciting activities which inspire children to learn the skills and attitudes
  • 3. associated with sport. Teachers and coaches must be aware that bad sport experiences canhave lifelong consequences for a child’s overall confidence and self esteem. Finally, bothHaywood (1995: 308) and Payne & Isaacs (1995: 49) reveal that peer groups do not seem toinfluence participation in sport until the child starts to approach adolescence. Peers seem toprovide a stronger influence for participation in team sports rather than individual sportsand if peers consider participation in sport as part of the norm they will pressure othermembers of the group to be active participants also.A child’s social situation such as their play environment, activities and toy availability alsoaffects social development. Haywood (1995: 309) suggests that an appropriate play area,such as a backyard or park, can provide the social setting a child requires to socialise intosport involvement. Children who have adequate space for play have the opportunity to beinvolved in activities and practice skills the child has learned, which in turn promotesparticipation in sports. Children’s toys also affect the socialisation process. Depending on thetype of toy, toys can promote either active or inactive play, for example a ball promotesoutdoor play involving running and kicking, whereas a board game promotes indoorsedentary type play (Haywood 1995: 310). The socioeconomic status of a family affects achild’s social situation due to the accessibility of the above mentioned play environment,activities and toys depending on the availability of family and community economicresources (Brustad 1996: 318). Researchers have found that the more play spaces availablein a community the more children were engaged in physical activity (Sallis et al. 1993, ascited in Brustad 1996: 318)Perceived ability and self esteem is also an element of the socialisation process. Haywood(1995: 311) demonstrates that children are unlikely to continue playing a sport if they expectto achieve little success. While a child who perceives their ability as high will more than likelycontinue with the activity. This author also illustrates that in general boys perceive theirability as high regardless of their level of involvement in sport, whereas, only girls who are
  • 4. involved in sport perceive their ability as high. Researchers Payne & Isaacs (1995: 43) havefound that sixty six percent of children who undertake physical activity exceed self esteemscores of children who undertake sedentary activities. Haywood (1995: 315) illustrates that ifa child feels the excitement and pride that is associated with success or the stress anddisappointment associated with failure, this will affect a child’s self esteem, and in turnaffect the child’s motivation to participate in sport.In the past society has considered certain games and sports to be more fitting for boys thanfor girls, and vice versa. Haywood (1995: 310) points out that pressure put on children toparticipate in gender specific games can have repercussions when it comes to opportunitiesto practice various skills. The author also reveals that traditionally, boys have been given thechance to play games that involve strategy, are goal orientated and are complex in nature;while girls are given non-competitive tasks that involve waiting turns for simple repetitivetasks.Socialisation is an important part of development for children as it aids children in theprocess of realising their expected roles and behaviours in society, rules and regulationsalong with influencing a child’s decision of whether to participate in physical activity or not(Payne & Isaacs 1995: 59). The significant people in a child’s life, the social situation of achild, self esteem and social attributes all contribute to the socialisation process.METHODOLOGY:For the interview I decided to ask two eight year old children who are neighbours but whoare not related. I chose to interview a boy and a girl. I approached the children’s parents andexplained that I was required to interview two children of the same age and explained whatthe interview was about and why I needed to conduct the interview. I then asked thechildren if they would be interested and asked the parents if they would be willing to allowtheir children to participate in the interview. Once the parents and children agreed I gave
  • 5. each family a copy of the interview questions and the consent form. This would give thechildren and parents time to read through the questions and discuss them with each other. Iorganised a date with each family and conducted the interviews on different days so as totake in the details of each interview without confusing the two.The interview with the 8 year old girl, who I will refer to as Jill, went for 40 minutes. Theinterview was conducted in the lounge room with both Jill and Jill’s mother present. Both Jilland Jill’s mother read and signed the consent form which is attached. Jill’s mother had gonethrough the questions with Jill prior to the interview and Jill had written down some answersto help her answer the questions. I asked Jill each question and wrote answers and notes aswe went. Jill’s mother was very informative and willing to help Jill with expressing heranswers as well as adding her point of view to the answers as the interview progressed.The interview with the 8 year old boy, who I will refer to as Jack went for about 50 minutes.The interview was conducted in the dining room with Jack and Jack’s mother both present.Both Jack and Jack’s mother read and signed the consent form which is attached. Jack hadnot read the questions prior to the interview but was very curious as to what the interviewwas about and why I was conducting the interview, which I explained to him. Jack’s motherlet Jack answer the questions on his own accord and added her point of view once Jack hadfinished answering all of the questions. THE INSTRUMENT: Listed below are the questions that I asked during the interviews with both children and their parents: 1. How old are you? 2. Do you play sport? 3. What are the sports in which you regularly participate in?
  • 6. 4. If you don’t play sport what are some of the reasons?5. If you don’t engage in any form of physical activity, please explain why this is the case?6. Do your parents encourage you to play sport? (Haywood 1995: 306)7. Is there a difference between your mum and your dad in the way they support and / or encourage you? (Haywood 1995: 306)8. If you have older siblings, have they influenced the type of sport you play? (Haywood 1995: 307)9. If you have younger siblings, are they influenced by the type of sport you play? (Haywood 1995: 307)10. Is sport important to you? How and Why? (McPherson & Brown 1988: 271)11. What types of sport do you like to play? (Haywood 1995: 308; McPherson & Brown 1988: 272)12. Do your friends play the same sports at you? (Haywood 1995: 308; McPherson & Brown 1988: 272)13. Do or did your parents play these sports? (Haywood 1995: 308; McPherson & Brown 1988: 272)14. How does playing at school in PE and lunchtime / recess times relate to how you like sport?15. Do your teachers or your coaches teach you how to best perform basic skills like running, jumping, kicking, catching and throwing?
  • 7. 16. Have the skill instructions you received at school helped you in any way? How, or if not why do you think this is so? 17. What do you like best about PE classes? 18. What do you like least about PE classes? 19. How does playing sport make you feel about yourself? (Payne & Isaacs 1995: 42)RESULTS:As discussed in the previous section the two children that were interviewed for this paperare eight years old. The first child is a boy who will be known as Jack, the other child is a girlwho will be known as Jill. Jack and Jill attend the same primary school. Both are in year threebut are in different classes and therefore have different teachers. As discussed by Gallahue& Ozmun (2006: 53) Jack and Jill should be able to completely fulfil the requirements of therudimentary and fundamental movement phases. They should now be moving into thespecialised movement phase, which involves refining the skills developed during thefundamental phase and applying them to more specialised skills.At the school Jack and Jill attend it is mandatory that all children participate in physicaleducation (PE) classes twice a week and take part in sports afternoon once a week. Jillexplained that during PE classes “the teacher usually gets us to do throwing, catching andkicking games. The teacher shows us what to do first then we all do it together and theteacher walks around and helps anyone having trouble doing the activity”. Jack alsoindicated that in PE class “the teacher shows us how to do the activity and then goes aroundand helps others when they don’t know how to do it properly”. The above instructionconducted by the teachers correspond with what Pangrazi & Beighle (2009: 28) said whenthey indicated that all children should be treated as if they have the potential to succeed and
  • 8. that the goal of physical education classes should be to help all students develop physicalskills within the limits of their potential.Jack and Jill both participate in sport activities at school and outside of school. Jill said sheenjoys PE and sport because “I have fun running around with friends and I like doingdifferent sports every week”. Jill’s mother added that “when Jill is good at a particular sportand enjoys the sport they have done at school, Jill will come home and tell me all about it.School sport gives Jill a taste of what different sports are like”. Jack said he enjoys schoolsport because “I like running around and playing ball games”. Both children mentioned thatwhen the teacher shows them how to do a particular skill it makes it easier to perform theactivity and makes PE and sport more enjoyable. The teachers involved in the PE classes andsports meet several of the competencies of the National Standards of Physical Educationdiscussed by Pangrazi & Beighle (2009: 20). These authors also discuss that all childrenshould be treated as if they have the potential to succeed, which is what Jack and Jill’steachers seem to be trying to achieve. The above program also corresponds with whatHaywood (1995: 306) talks about, how teachers and coaches can introduce children to newand exciting activities which then inspire children to learn all the skills and attitudesassociated with sport.Outside of school hours Jack plays soccer and Jill does dancing. Jack indicated that he likesplaying soccer because “I like running around, kicking balls and playing with my friends”. Jillindicated that she likes doing dancing because “I love laughing with my friends and I lovewhen my mum and dad come and watch my end of year concert”. This shows a closerelationship with what Pangrazi & Beighle (2009: 29) cited when they said “there is nosubstitute for allowing young children to participate in physical activity for the sheerenjoyment and excitement involved in moving and interacting with peers”.
  • 9. Jack and Jill both indicate that their parents encourage them to participate in sportingactivities. When Jill was asked if there was a difference between her parentsencouragement, Jill revealed that “Mum suggests different activities that I could do outsideof school, where dad just agrees with what I ask to do”. Jill’s mother added that “I make sureI am aware of the different activities available and if I think the activity is something Jill willenjoy then I will ask her if she would be interested”. When Jack was asked the same questionhe said “mum and dad both like me to play soccer so I grow up fit and healthy”. Jack’smother added “I make sure Jack is always involved in some type of after school sport as I feelit is important for his confidence and general morale. Where Jack’s dad would not push Jackinto participating in a sporting activity after school if Jack didn’t ask to do a sport”. This fitscomparatively with Payne & Isaacs (1995: 41) when they discuss how the level of socialsupport given to a child by their parents greatly influences the level of participation inphysical activity. In most cases parents are the primary influence over a child’s movementchoice and sporting success.Finally, Jack and Jill both acknowledged that sport makes them feel happy because sport isfun and we can laugh. The enjoyment described above will certainly boost Jack and Jill’s selfesteem, which in turn leads to higher levels of self esteem and motivation to participate inphysical activity as demonstrated by Haywood 1995: 315.CONCLUSION:Jack and Jill are typical of children discussed in the socialisation literature for severalreasons. Firstly, due to the main influence when it comes to participating in physical activityare parents, teachers, coaches and peers (Payne & Isaacs 1995: 41). The encouragementgiven to these children from their parents and teachers ensures their socialisation journey isa reasonably smooth one. Jack and Jill are fulfilling the development milestones ofsocialisation as they are given the opportunity to observe and model others, use trial and
  • 10. error and have several opportunities for social interaction as discussed by the aboveauthors.Secondly, Jack and Jill are provided with the appropriate environment and activities to aidtheir socialisation development. As Haywood (1995: 309) illustrates those children who haveappropriate play areas, opportunities to be involved in activities and time to practice learnedskills are more likely to continue participating in sporting activities.Lastly, the enjoyment Jack and Jill experience while participating in sporting activities willboost their self esteem and motivation to participate in sport now and in the future.In conclusion, Jack and Jill ideally fit the profile described in the literature. These childrenhave similar activity, a high self esteem, appropriate activity areas and are encouraged bysignificant people around them.
  • 11. REFERENCESBrustad, R. J. (1996) Attraction to Physical Activity in Urban Schoolchildren: Parental Socialisation and Gender Influences. In Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, pp. 316-323. Vol. 67, no. 3.Delaney, T., & Madigan, T. (2009). The Sociology of Sports: an introduction. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.au/books?id=YEybKqyfVNwC&pg=PA85&lpg=PA85&dq=soci alisation+of+children+into+sport&source=bl&ots=ilmwAIVo3F&sig=S4NmSXqYM5eX OtUF1EJLqTjS_1w&hl=en&ei=j065TcqjApCavgOk5MyiAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=r esult&resnum=7&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false.Gallahue, D., & Ozmun, J. (2006) Motor Development: A Theoretical Model in David L. Gallahue & John C. Ozmun, Understanding Motor Development: Infants, Children, Adolescents, Adults. pp. 46-60. 6th Ed. New York; London: McGraw-Hill.Haywood, K.M. (1995) Psychosocial and Cultural Influences in Motor Development. In K. M.Haywood, Life Span Motor Development, pp. 303-329. 2nd Ed. Edwardstown, SA.Johnson, V. N. (1989) Children’s Socialization into Sports. In Melpomene Journal, pp. 23-26. Vol. 8. No. 2.Pangrazi, Robert P., & Beighle, A. (2009) Teaching Children in the Physical Education Environment. In Robert P. Pangrazi & Aaron Beighle, Dynamic Physical Education for Elementary School Children. pp. 20 – 34. 16th Ed. San Francisco.
  • 12. Payne, V. Gregory., & Isaacs, L. (1995) Social and Motor Development. In V. Gregory Payne & Larry D. Isaacs, Human Motor Development: A Lifespan Approach, pp. 40-61. 3rd Ed. Mountain View, California: Mayfield.