The marine biome is the biggest biome in the world! It covers about 70% of the earth.
It includes five main oceans: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern, as well as many smaller Gulfs and Bays.
There is about one cup of salt per gallon of water in the ocean.
The constant motion of the ocean results in currents and waves that may either be warm or cold depending on the weather and temperature of that area. Temperatures in the ocean range from just around freezing at the pole and in the deep waters, to tropical clear waters that are as warm as a bathtub. The average temperature of all oceans is about 39°F (4°C). Heat from the sun warms only the surface of the water. Deep down, oceans everywhere are cold and dark
LAYERS OF THE OCEAN
LAYERS OF THE OCEAN
The ocean is divided up into three vertical zones. The top layer is called the euphotic zone and it is the area of the ocean where light can penetrate. The next layer is the disphotic zone. This area is too deep for lots of light to reach. Instead, the light here looks like our twilight on land. The deepest part of the ocean is called the aphotic zone, or deep sea. The water here is awfully cold, completely dark, and low in nutritional content.
Bathypelagic, or Midnight Zone- between 1,000 and 4,000 meters (13,000 ft) in depth, the bathypelagic zone is a region of total darkness, with a very low level of dissolved oxygen and nutrients, low temperature and extremely high pressure. Adaptations of the inhabitants of the bathypelagic zone include a slow metabolism, bioluminescence, and hinged jaws and distensible stomachs that allow them to swallow prey that is several times larger than they are.
Abyssopelagic, or Lower Midnight Zone- the abyssopelagic zone, extending down from a depth of 4,000 meters, is similar to the bathypelagic, but more extreme in terms of pressure.
Hadropelagic Zone- taking its name from the Greek Hades, or underworld, the hadropelagic zone refers to the deep ocean trenches, some of which exceed 9,000 meters (30,000 ft) in depth, and have pressures of 16,000 psi. Average temperatures hover around freezing, with the exception of hydrothermal vents, where water heated by the magma of Earth's mantle boils out. Organisms of the hadropelagic zone are highly specialized and cannot survive if they are removed to shallower water with lower pressure
Epipelagic, or Sunlit Zone- this is the topmost layer of the pelagic zone, from the surface to a depth of about 200 meters (660 ft). It receives enough sunlight to support photosynthetic organisms such as seaweed and phytoplankton, and also has a high level of dissolved oxygen due to the action of the waves. The epipelagic zone is home to the majority of ocean life, including large predatory fish such as tuna and sharks, small forage fish such as herrings, sardines and anchovies, dolphins, whales and other marine mammals, sea turtles, and numerous other species.
Mesopelagic, or Twilight Zone- ranging from 200 to 1,000 meters (3,280 ft), the mesopelagic zone receives very little sunlight, and photosynthetic organisms cannot survive in this layer. The pressure increases and the temperature and dissolved oxygen levels continue to drop with increasing depth. The fish that live in the mesopelagic zone are predominantly small filter feeders such as lanternfish, and larger predator fish including sabertooth fish. The filter feeders make vertical migrations up to the epipelagic zone by night to feed on plankton, returning to the darkness by day to hide from predators.
A clam is a type of shellfish . Clams can be found in saltwater and freshwater . Clams eat plankton , and are eaten by small sharks and squid . Clams can be eaten by people. They may be found on menus in restaurants that serve seafood . Clams are a fairly common form of bivalve , therefore making it part of the phylum mollusca . There are many clams in the ocean , but some can also be found in some lakes, streams, and rivers.
Dolphins are mammals from the order of Cetacea , the Whales . They are animals that usually live in salt water, like the sea , but certain species can live in rivers .
The name "dolphin" is used for oceanic dolphins and river dolphins , but oceanic dolphins and river dolphins are not directly related.
Sharks are part of a group of fish called Chondrichthyes , with skeletons made of cartilage instead of bone . Cartilage is rubbery stuff that is softer than bone. Cartilaginous fish also include skates and rays. There are more than 350 different kinds of sharks, such as the Great White and Whale sharks . Fossils show that sharks have been around for 420 million years, since the early Silurian .
The Octopus is a cephalopod mollusc in the order Octopoda. Octopuses have two eyes and four pairs of arms equipped with suckers. An octopus has a hard beak, and its mouth is at the center point of the arms.
Most octopuses have no internal or external skeleton, allowing them to squeeze through tight places. Octopuses are intelligent predators with a taste for crabs .
Sea snakes , or "seasnakes", are poisonous elapid snakes that live in marine environments for most or all of their lives. Together with sea turtles they are among the best-known marine reptiles . They evolved from their ancestors who lived on land. Some sea snakes still have some of the behaviour and traits of their ancestors left (like Laticauda who can also move a little on land). Most sea snakes are well adapted to living in the water all the time. They are unable to even move on land.
B rown alga, Hedophyllum sessile, of the North Pacific, characterized by a compact mass of fronds resembling a cabbage
Sea anemones are a group of water-dwelling, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria ; they are named after the anemone , a terrestrial flower . Sea anemones are classified in the phylum Cnidaria , class Anthozoa, subclass Zoantharia. Anthozoa often have large polyps that allow for digestion of larger prey and also lack a medusa stage. As cnidarians , sea anemones are closely related to corals , jellyfish , tube-dwelling anemones , and Hydra .
Mangroves are various kinds of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics – mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The remaining mangrove forest areas of the world in 2000 was 53,190 square miles (137, 760 km²) spanning to 118 countries and territories
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic Component of the plankton community. Most phytoplankton are too small to be individually seen with the unaided eye . However, when present in high enough numbers, they may appear as a green discoloration of the water due to the presence of chlorophyll within their cells (although the actual color may vary with the species of phytoplankton present due to varying levels of chlorophyll or the presence of accessory pigments such as phycobiliproteins , xanthophylls , etc.).
Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic , multicellular , benthic marine algae . The term includes some members of the red , brown and green algae . Seaweeds can also be classified by use (as food, medicine, fertilizer, industrial, etc.).