qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzx EDEE112 English Pedagogy in thecvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq Primary Curriculum.wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui Assignment 1 – Essayopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg Completed by Julie Papps Student Number: 220076557hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas
Topic: What does it mean to be literate in the 21st century? How does thisinfluence what students and their teachers do in the primary school literacyclassroom?This paper will focus on what literacy means in the 21st century and discuss how literacy has changedover time, from the traditional teacher centred approach to the more recent student centredapproaches to literacy. Further, this paper will discuss what students need to achieve to be successfullearners of language and literacy via the ‘four resources model’. Finally, the role of oral language andeffective strategies teachers use to meet the learning needs of students from diverse backgrounds willbe established.To be literate in the 21st century students not only need to know how to read and write, they need to beable to combine speaking, listening and critical thinking skills with reading and writing, and incorporateaudiovisual and multimodal forms of communication (The Australian Language & Literacy Policy (1991),as cited in Winch et al, 2010, p. xli). There are many views on literacy, from traditional teacher centredbehaviourism views, to more modern student centred views such as constructivism, sociolinguists,cognitive / information processing and balanced views of literacy.Traditionally, literacy is often affiliated with discipline and respect for authority and focuses on thereading, writing and arithmetic aspects of literacy (Luke, 1993, p.1). This theory is based on the teacher-centred theory of behaviourism. Tompkins, Campbell & Green (2012) reveal that this theory centres onthe observable and measurable aspects of student behaviour. Students learn to read by gaining a seriesof skills that are taught in a deliberate, sequential order. The teacher acts as a distributor of knowledge,presenting pieces of knowledge in small steps which are reinforced until mastered. Rewards andpunishments are utilised to control and motivate students as they work independently reading basalreaders and completing fill in the blanks worksheets.Recently, classrooms have become establishments where learning is more student centred and childrenare more responsible for their own learning than ever before (Tompkins, Campbell & Green, 2012, p. 1).From a constructivist point of view students are active learners who construct their own knowledgethrough integrating new knowledge with existing knowledge. Dewey illustrates that through the inquiryprocess, students work together to seek information, ask questions and create new knowledge to solveproblems, and then reflect on this learning (Dewey, n.d., as cited in Tompkins, Campbell & Green, 2012,p. 8). The teachers’ role is to engage students with experiences so they can construct this newknowledge.
From a Sociolinguistics approach, students discuss books they are reading and share writing whileworking together in small groups. This view recognises the importance of language and social contactwhen learning. Vygotsky (1978;1986) believed that language helps to organise thought and students uselanguage to learn, communicate and share experiences with other students (Vygotsky, 1978;1986., ascited in Tompkins, Campbell & Green, 2012, p.8). When using this approach, teachers ‘scaffold’students’ learning by setting tasks that fall within a child’s zone of proximal development. Teachers thenwork together with students and gradually withdraw support as the student starts to perform the taskindependently. The teacher serves as an expert model, sharing examples of work and discussing thechoices of language and structure with the students. The class then jointly constructs a piece of work,with students providing ideas and the teacher acting as scribe. Finally the students would create a pieceof work themselves.Cognitive / information processing is another student centred approach to literacy where theoristsbelieve the mind functions like a computer. Flavell (1979) illustrates that information moves through aseries of processing units – sensory register, short term memory and long term memory as it isprocessed and stored (Flavell, 1979, as cited in Tompkins, Campbell & Green, 2012, p10). Theoristsdescribe the reading and writing process as a meaning-making process. Students concentrate oncomprehension as they read and construct meaning by using a combination of information from the textand information from the student’s background knowledge. Interpretation of texts is always individualas students bring different background knowledge and experience to the classroom. When writingstudents plan, draft, revise and edit their writing to ensure readers understand what they have written.Students share their writing with teachers and fellow students to get feedback on how well they arecommunicating (Tompkins, Campbell & Green, 2012, p. 10-11).As discussed above language is an important aspect in all student centred approaches to literacy. Thesocial view of language recognises that any exchange of meaning occurs through some form of socialcontext (NSW Government Education & Communities, 2007, para. 21). As Halliday suggests language is asocial semiotic. It constructs meaning for different purposes and emphasises the need to chooselanguage to meet the needs of different situations. Teachers need to ensure they introduce students toa variety of texts, both spoken and written, and encourage students to ask questions, share information,argue and reflect on ideas to make sense of the world (Cusworth, 1995, p. 1-4).As Beers (2011) illustrates, literacy is not about old versus new. it is about using a balanced approach toprovide children with opportunities that result in students who are career ready. A balanced approachto literacy involves reading, writing, speaking, listening and viewing. It combines explicit instruction,guided practice, collaborative learning, and independent reading and writing. Reading instructionincludes using code breaking skills, meaning making, text use and analysis. Writing instruction includes
the qualities of effective and appropriate writing, and the ability to use spelling, grammar andpunctuation. Students often work together and talk with fellow students while engaging in authenticliteracy activities which have a clear purpose or outcome that is clear to the students (Tompkins,Campbell & Green, 2012, p. 16-17).The change in what it means to be literate has influenced teachers to integrate reading, writing,speaking, listening and viewing into the classroom through literature, everyday and multimodal texts(Tompkins, Campbell & Green. 2012. pp. 1). For students to be successful literacy learners they need tobe able to adopt four roles simultaneously: code breaker, text participant, text user & text analyst.These four roles combined are also known as the ‘Four Resources Model” and commence with a child’sfirst dealing with text (Freebody & Luke. 1990, as cited in Tompkins, Campbell & Green. 2012. p. 3).Freebody & Luke demonstrate the role of code breaker as being concerned with recognising print, visualand auditory symbols on a page, computer screen and other media formats. Students also need to knowthe sound-symbol connection of text and use syntactic patterns of language. The role of text participantrequires students to utilise prior knowledge, including social, cultural and prior reading experience, inorder to understand and make meaning of text. To become a successful text user, students need to beaware of the text’s purpose and use. They also need to be mindful that everyone reads texts in differentways due to their prior knowledge. Finally, the text analyst can look at a text with a critical eye and workout why a text was written, what the author wants the reader to believe, how the author is trying toposition the reader and what the author is not telling the reader. Successful text analysts are aware thatauthors make choices about text structure, grammar, wording, ideas and concepts and that thesechoices reflect the world view of the author (Tompkins, Campbell & Green. 2012. pp. 4). The fourresources model gives teachers the tools to teach a balanced program and set clear objectives forliteracy instruction.Literacy can no longer be thought of as just print literacy. Students make sense of literacy not onlythrough the written word, but by engaging with visual, audio, digital and multimedia texts. Teachers cansupport students’ language and literacy learning by engaging students with these other modes as afundamental part of everyday classroom activities to help bridge the gap between home and theclassroom. By using these different modes, students begin to understand how to filter theoverwhelming amount of readily available information (Green, 2006, p. 6).As mentioned previously, Vygotsky determined that oral language provides the foundation for learningto read and write. Students not only use oral language for learning, but to communicate and shareexperiences with teachers and peers. Christie (2005) demonstrates that oral language is a basic resourceused to negotiate relationships and shape meanings, values and knowledge. Oral language is a
fundamental tool teachers use to work together with students to support language and literacy learningin the classroom.When it comes to the learning needs of students from diverse backgrounds, Tompkins, Campbell &Green (2012) illustrate that teachers who adopt a sociolinguistic approach to teaching acknowledge thelegitimacy of all students’ cultures and social customs. They use multicultural literature such as, Big RainComing and Onion Tears to develop students’ cross-cultural awareness. Using strategies such as thisassists in bridging the gap between home and school.In conclusion, there are many theories when it comes to learning literacy skills. These range fromteacher centred traditional views to more modern student centred approaches such as, constructivist,sociolinguistic and cognitive / information processing views. None of the above approaches are right orwrong they just need to be blended in order to produce a balanced approach to literacy so studentsfrom all walks of life can succeed in becoming literate. The task for teachers is to develop a literacyprogram that challenges and inspires their particular class and ensures that students gain skills andstrategies to become literate.
REFERENCE LIST:Beers, S. (2011). Teaching 21st Century Skills. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.au/books?id=KHHRBsjamusC&pg=PA3&dq=what+does+it+mean+to+b e+literate+in+21st+century&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5UV4T9DqFKeOmQXz1_XpDw&ved=0CDwQ6AEw AQ#v=onepage&q=what%20does%20it%20mean%20to%20be%20literate%20in%2021st%20cen tury&f=falseChristie, F. (2005). Language and Literacy. Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales Press.Cusworth, R. (1995). What is a functional model of language? Sydney, Australia: Pen 95 PETA.Green, D. (2006). Understanding language and language learning.Luke, A. (1993). Literacy Learning and Teaching: Language as Social Practice in the Primary School. South Melbourne, Australia: Macmillan Education Australia Pty Ltd.NSW Government Education & Communities. (2007). Learning and Teaching Entitlement. Retrieved from http://www.schools.nsw.edu.au/learning/k-6assessments/entitlement.phpTompkins, G., Campbell, R. & Green, D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st Century: A balanced Approach. Frenches Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia.