Assignment notes – EDPE245 Assignment notesGallahue & Ozmun: All of us, infants, children, adolescents & adults, are involved in the lifelong process of learning how to move with control and competence in response to challenges we face daily in our constantly changing environment. (Pg. 48) We are able to observe developmental differences in movement behaviour. We can do this through observation of form and performance. (Pg. 48) Observable movements grouped into 3 categories according to their purpose: o Stabilizing movement tasks o Locomotor movement tasks o Manipulative movement tasks Or combination of the three. (Pg. 48) STABILITY MOVEMENT: is any movement in which some degree of balance is required. (virtually all gross motor skills). Eg. Twisting, turning, pushing & pulling. Therefore any movement that places a premium on gaining and maintaining one‟s equilibrium in relation to the force of gravity. (Pg. 48) LOCOMOTOR MOVEMENT: movements that involve a change in location of the body relative to a fixed point on the surface. Eg. Walk, run, hop, skip or leap. (Pg. 48) MANIPULATIVE MOVEMENT: refers to both gross and fine motor manipulation. Gross motor manipulation examples are throwing, catching, kicking, and hitting / striking. Fine motor manipulation involve the intricate use of the muscles of the hand and wrist. Eg. Sewing, cutting with scissors and typing (Pg. 49). COMBINATION: examples: jumping rope (stability (maintaining balance), locomotor (jumping), manipulation (turning the rope). Playing soccer (stability (dodging, reaching, turning & twisting), Locomotor (running & jumping), manipulation (dribbling, passing, kicking & heading). (Pg. 49) Motor development is a discontinuous process that is, although, phaselike in a general sense, is highly variable in a specific sense. THE HOURGLASS: A LIFE SPAN MODEL: - Children may be at the elementary stage in some skills, the mature stage in others, and at a sport skill level in others. Although they should be encouraged in the phases where they do well they should also be assisted in catching up in the phases where they are behind other class mates. (Pg. 55) - The rate of movement skill acquisition is variable from infancy throughout life. If an individual receives additional opportunities for practice, encouragement and instruction in an environment conductive to learning, movement skill acquisition will be promoted. (Pg. 55) o From figure 3-1 (the phases and stages of motor development) it shows that: (pg. 49) Approx age Different Phases The stages of motor development of development o 0-1yr – Reflexive Movement Phase (Information encoding & decoding stage) o 1-2yr – Rudimentry Movement Phase (pre-control and reflex inhibition stage) o 2-3yr – Fundamental Movement Phase (Initial stage) o 4-5yr – Fundamental Movement Phase (Elementary stage) o 6-7yr - Fundamental Movement Phase (Mature stage) o 7-10yr – Specialised Movement Phase (Transitional stage) o 11-13yr - Specialised Movement Phase (Application stage) o 14+yr - Specialised Movement Phase (Lifelong Utilisation stage) REFLEXIVE MOVEMENT PHASE: - Reflexes are the first forms of human movement and because they are not learned are considered to be abilities rather than skills. (Pg. 50)
- Reflexes are involuntary and form the basis for the phases of motor development. (Pg. 50) - The reflexive phase has 2 overlapping stages: o Information encoding phase: Occurs from the foetal period until 4 months of age. This phase allows infants to gather information, seek nourishment and find protection through movement. o Information decoding phase: begins at 4months. Infants develop voluntary control of skeletal movements. (Pg. 50)RUDIMENTRY MOVEMENT PHASE: - This is the first phase of voluntary movement. - Birth to 2. - Varies from child to child depending on biological, environmental and task factors (Pg. 50) - Skills are fixed but rate is variable. (Pg. 51) - Involve stability movements such as head & neck control + control of trunk muscles and the manipulative tasks of reaching, grasping and releasing as well as the locomotor movements of creeping, crawling and walking. - Divided into two stages: o Reflex Inhibition Stage: Makes global movements. Eg. Reaching for an object is completed with one entire movement of the hand, wrist, arm, shoulder, and even trunk. The process of moving the hand into contact with the object, although voluntary, lacks control. o Precontrol stage: Starts from 1yr. Learn to gain and maintain their equilibrium, manipulate objects and locomote throughout the environment with proficiency and control. (Pg. 51)FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT PHASE: - 2-7 years - Actively involved in exploring and experimenting with the movement potential of their bodies. - Time for discovering how to perform various stabilizing, locomotor and manipulative movements, first in isolation then concurrently. (Pg. 51) - Gaining increased control on performing discrete, serial and continuous movements. - Fundamental movements that should be developed during the early years are: running & jumping (locomotor), throwing and catching (manipulative), and balancing on 1 foot (stability). - Opportunities for practice, encouragement, instruction and ecology play an important role in the degree to which fundamental movement skills develop. They do not develop purely through growing older. (Pg. 52) - This stage has 3 separate but often overlapping stages: o Initial stage: This stage represents the child‟s 1st goal orientated attempts at performing a fundamental skill. Initial movement is often portrayed by missing or improperly sequenced parts, markedly restricted or exaggerated use of the body and poor rhythm and coordination. About 2yrs old. (Pg. 52) o Elementary Stage: Involves greater control and better rhythm and coordination of fundamental movements. About 3-4yrs old. Children of normal intelligence and physical functioning advance to this stage through the process of maturation. NOTE: Many individuals (adults & children( fail to get beyond this stage in many movement patterns. (Pg. 52) o Mature Stage: These movements are mechanically efficient, coordinated and controlled performances. Age 5-6 in most fundamental skills. (Pg. 52) To achieve this level most people require opportunities for practice, encouragement and instruction in a learning environment. Lack of these
opportunities will make it near impossible to achieve this stage and will inhibit further application and development in the next phase. (Pg. 53) - Boys & girls are beginning to develop basic movement skills such as running, hopping, jumping, throwing, catching, kicking and trapping. (Pg. 55) - Teachers of individuals at the fundamental movement phase must learn to recognize and analyse the task requirements of movement skills to maximize learner success. SPECIALISED MOVEMENT PHASE: - These skills are an outgrowth of the fundamental movement phase. Successful performance of the skills in this phase depend on mature fundamental movements. - Movement becomes a tool applied to complex movement activities for daily living, recreation and sport. - Stability, locomotor & manipulative skills are refined, combined and elaborated on. - Eg. Hoping and jumping can now be applied to jump rope, dancing steps and triple jump. - The extent of skill development in the phase depends on task, individual & environmental factors. (Environmental factors include reaction time, movement speed, coordination, body type, height, weight, customs, culture, peer pressure and emotional makeup). (Pg. 53) - This phase has 3 stages: o Transitional Stage: 7-8yr old. They begin to apply fundamental movement skills to the performance of specialized skills in sport and recreational settings. Eg. Walking on a rope bridge, jumping rope, playing football. Same elements as fundamental movements with greater form, accuracy and control. Movements are broad and generalized to “all” activity.(Pg. 53) o Application Stage: 11-13 yr old. Increased cognitive sophistication & broadened experience base enable the individual to make learning and participation decisions based on variety of task, individual and environmental factors. Individuals start to make decisions for or against participation in particular activities. Self examination of strengths & weaknesses; opportunities & restrictions narrows the choices. Eg. Tall 12yr olds who like team sports and have reasonable coordination & agility may choose to specialize in basketball. A similar built child who does not like team sport may choose track & field. In this stage complex skills are refined and used in advanced games, lead up activities & selected sports. LIFELONG UTILISATION STAGE: - Begins @ 14 & continues through adulthood. Interests, competencies & choices in previous stage are further defined & applied to a lifetime of daily living, recreational & sport related activities. Time, money, equipment, facilities, mental & physical limitations affect this stage. Level of participation will depend talent, opportunities, physical condition and personal motivation. It is a culmination of all preceding stages.SUMMARY: - The process by which an individual progresses from the reflexive movement phase, through the rudimentary and fundamental movement phases and finally to the specialized movement skill phase of development is influenced by factors within tasks, the individual and the environment. - Rudimentry movements form the important base upon which fundamental movement skills are developed.
- Fundamental movement skills are basic movement patterns that begin developing around the same time that a child is able to walk independently and move freely through his or her environment. - Under the proper circumstances, children are capable of performing at the mature stage in the vast majority of fundamental movement patterns by age 6. - The transitional stage is typically the level of the child in grades 3-5.TEACHING CHILDREN IN THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION ENVIRONMENT – Pangrazi, R &Beighle, A 2009 Essential components of quality programs: (Page 20) - Organised around content standards - Student centered and developmentally appropriate - Physical activity and motor skill development form the core of the program. - Teaches management skills and self discipline. - Promotes inclusion of all students. - Focuses of process over product. - Promotes lifetime personal health and wellness. - Teaches cooperation and responsibility and promores sensitivity to diversity. National Standards for physical Education: (Pg. 20) - Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities. - Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities. - Participates regulary in physical activity. - Achieves and maintains a health enhancing level of physical fitness. - Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity. - Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self expression and / or social interaction. Physical activity positively affects childrens growth and development. (Pg. 21) When growth is rapid, the ability to learn new skills decreases. (Pg. 22) Girls reach the adolescent growth spurt first growing taller and heavier during 6th & 7th grade and likely tied to girls reaching puberty 1st. Average age of girls reaching puberty has decreased.(Pg. 22) FACTORS AFFECTING: A child‟s physique affects the quality of his / her performance. (Pg. 24) Children differ in physique and require that instruction accommodate individual differences. (Pg 24) Physical maturity strongly affects a students performance in physical education. Children greatly differ in skeletal age. Overweight children are less proficient at performing motor skills as deadweight reduces relative strength.(Pg. 26) Children deserve equal opportunity to learn sport skills, teachers must ensure that all children play all positions and receive similar amounts of practice time. It is easy for children to become discouraged if they receive little encouragement and praise while trying to learn new skills and positions. (Pg. 27) In a study by Hale (1956), Hale points out how skeletally mature children receive more opportunity to throw at an early age (through pitching & catching). These children obviously have the chance to become better throwers due to the many opportunities they receive when throwing in games and practice. In contrast, children who are immature play right field and receive limited throwing or catching opportunities. Therefore they are unlikely to ever close the skill gap and develop skill competency. (Pg. 28)
Treat all children as if they have the potential to succeed. The goal of a physical education program is not to develop athletes, but to help all students develop their physical skills within the limits of their potential. (Pg. 28) There is no substitute for allowing young children to participate in physical activity for the sheer enjoyment and excitement involved in moving and interacting with peers. (Pg. 29) The National Strength & Conditioning Association (NSCA, 1996) recommends that prepubescent athletes‟ training include a variety of activities such as agility exercises (basketball, volleyball, tennis & tumbling) and endurance training (distance running, cycling & swimming). (Pg. 32)SOCIAL & MOTOR DEVELOPMENT – Payne, V. Gregory & Isaacs, Larry, D. 1995 Common means of socialization include observation, inference, modeling and trial and error, but the most important is through social interaction. The influence of others around us is extremely important in determining how and when persons acquire certain movement abilities. They are also integral in determining which movement activities we choose.(Pg. 41) The amount of social support supplied by significant others in our lives os positively associated with the extent of our participation in physical activities. Reserchers have determined that parents, siblings, teachers, coaches and friends can all have varying amounts of influence on the choices we make concerning physical activity. In turn, the movement activities we choose affect our ability to „fit in‟ socially based on the compatibility of our choices with the dominant social values. Our movement choices also affect our self identity, social mobility, educational achievement, attitudes concerning masculinity and femininity and even our moral development. (Pg. 41) The influence of others around us is extremely important in determining how and when persons acquire certain movements as well as what movements. (Pg. 41) Self esteem & Self concept seem to be significantly affected my involvement in physical education. (Pg. 41) Gruber (1985) stated that involvement in directed play or physical education could enhance self esteem in children though it was not clear why. (Pg. 42) Individuals with higher levels of self worth are more cheerful and exude higher levels of energy, whereas low self-esteem has a depressing effect on behavior. These mood alterations could have, at least, an indirect effect on motor development. Lack of desire to participate and subsequent lack of participation would inhibit the practice necessary to develop certain movement skills. (Pg. 44) Successful attainment of certain levels of motor development likely has a reciprocal effect on self concept. (Pg. 44) Family still exerts more influence on a child than does any other force. (Pg. 46) Pleasurable (play) activities are considered important to the development of such skills as problem solving, creativity, language, and many movements in general. (Pg. 46) Play is often based on movement. When movement such as running, jumping, clapping or laughing is involved, the pleasurable aspects of play are most clearly visable. (Pg. 46) From 5 years of age increased participation in popular group movement activities subsequently facilitates a childs motor development. (Pg. 47) The family is the most important socializing force in the lives of most children. It is also the earliest and in most cases, greatest determination of a childs movement choices and movement success as it strongly influences the childs attitudes and expectations about movement. (Pg. 47) The parent of the same sex as the child has the greatest influence on movement acquisition and the child can acquire a number of movement characteristics that are reminiscent of those of the parent. (Pg. 47) Greendorfer & Lewko (1978) found that sport socialization begins during childhood and continues into adolescence and the role of certain family members is significant in this socialization process.
Parents were found to be a significant influence on a childs involvement in sport, but siblings, however, didn‟t seem to have a particularly critical effect on either boys or girls choices concerning involvement in sport. (Pg. 47) The father, peers and the teacher were all significant influences for boys. Whereas only peers and father were significantly influential for the girls. (Pg. 47) The peer group becomes increasingly important as children approach adolescence and they have the capability of shaping the mode of childrens dress, speech, actions & decisions concerning participation in movement activities. If peers consider participation in movement activities as accepted norm for their group, they pressure other members to be active in that persuit. (Pg. 49) Movement participation through team membership can be extremely influential in a child development. Through team participation youngsters learn to work toward achieving group or team goals while subordinating personal goals. (Pg. 49) Team participation teaches the child about failure and success as well as common emotions as shame and embarrassment. (Pg. 50)NSW FITNESS & PHYSICAL ACTIVITY SURVEY 1997 Fundamental motor skills: - The development of fundamental motor skills is essential for successful and satisfying participation in sport and leisure activities common in the community.PSYCHOSOCIAL AND CULTURAL INFLUENCES IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT – HAYWOOD, Social learning is one of the most potent environmental factors in development. Children who learn certain behaviors by observing others, who serve as models, and by internalizing those behaviors. Models, especially those significant to the child can encourage or discourage behaviors by either engaging in them or not, or by how they label them. (Pg. 304) Socialization involves many types of behavior, including social skills, physical skills, traits, values, knowledge, attitudes, norms and dispositions. It is critical for motor development because motor experiences are vital to the full development of motor skills. (Pg. 304) Increased proficiency in skill performance is enjoyable and rewarding in itself and in turn promotes continues participation. On the other hand, children who are not exposed to motor experiences are less likely to master motor skills. With only limited practice, children are more likely to fail and lose interest in physical activities. (Pg. 304) When individuals expect failure at motor skills, this expectation becomes a limitation to their skill performance. (Pg. 304) Three major elements of the socialization process lead an individual to learn his or her societal role: 1. Socializing agents (significant others) 2. Social situations (games & play, environments & toys) 3. Personal attributes (perceived sport sbility). (Pg. 305) Socializing agents are the people who are most likely to play a role in a childs socialization process – family members, peers, teachers & coaches. (Pg. 305) Traditionally western societies carry gender typing through to sport involvement. Sports are considered appropriate, even important, activities for boys, but not always for girls. Therefore, adults often permit and encourage vigorous, outgoing play for toddler boys, whereas girls are discouraged from running, climbing, venturing away from parents and so on. (Pg. 305) Society reinforces constrained, sedentary types of play for girls, and thus many girls self select away from vigorous play leaving a comparatively small number of girls as active participants in vigorous, skilled play. With such limited involvement and practice many girls never develop their motor skills to their full potential. (Pg. 306) Family members reinforce the behaviors they deem appropriate through their gestures, praise, and rewards and punish inappropriate behaviors. It is so subtle that family members may hardly realize what and how they communicate to the child. (Pg. 306)
Parents can encourage children to engage in active play that involves motor skills, or they can supportsedentary play. As children become physically active, parents can encourage or discourage games and,eventually, specific sports. Socialization into sports begins in childhood; about 75% of eventual sportparticipants become involved in sport by age 8 and the best predictor of adult sport involvement isparticipation during childhood and adolescence. (Pg 306)It is possible that for most children, siblings merely reinforce the sport socialization pattern establishedby parents rather than act as a major socializing force. (Pg. 307)If a peer group tends to participate in active play or sports, individual members are drawn to suchactivities. If the group prefers passive activities, individual members tend to follow that lead. (Pg. 308)Peers often provide a stronger influence for participation in team sports that for participation inindividual sports during childhood and adolescents. (Pg. 308)Childrens supportive peer groups are usually made up of others from the same sex as the participant.(Pg. 308)Peers apparently play just as important a role in sport socialization as the family plays. (Pg. 309)Male athletes consistently report that coaches and teachers influenced both their participation andselection of sports, particularly when they were adolescents and young adults. Female athletes report thatteachers and coaches influenced them during childhood and adolescence. (Pg. 309)Perhaps the role of teachers and coaches is to strengthen the sport soocialisation processes begun earlierby family and friends. (Pg. 309)They can introduce children to exciting new activities and stimulate them to learn the skills and attitudesassociated with sport. (Pg. 309)Bad experiences in school can have lifelong consequences for a persons overall lifestyle. Such negativeexperiences are known as aversive socialization; this can occur when teacher or coaches embarrasschildren in from of peers, overemphasize performance criteria at the expense of learning and enjoyment,and plan class activities that result in overwhelming failure rather than success.Children who experience aversive socialization naturally avoid physical activities and fail to learn skillswell; consequently, any attempts they make to participate frustrate and discourage them. (Pg. 309)An adequate environment for play, such as a backyard or playground, can provide the social situationand environment a child needs to begin sport involvement. (Pg. 309)Childrens toys are another facet of the socialization process. Toys can encourage children to be active orinactive and can stimulate them to model sport figures. Obviously each kind of toy had its advantages,but certainly some toys facilitate childrens socialization into sport more than others. (Pg. 310).Personal attributes: You are not likely to continually choose an activity if you expect to achieve littlesuccess. On the other hand, you would probably persist in a sport if you perceived your ability as high,even in the face of limited real success. (Pg. 311)Boys as a group perceived their ability as high regardless of their level of sport involvement. In contrastonly girls involved in sport perceived their ability as high regardless of their level of sport involvement.(Pg. 311)
ONLINE READINGS: The fundamental movement phase is “an organised series of basic movements that involve the combination of movement patterns of two or more body segments and are catagorised into stability, locomotor or manipulative movements” (Gallahue, Cleland, & Donnely: 2003: 52) – Teaching Movement Education: Foundations for active lifestyles by Karen Weiller Ables and Jennifer. M. Bridges Pg. 31 online: http://books.google.com.au/books?id=oevR_wqDE0kC&pg=PA31&dq=fundamental+movement+ph ase&hl=en&ei=SfF9TY28Go68vQOwhd3yBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved= 0CDsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=fundamental%20movement%20phase&f=false Sharidan (2008) notes that at age 5 most children can walk easily on a narrow line, run lightly on toes, are active and skilful in climbing, sliding, digging and can skip on alternate feet. – Outdoor learning in the early years: management and innovation – Helen Bilton Pg. 179 – online - http://books.google.com.au/books?id=BmlwjFZzz2sC&pg=PA176&dq=fundamental+movement+ph ase&hl=en&ei=LfR9Tde_Mo3- vQPJg9niBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CFQQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q =fundamental%20movement%20phase&f=false Teaching Physical Education – By Richard Bailey & Tony Macfadyen – Pg. 78 – Online: http://books.google.com.au/books?id=NvF_7Zz511gC&pg=PA77&dq=fundamental+movement+ph ase&hl=en&ei=wPV9TZ_lLoSavgPd363wBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved= 0CFkQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=fundamental%20movement%20phase&f=false SPECIALISED MOVEMENT PHASE:
Adapted Physical education and sport, Volume 1 – 2005 - 4th Edition – Joseph P Winnick – Pg 354 – online:http://books.google.com.au/books?id=Y279xKgNR7oC&pg=PA354&lpg=PA354&dq=specialised+movement+phase&source=bl&ots=G-VK8_otJS&sig=J3ipYtnCxMDifiCBIdW-CIygCqc&hl=en&ei=Y0F_TaGmOY-KvgPwvczgBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBwQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q&f=falseFACTORS AFFECTING MOTOR DEVELOPMENT:Handbook of human development for health care professionals – Kathleen M Thies & John F Travers–2006 - Online -http://books.google.com.au/books?id=CkbMiPxwvBQC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false Clarke (1994) has identified factors that help explain changes in motor behavior as constraints and further separated them into 3 categories: (Pg. 162) 1. Organism – related to structure and function of the body. The bodies size and shape affects movement as do the anatomical features of the skeletal system. - All body systems (eg. Muscular, respiratory, cardio, perceptual & nervous) affecting a movement response must have developed to a critical level for the individual to be able to accomplish a skill or task. 2. Environmental - Include constraints in physical and sociocultural environments of the mover. - These constraints include: opportunities for practice, quality of instruction and affiliations. 3. Task Constraints Sociocultural influences affect the development of motor skills by shaping attitudes, beliefs and opportunities. These influences include significant others, personal attributes and socialization situations. Significant others include family, peers, teachers and coaches. They have the ability to encourage or discourage certain motor behaviors. (Pg. 162) Parents have a strong capacity to shape childrens interests and attitudes. (Pg. 162) There is a greater likelihood that children will remain in physical activites if they have greater levels of self esteem and perceptions of confidence. (163) Because children rely so heavily on adult influences for information it is essential that these adults give appropriate and constructive feedback and make appropriate attributions related to movement performance.(Pg. 163)