Building the Perfect Beast                          The Igor Naming Guide   Everything youve always wanted to know about n...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide        ©2010 IgorContentsI. Overview | 2Creating Great Product and Compa...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                  ©2010 IgorI. OverviewThe best product &...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                ©2010 IgorWhile we hold fast to the belie...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                ©2010 IgorII. The Six Steps of the Igor P...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                              ©2010 IgorFor instance, the company that be...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                    ©2010 IgorAs an example of the "brand...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                               ©2010 Igor2. Invented Product & Corporatio...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                              ©2010 Igor       The downside:             ...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                              ©2010 Igor4. Evocative Product & Company Na...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                   ©2010 IgorSTEP 4: Trademark Prescreeni...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                               ©2010 IgorSTEP 6: Names and TaglinesOnce a...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                 ©2010 Igor"Were in the American Dream Bu...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                             ©2010 Igor   •   Destroys trees, crops, resp...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                   ©2010 IgorHaving the naming committee ...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                ©2010 IgorEnergy – How vital and full of ...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                             ©2010 Igor       1. We cant ...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                            ©2010 IgorBlank ChartHere is ...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                             ©2010 IgorC. Name Taxonomy ChartsWe develope...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                           ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of Accounti...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                                                     ©201...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                              ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of Airli...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                                 ©2010 Igor* Qantas is ac...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                               ©2010 Igor                ...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide        ©2010 Igor      Biogenex      Biomarin      BioMedicines      Bio...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                   ©2010 Igor      Lifecell      LigoChem...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                              ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of the C...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                    ©2010 Igor      Name Generator      NAME-IT      Name...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                               ©2010 Igor      The Brand ...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                                        ©2010 IgorTaxonom...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                                        ©2010 IgorTaxonom...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                        ©2010 Igor      Drug Information ...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                   ©2010 Igor      Institute for Advanced...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                           ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of Defense ...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                               ©2010 Igor        Analytics            Bla...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                               ©2010 Igor      Micro Syst...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                                       ©2010 IgorTaxonomy...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                                  ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of M...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                                  ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of M...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                   ©2010 Igor     Underground     Music A...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                           ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of Search E...
Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide                                             ©2010 Igor      WebCrawler  ...
How To Name Your Brand
How To Name Your Brand
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How To Name Your Brand

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Everything you've always wanted to know about naming companies, products and services. Compiled from the Igor website into one handy guide.

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How To Name Your Brand

  1. 1. Building the Perfect Beast The Igor Naming Guide Everything youve always wanted to know about naming companies, products and services. Compiled from the Igor website into one handy guide. Version: 6.4 Date: May 23, 2011This document will be updated regularly with new content. Please check the NamingGuide Download Page of the Igor website for the latest version:http://www.igorinternational.com/guideAll Material ©2011 IgorIgor177 Post Street,Suite 650San Francisco, CA 94108415.248.5800contact@igorinternational.comwww.igorinternational.com
  2. 2. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorContentsI. Overview | 2Creating Great Product and Company Names | 2II. The Six Steps of the Igor Process | 4Step 1: Competitive Analysis | 4Step 2: Positioning | 4Step 3: Name / Brand Development | 5Step 4: Trademark Prescreening | 10Step 5: Creative / Testing | 10Step 6: Name and Tagline | 11III. Naming Tools | 12sA. Naming Process Filters – Evocative Names | 12B. Name Evaluation | 14 Blank Name Evaluation Chart | 17C. Name Taxonomy Charts | 18IV. Studies in Naming | 48V. Studies in Branding | 56VI. Case Studies of Igor Naming/Branding Projects | 60VIII. Igor Client List | 120 1
  3. 3. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorI. OverviewThe best product & company names require the least advertising. They areadvertisements.Great names are a powerful force in the branding, marketing and advertising campaignsof the companies they work for. They differentiate you from competitors, make anemotional connection with your audience, and help to build a brand that ignites thepassions of your customers.At Igor, we believe that a powerful name is the result of a powerful positioning strategy.The key is to find a fresh way into the hearts and minds of your customers, redefine andown the conversation in your industry, and engage people on as many levels aspossible. The best product and company names represent the ultimate process ofboiling these ideas down into a word or two.Creating Great Product and Company NamesSuccessful product and company names may appear to have been created by magic,but it is possible to develop names that are dynamic, effective and fully leverage abrands potential if you have the right process in place. A process that is clear, insightful,logical and focused will lead to a name and tagline that are powerful components ofyour brand strategy, and pave the way for buy-in throughout your organization.Before you begin, it is essential to decide what you want your new product or companyname to do for you. To make that decision, you need to understand the possibilities. Aname can: • Achieve separation from your competitors • Demonstrate to the world that you are different • Reinforce a unique positioning platform • Create positive and lasting engagement with your audience • Be unforgettable • Propel itself through the world on its own, becoming a no-cost, self-sustaining PR vehicle • Provide a deep well of marketing and advertising images • Be the genesis of a brand that rises above the goods and services you provide • Completely dominate a categoryEvery naming project is unique and our process is customized for each of them. Wemake sure that all aspects of a work plan are designed to complement your namingproject, corporate culture, approval process and timeframe.As with any plan, its all about inspired execution. 2
  4. 4. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorWhile we hold fast to the belief that every one of the six steps outlined in our process,from an initial competitive analysis to final product or company names and taglines, isvital to all naming projects, we understand that your marketing people may well haveworked through some of them before contacting us. Consequently, our process isflexible enough to be tailored to the specific needs of your company.Whether we are developing product or company names, the six steps outlined beloware what gives us the ability to create powerful and lasting brands:1. Competitive Analysis – Our process begins with a thorough competitive analysis, inwhich we quantify the tone and strength of competitive company names or productnames. Creating such a document helps your naming team decide where they need togo with the positioning, branding and naming of your company or product.2. Positioning – The next step is to help you refine and define your brand positioning.The more specific and nuanced your positioning is, the more effective the name will be.All great product and company names work in concert with the positioning of thebusinesses they speak for.3. Name/Brand Development – Product or company name development begins byapplying the positioning strategy to figure out what you want your new name to do foryour marketing, branding and advertising efforts.4. Trademark – We prescreen names under development through our trademarkattorney to determine the likelihood that your company will be able to procure thenames. We do this in order to feel confident that the names your attorney submits forfinal trademark screening and application have been deemed by an attorney as likely topass muster for registration. If not, valuable time is lost.5. Creative/Testing – A standard part of our naming process is the production ofcreative support materials to flesh-out potential names, and market research testingwhen appropriate. These may include stories, ad treatments, or graphic layoutsfeaturing leading name candidates.6. Name and Tagline – Final names and taglines, along with a well-defined positioningstrategy, are the outcome of our process. 3
  5. 5. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorII. The Six Steps of the Igor ProcessTo ensure that the name you choose is as dynamic, effective and fully leveraged aspossible, you need to have the right process in place. A process that is clear, insightful,logical and focused will lead to a name and tagline that are powerful components ofyour brand strategy, and pave the way for buy-in throughout your organization.STEP 1: Competitive AnalysisA competitive analysis is an essential first step of any naming process. How are yourcompetitors positioning themselves? What types of names are common among them?Are their names projecting a similar attitude? Do their similarities offer you a hugeopportunity to stand out from the crowd? How does your business or product differ fromthe competition? How can a name help you define or redefine your brand? Can youchange and own the conversation in your industry? Should you?Quantifying the tone and strength of competitive company names or product names isan empowering foundation for any naming project. Creating such a document helpsyour naming team decide where they need to go with the positioning, branding andnaming of your company or product. It also keeps the naming process focused oncreating a name that is a powerful marketing asset, one that works overtime for yourbrand and against your competitors.We display the results of a given sector of names in the form of taxonomy charts (seebelow).STEP 2: PositioningOur next step is to help you refine and define your brand positioning. The more specificand nuanced your positioning is, the more effective the name will be. All great nameswork in concert with the positioning of the business or product they speak for. The bestpositioning finds a way to reinvigorate or change the conversation that an industry hasbeen having with its consumers.Our positioning process is predicated on understanding everything about your brand,where its been and where its headed. The resulting naming process is based on aforward-looking positioning strategy that takes into account your brand, yourcompetition, and your entire sector.While its important to understand what competitors are doing in order to act in adistinctive and powerful way, its also useful to learn from their mistakes and successes. 4
  6. 6. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorFor instance, the company that became Apple needed to distance itself from the cold,unapproachable, complicated imagery created by the other computer companies at thetime that had names like IBM, NEC, DEC, ADPAC, Cincom, Dylakor, Input, IntegralSystems, Sperry Rand, SAP, PSDI, Syncsort, and Tesseract.The new company needed to reverse the entrenched view of computers in order to getpeople to use them at home. They were looking for a name that was unlike the namesof traditional computer companies, a name that also supported a brand positioningstrategy that was to be perceived as simple, warm, human, approachable and different.Of course, once they had a clear positioning platform in place, there were still hundredsof potential names for the new company to consider. The process for finding that oneperfect name is detailed in the next section.STEP 3: Name / Brand DevelopmentThe first step in name development is deciding what you want your new name to do foryour marketing, branding and advertising efforts. Making this decision allows you tonarrow your name search to a certain category of name.The relative strengths and weakness of the four major categories of names arediscussed in this section:1. Functional / Descriptive Product & Company NamesWhen descriptive names work: When a company names products and their brandstrategy is to direct the bulk of brand equity to the company name. Examples ofcompanies that follow this name strategy are BMW, Martha Stewart and Subway.When descriptive names dont work: When they are company names. Companynames that are descriptive are asked to perform only one task: explaining to the worldthe business that you are in. This is an unnecessary and counterproductive choice.The downside here is many-fold. This naming strategy creates a situation thatneedlessly taxes a marketing and advertising budget because descriptive companynames are drawn from a small pool of relevant keywords, causing them to blendtogether and fade into the background, indistinguishable from the bulk of theircompetitors - the antithesis of marketing. 5
  7. 7. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorAs an example of the "brand fade out" caused by choosing descriptive company names,consider the names of the following branding and naming companies: Brand/Branding Companies Name/Naming Companies Brand-DNA (.com) ABC Name Bank Brand-DNA (.net) Brighter Naming Brand A Moore Names Brand 2.0 Name Development Brand Design Name Evolution Brand Doctors Name Generator Brand Evolve Name-It Brand Evolution Name Lab Brand Forward Name One Brand Juice Name Pharm Brand Ladder Name Quest Brand Link Name Razor Brand Maverick Name Sale Brand Mechanics Name Sharks Brand Meta Name-Shop Brand People Name Stormers Brand Positioning Name Tag Brand Salt Name Trade Brand Scope Name Works Brand Sequence Name Works Brand Slinger Namebase Brand Solutions Naming Brand Vista Naming Systems Independent Branding Naming Workshop Not Just Any Branding Namington The Better Branding Company Strategic Name Development The Brand Company The Naming Company The Brand Consultancy Wise NameThese kinds of company names are easily avoided if a thorough competitive analysisis performed and if the people doing the naming understand the following basic concept: The notion of describing a business in the name assumes that company names will exist at some point without contextual support, which is impossible. Company names will appear on websites, store fronts, in news articles or press releases, on business cards, in advertisements, or, at their most naked, in conversations.There are simply no imaginable circumstances in which company names can existwithout contextual, explanatory support, which means they are free to perform moreproductive tasks. 6
  8. 8. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor2. Invented Product & Corporation NamesThere are basically two types of invented names for products or corporations: 1) Names built upon Greek and Latin roots. Examples: Acquient, Agilent, Alliant, Aquent. The upside: • These names breeze through the trademark process because they are unique, eliminating the potential for trademark conflict. • For companies looking for a hassle-free way to secure a domain name without a modifier, this is a fairly painless route to go. • They are free of negative connotations. • Because these names are built upon Greek and Latin morphemes, they are felt to be serious sounding. • For the above reasons, these are the easiest names to push through the approval process at gigantic global corporations. The downside: • Because these types of names are built on Greek and Latin morphemes, you need the advertising budget of a gigantic global corporation to imbue them with meaning and get people to remember them. • While they dont carry any direct negative messages, such names do cast a cold, sanitized persona. • These are names with no potential marketing energy -- they are image- free and emotionally void. 2) Poetically constructed names that are based on rhythm and the experience of saying them. Examples: Snapple, Oreo, Google, Kleenex. The upside: • They breeze through the trademark process. • Easy domain name acquisition. • By design, the target audience likes saying these names, which helps propel and saturate them throughout the target audience. • Highly memorable. • Emotionally engaging. • They are rich with potential marketing energy. 7
  9. 9. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor The downside: • Tougher for a marketing department to get corporate approval for. When making a case for a name based on things like "fun to say, memorable, viral, and emotionally engaging," you need to present a solid, quantifiable case. Igor can show you how.3. Experiential Product & Corporate NamesExperiential names offer a direct connection to something real, to a part of direct humanexperience. They rise above descriptive names because their message is more aboutthe experience than the task.For instance, in the web portal space, descriptive product names include Infoseek,GoTo, FindWhat, AllTheWeb, etc. Experiential names of web portals include suchproduct names as Explorer, Magellan, Navigator, and Safari.The upside: • These names make sense to the consumer. • They map to the consumers experience with the company or product. • Because they require little explanation, experiential names are easily approved in a corporate process. • They work best for products within a brand strategy designed to accumulate brand equity for both the company and the product. • Experiential company and product names are most effective for the early entrants in a business sector, becoming less effective for later adopters.The downside: • Because they are so intuitive, experiential names are embraced across many industries with high frequency, making them harder to trademark. • These are names that tend to be historically common in the branding world. • Their over-usage makes them less effective in the long run. For instance, while Explorer, Navigator and Safari are web portal names, they are also the names of SUVs. • The similarity in tone of these names across an industry is indicative of similarities in positioning. As web portal names, Explorer, Navigator, Safari and Magellan are all saying exactly the same things in exactly the same ways to exactly the same people. Consequently, they arent pulling any weight when it comes to differentiating a brand. 8
  10. 10. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor4. Evocative Product & Company NamesOne important way that evocative names differ from others is that they evoke thepositioning of a company or product, rather than describing a function or a directexperience.Continuing with more examples of web portal company names: InfoSeek, LookSmart = functional Explorer, Navigator = experiential Yahoo = positioning (Evocative) Another example, from the airline sector: Trans World Airlines = functional United = experiential Virgin = positioning (Evocative) and finally, from the computer industry: Digital Equipment = functional Gateway = experiential Apple = positioning (Evocative)The upside: • A rare type of name, making it a powerful differentiator. • Nonlinear and multidimensional, making it deeply engaging. • Helps create a brand image that is bigger than the goods and services a company offers. • Trademark process is better than average. • When created in sync with positioning, it is a branding force that can dominate an industry.The downside: • When created out of sync with brand positioning, its an ugly mess. • Because evocative product and company names are created to compliment positioning rather than goods and services, they are the toughest type of names to get corporate approval for, being a bit of an abstraction for those outside the marketing department.For advice on how to create and secure buy-in for evocative product and companynames, see the Naming Process Filters- Evocative Names, in the Naming Tools sectionbelow. 9
  11. 11. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorSTEP 4: Trademark Prescreening of NamesDuring a naming project, we prescreen all names we present to clients against theUSPTO trademark database, to make sure no time is wasted considering names for aproject that do not have a good chance of being available for registration.We also engage the services of several fine trademark attorneys, who can screennames with greater precision and offer their professional feedback as well.We do this in order to feel confident that the names your attorney submits for finaltrademark screening and application have been deemed by an attorney as likely to passmuster for registration. If not, valuable time is lost.Other options include international trademark screening performed by one of ourtrademark attorneys, a global linguistic check of leading names in fifteen languages,and detailed NameProtect trademark and common law searches.STEP 5: Creative / TestingThese are tasks that are constantly performed throughout our process. However, nearthe end of every project it comes time decide which of the leading name candidates willbest serve our clients.At this point, the job is to exhaustively and specifically flesh out the relative strengths ofeach name. We present names with a range of taglines and contextual positioningsupport in the form of print ads or commercial treatments. This presentation is key tohelping everyone involved understand how a given product or company name couldwork in your marketing and advertising campaigns. It lifts the naming process out of therealm of theory and breathes life into the names, a vital step in the decision-makingprocess.These same materials are designed to work seamlessly for any focus group testing ormarket research that you feel is necessary. We can advise you and/or run the testingphase for you if you wish. And we have extensive experience presenting positioning,brand strategies, names and taglines to boards of directors.Here is a sampling of some of the many contextual support images created during thecourse of Igors Tickle project (images blurred to respect photo rights): 10
  12. 12. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorSTEP 6: Names and TaglinesOnce a name is chosen, we more fully develop a range of taglines, images andlanguage that help you pinpoint the most effective, perfectly nuanced personality withwhich to present your name.A key point at this stage is exploring how different taglines and collateral can shift andenhance the efficacy of your name and brand. For example, here are a few ad lines andtaglines that the name Igor brings to the table: Igor. Get over the hump. Igor. A few spare parts and a good storm. (The ingredients of all innovation.) Igor. Throw the switch. Igor. Bringing your vision to life. Igor. A Moveable Beast. Igor. Own your shadow. Igor. Talk of the town. Igor. No job too horrifying. Igor. The other white meat. Igor. Never say die. Igor. A good brain is hard to find. Igor. Alive. Igor. Better living through science. Igor. Building the perfect beast.And on and on and on. When deciding between names for your own project, go aheadand make a list of taglines for each potential name. It will make the decision-makingprocess crystal clear, because if you cant get inspired by a particular name, yourcustomers arent likely to.One of the most important things that the best brands accomplish is being thought of asgreater than the goods and services offered. Nikes "Just Do It" helps them rise aboveselling sneakers. Apples "Think Different" is bigger than computers. Fannie Maes 11
  13. 13. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor"Were in the American Dream Business" elevates them from mere mortgage brokers.Like names, taglines come in four flavors. Sometimes it makes sense for an evocativename to be launched with a functional tagline, migrating to an evocative tagline overtime. The specifics of your business, where it is going, and the state of your industry willdefine which of the many different combinations of types of name and types of taglinewill be most effective.III. NAMING TOOLS A. Naming Process Filters – Evocative Names B. Name Evaluation Blank Name Evaluation Chart C. Naming Taxonomy ChartsA. Naming Process Filters – Evocative NamesOne of the keys to successful company and product naming is understanding exactlyhow your audience will interact with a new name. Creating a filter that evaluates namesin the same way that your target market will is essential to both creating the best namepossible and to getting that name approved and implemented by your company. Sincean evocative name is one of the toughest to develop and obtain buy-in for, wevedetailed one of the necessary filters here.The biggest challenge that evocative names (see page 7 above) face in surviving anaming exercise is the fact that they portray the positioning of a company or productrather than the goods and services or the experience of those goods and services.Unless everyone understands the positioning and the correlation between it and anevocative name, this is the type of feedback that evocative names will generate:Virgin Airlines • Says "were new at this" • Public wants airlines to be experienced, safe and professional • Investors won’t take us seriously • Religious people will be offendedCaterpillar • Tiny, creepy-crawly bug • Not macho enough – easy to squash • Why not "bull" or "workhorse"? 12
  14. 14. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor • Destroys trees, crops, responsible for famineBanana Republic • Derogatory cultural slur • Youll be picketed by people from small, hot countriesYahoo! • Yahoo!! Its Mountain Dew! • Yoohoo! It’s a chocolate drink in a can! • Nobody will take stock quotes and world news seriously from a bunch of "Yahoos"Oracle • Unscientific • Unreliable • Only foretold death and destruction • Only fools put their faith in an Oracle • Sounds like "orifice" – people will make fun of usThe Gap • Means something is missing • The Generation Gap is a bad thing – we want to sell clothes to all generations • In need of repair • Incomplete • NegativeStingray • A slow, ugly, and dangerous fish – slow, ugly and dangerous are the last qualities we want to associate with our fast, powerful, sexy sports car • The "bottom feeding fish" part isnt helping eitherFannie Mae / Freddie Mac • I dont want hillbilly residents of Dogpatch handling my finances. • They dont sound serious, and this is about a very serious matter.Clearly, the public doesnt think about names in this fashion, but internal namingcommittees almost always do. Getting a committee to acknowledge this difference andto interact as the public does is step one. 13
  15. 15. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorHaving the naming committee evaluate evocative names based on their positioning isthe next step:Virgin A Positioning: different, confident, exciting, alive, human, provocative, fun. The innovative name forces people to create a separate box in their head to put it in. B Qualities: Self-propelling, Connects Emotionally, Personality, Deep Well.Oracle • Positioning: different, confident, superhuman, evocative, powerful, forward thinking. • Qualities: Self-propelling, Connects Emotionally, Personality, Deep Well.B. Name EvaluationWhen considering potential names for your company, product or service, it is vital thatthe process be kept as objective as possible, and that subjective personal responses tonames, such as "I like it" or I dont like it" or "I dont like it because it reminds me of anold girlfriend/boyfriend" are exactly that – subjective and personal, and have no bearingon whether or not a potential name will actually work in the marketplace as a powerfulbrand that supports all your positioning goals.All well and good, but clients often ask us to be more specific, to explain objectively justwhat makes a name work. With that in mind, we created a straightforward way todissect potential names into the following nine categories to make it easier tounderstand why name work or dont work, and to more easily weigh the pros and consof one name versus another:Appearance – Simply how the name looks as a visual signifier, in a logo, an ad, on abillboard, etc. The name will always be seen in context, but it will be seen, so looks areimportant.Distinctive – How differentiated is a given name from its competition. Being distinctiveis only one element that goes into making a name memorable, but it is a requiredelement, since if a name is not distinct from a sea of similar names it will not bememorable. It’s important, when judging distinctiveness, to always consider the name inthe context of the product it will serve, and among the competition it will spar with for theconsumer’s attention.Depth – Layer upon layer of meaning and association. Names with great depth neverreveal all they have to offer all at once, but keep surprising you with new ideas. 14
  16. 16. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorEnergy – How vital and full of life is the name? Does it have buzz? Can it carry an adcampaign on its shoulders? Is it a force to be reckoned with? These are all aspects of aname’s energy level.Humanity – A measure of a name’s warmth, its "humanness," as opposed to namesthat are cold, clinical, unemotional. Another – though not foolproof – way to think aboutthis category is to imagine each of the names as a nickname for one of your children.Positioning – How relevant the name is to the positioning of the product or companybeing named, the service offered, or to the industry served. Further, how many relevantmessages does the name map to?Sound – Again, while always existing in a context of some sort or another, the nameWILL be heard, in radio or television commercials, being presented at a trade show, orsimply being discussed in a cocktail party conversation. Sound is twofold – not only howa name sounds, but how easily it is spoken by those who matter most: the potentialcustomer. Word of mouth is a big part of the marketing of a company, product or servicewith a great name, but if people aren’t comfortable saying the name, the word won’t getout."33" – The force of brand magic, and the word-of-mouth buzz that a name is likely togenerate. Refers to the mysterious "33" printed on the back of Rolling Rock beer bottlesfrom decades that everybody talks about because nobody is really sure what it means."33" is that certain something that makes people lean forward and want to learn moreabout a brand, and to want to share the brand with others. The "33" angle is different foreach name.Trademark – As in the ugly, meat hook reality of trademark availability. Scoring is easyhere, as there are only three options, and nothing is subjective: 10 = likely available fortrademark; 5 = may be available for trademark; and 0 = not likely available fortrademark. All of the names on this list have been prescreened by a trademarkedattorney and have been deemed "likely" for trademark registration.These are the categories we scrupulously consider every name we present to clients,and weve done it so much that it has become second nature to us. But for those juststepping into these confusing brand waters, it often helps to rate names in each of thesecategories and compare the rankings. In the table below, we have attempted to quantifyour impressions of several brand names in the music / media downloading sector byassigning up to 10 points in each of the nine categories; the more points, the better (90maximum total points): 15
  17. 17. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor 1. We cant know the actual positioning of established brands, so were treating these names as if they hadnt been used yet and are under consideration for a product which has the primary positioning goals of being a very unique, energetic name that has the potential to become a powerful brand that is lodged in the heads of millions of consumers. 2. Since these are all established brands that all own their respective trademarks, they each get an automatic score of "10". For names under consideration during an actual naming project, for simplicity you may choose one of three options: "10" = likely available for trademark; "5" = may be available for trademark; and "0" = not likely available for trademark (at which point the name should be removed from consideration).The point of this exercise is to break the names down into relevant components tobetter understand what makes some names better than others and why, and it shouldgive you an understanding of how we arrive at the rankings you see in our nametaxonomies, such as the one for music and media downloading services. Rarely will aname score the highest across every category, but the best names score consistentlywell. Ultimately, its about defining "like" and "dont like" not in personal, subjectiveterms, but in terms of how names support the brand positioning.Now you should have a clear idea about why certain names work better than others. Butthis exercise is also about feeling confident that you chose the best name for yourcompany or product by understanding why certain names work best when all factors ofname, positioning, and competitive context are taken into consideration.next page: a blank name evaluation chart... 16
  18. 18. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorBlank ChartHere is a blank chart you can use as an exercise to evaluate names you are consider-ing for your own project and see how well they support the positioning of your brand. Besure to add some of your most successful competitors to this list, so you can accuratelygauge how well your names can compete in the marketplace. Assign up to 10 points ineach of the nine categories; the more points, the better (90 maximum total points): 1. How well a given name supports your core positioning for the brand you are developing. 2. For names under consideration during a naming project, for simplicity you may choose one of three options: "10" = likely available for trademark; "5" = may be available for trademark; and "0" = not likely available for trademark (at which point the name should be removed from consideration). 17
  19. 19. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorC. Name Taxonomy ChartsWe developed the name taxonomy format to bring an elegant simplicity to a complexset of intertwined naming elements. The taxonomy chart keeps the process focused onthe competitive aspect, forces you to quantify both the negative and positive attributesof each name under consideration, sets a high standard for you to meet, and giveseveryone involved a clean and easy framework in which to disparage, insult, and belittleeach other.On the pages below are name taxonomy charts for the following sectors:• Accounting / Business Services Names Airline Names• Airline Names• Biotech / Pharmaceutical Names• Computer Port Technology Names• Juice Names• Margarine Names• Music and Media Download Services Names• Search Engine, Browser and Web Portal Names• Social Network Names• Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) Names• Sweet Snack Food Names• Toothpaste Names• and a Blank Taxonomy for your own usenext page: Accounting / Business Services Names Airline Names... 18
  20. 20. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of Accounting and Business Services NamesAs usual, and as you might expect, most of the accounting firms, tax accountants, CPAs, accountingsoftware products, payroll and business services companies on this list have lower-level functionalnames. FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE5 54 Quicken 43 Quickbooks Peachtree 3 Fidelity2 Paychex 2 Intuit Invisible Accountant1 By the Book 1 Real Tax ADP (Automatic Data Processing) Advantage Payroll AmeriPay Services0 H&R Block Intaact 0 Intax Interacct KPMG SurePayroll Mellon TedTax Arthur Anderson BDO Seidman Bhatia & Co. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Ernst & Young GMN International Co-Advantage Grant Thornton Resources Accounta Harrod CPA Exult Advanco-1 Group PayMaxx -1 Ceridian Hewitt Associates Precise Accounting Perquest LOR Management Smart Pros Services Accounting Mazars Group Moss Adams Pricewaterhouse Coopers Simmons & Assoc. 19
  21. 21. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor Tax-Ease Wertz & Co. Wright, Ford, Young & Co. Accounting Group Cyber Financial Solutions On Line Accountant-2 -2 Payroll 1 Payroll Online Small Business Solutions US Tax Help FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVELevels of Engagement: These eight levels (y-axis levels from minus 2 to plus 5) represent the amount of material (meaning,stories, associations, imagery, multiple layers) in a name the audience has to play with and personalize – and how "engaged" theyare by a name. Names in the minus 2 level are the least engaging, and likely to be quickly forgotten; the higher the number thebetter, with level 5 being the best.Functional Names: The lowest common denominator of names, usually either named after a person, purely descriptive of what thecompany or product does, or a pre- or suffixed reference to functionality. (Infoseek, LookSmart)Invented Names: "Invented" as in a made-up name (Acquient, Agilent, Alliant, Google) or a non-English name that is not widelyknown.Experiential Names: A direct connection to something real, a part of direct human experience. Usually literal in nature, butpresented with a touch of imagination. (Netscape, Palm Pilot)Evocative Names: These names are designed to evoke the positioning of a company or product rather than the goods andservices or the experience of those goods and services. Removed from direct experience, but relevant – evoking memories, stories,and many levels of association. (Virgin, Apple, Cracker Jack) 20
  22. 22. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of Airline NamesBefore Virgin came along, all the airlines had the same kind of name: either Functional names that weredescriptive of the region they fly over (Northwest, Southwest, American, etc.), or Experiential names thattried to speak to a higher aspiration (United, Vanguard). Along came Virgin into an industry without anystrong, evocative brands, setting the bar higher than probably any other name in any industry. Now newairline names have begun to enter the fray in the space created between Virgin and the rest of the pack. FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE5 Virgin 5 Ted4 JetBlue 4 Jazz Hooters3 Aloha 3 Olympic Go Song2 Qantas* 2 Zip Frontier1 Alitalia Vanguard Tower Air 1 Midway Trans World Pan American Delta Continental0 United 0 American Alaska AeroMexico Air France British Airways Northwest Southwest U.S. Airways-1 -1 Eastern America West World Airways Express Jet ValueJet-2 -2 AirJet EasyJet FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE 21
  23. 23. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor* Qantas is actually an acronym for "Queensland And Northern Territory Air Service." However, wereclassifying the name as Invented rather than Functional because most people do not know what Qantasstands for, it is not written all in upper case as most acronyms are, it is longer than most acronyms, andindeed, it has been successfully branded as an entity in itself, not for what it may stand for, which in factis never even mentioned.Taxonomy of Biotech and Pharmaceutical NamesThe Biotech / Pharmaceutical industries are ripe for a great, high-level evocative name to surge to thehead of the pack. As you can see by the taxonomy below, most companies in this space are clusteredtogether with either functional (Amgen, Biogen, Curagen) or Experiential (Incyte, Xcyte, Paradigm,Aradigm) names that offer very little in the way of audience engagement.The names that rise to the top of this chart do so because they are different, but most importantlybecause they are different for a good reason. These companies are using their names to distancethemselves from the negative baggage that exists in their industry in the same way that Merck and ADMare spending hundreds of millions of dollars to assure the public that they are not cold and uncaring, thatthey and other big pharma companies are working with nature rather than against it.In our view, the standout so far in this sector is Radius, an Experiential name created by Igor to replacethe companys original and all-too-forgettable name, Nuvios.For more, see our article Better Naming Through Chemistry. FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE5 54 Radius 43 3 Blue Heron Cypress Guava2 Life Technologies 2 Nektar Orchid Torrent Cubist Discovery Labs. Argonaut Evolutionary Copernicus Genomics Isis The Great American1 Daji Biosciences Icon Lynx 1 Gene Company Lexicon Onyx Pilot Titan Quantum Trinity Biotechnologies 22
  24. 24. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor Affinity BioReagents Bayer Arena Berlex Caliper Bristol-Myers Chiron Cor Squibb Keystone0 Idexx LifeSpan 0 GlaxoSmithKline Laboratories Irazu BioSciences Lilly Memory Merck Pain Pfizer Panacea 3-D Pharma. Abgenix Albany Molecular Adolor Research Affymetrix Aradigm AGY Array Alios Avant Arcaris Boston Life Arqule Sciences AstraZeneca British Biotech Aventis Collateral CHIMERx Connectics Corixa Diversa Cygnus Elitra Applied Molecular Cytrx Ergo Science Evolution Dyax Essential Bio Science Elitra Hawaii Biotech. Contract Production Exiqon Illumina Human Genome Embrex Incyte Sciences Enzon-1 Inspire -1 Large Scale Biology Hyseq Integrated Molecular Devices Icos Biomolecule Pharmacia Idun Integrated DNA Protein Design Labs Nabi Technologies Protein Pathways Nobex Kinetix Protein Sciences Novex La Jolla Pharma. Novartis Matrix Oxis Millenium PanVera Myriad Genetics Promega New Century Telik Northwest Bio. Tanox Paradigm Genetics Tripos Prototek Tularik Texas Valentis Biotechnology Vistra Triangle Vysis Visible Genetics Xoma Xcyte Alpha Diagnostic Alpha DNA Amgen-2 Avigen -2 Bio Tech. General Biocryst Biogen 23
  25. 25. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor Biogenex Biomarin BioMedicines Biomira BioNumerik Biopure Bioreliance BioStratum Bio-Synthesis Biotime Biotransplant Biotrin Celera Genomics Celgene Cell Genesys Cell Pathways Cell Therapeutics Cellegy Cholestech Ciphergen Clontech Collagenex Curagen Cyanotech Cytogen Deltagen Depomed Digene Ecogen Entremed Envirogen Exegenics Galagen Genaera Gene Logic Gene Tools Genecor Genelabs Genentech Genetics Institute GeneTrol Genetronics Genome Genomic Solutions Genosys Genox Genset Genteric GenVec Genzyme Geron Igen Imclone Systems Immtech Immucell Immucor Immunex Immunogen Immunomedics Imune Response Insmed Intracel Introgen Invitrogen 24
  26. 26. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor Lifecell LigoChem Maxygen Medarex Medimmune Meiogen Metabasis Metabolex MetaMorphix Microbia Millipore MitoKor Myogen Nanogen Neopharm NeuralStem Neurocrine Neurogen Neuron Nexell Nitromed Novagen Orapharma Origen Otogene Oxigene Pepceuticals LTD Pharmacopeia Pharmacyclics Pharmadyne Pharmasset Pharmos ProdiGene Progenics Repligen Research Genetics Supergen Synthegen Transgene Transgenomic Transkaryotic TransMolecular TransTech UroGenesys Vaxgen Virologic Viropharma VistaGen Zonagen FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE 25
  27. 27. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of the Company Names of Naming CompaniesBehold the companies in our very own industry, naming company names in the company of the names ofother naming company names.Are we biased in our opinion? Absolutely. We believe strongly that the name a naming company namesitself is a clue to the kinds of company names they believe in. And if a naming company cannot manageto give itself a distinctive, memorable name that sets itself apart from the slew of competitors you seebelow, a company name that can evolve into a strong brand within the industry and come to representmore than just the goods and services being offered, how can they possibly convince others that whatthey fail to do in their own company name they can somehow magically do for their clients?So a call to arms is in order: Namers, name thyself well! Because youve got company. FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE5 A Hundred Monkeys Igor 54 4 Catchword3 3 Idiom2 Tipping Sprung* Lexicon WildOutWest (WOW) 2 Metaphor Applebaum Addison Ashton Brand Group Hayden Group Landor Lippincott Mercer Good Characters1 Master McNeil Word for Word Tungsten 1 Rivkin & Associates Russell Mark Group Siegel & Gale Wolff Olins0 Cintara Capsule 0 ABC Name Bank Namix Bizword Brighter Naming Nomen Comspring Moore Names Brains On Fire-1 Name Designer Nomenon Logoistic One Big Roach -1 Nomina Macroworks Name Development Nomino Mnemonic Name Evolution 26
  28. 28. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor Name Generator NAME-IT NameLab Name One Name Pharm NameQuest Name Razor NameSale Name Sharks Name-Shop NameStormers Name Tag NameTrade Namebase NameWorks Naming Systems Naming Workshop Namington Namix Strategic Name Development The Naming Company Wise Name Brand-DNA Brand A Brand 2.0 Brand Channel Brand Design Brand Doctors Brand Evolve Brand Evolution Brand Fidelity Brand Forward Brand Institute Brand Juice Brand Ladder Brand Link Brand Maverick Brand Mechanics Brand Meta-2 Brand People Blue Taco -2 Brand Positioning Brand Salt Brandscape Brand Scope Brand Sequence Brand Slinger Brand Solutions Brand Spark Brand Vista CoreBrand Future Brand Independent Branding Interbrand Not Just Any Branding The Better Branding Company 27
  29. 29. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor The Brand Company The Brand Consultancy Trading Brands FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE*Tipping Sprung: Yes it does sound like a random invented paring in the Bearing Point mode, but itsactually the names of the two founders, so it goes into the Functinal category, where it rates higher thanthe rest for being a little more unique and memorable.Levels of Engagement: These eight levels (y-axis levels from minus 2 to plus 5) represent the amount ofmaterial (meaning, stories, associations, imagery, multiple layers) in a name the audience has to playwith and personalize – and how "engaged" they are by a name. Names in the minus 2 level are the leastengaging, and likely to be quickly forgotten; the higher the number the better, with level 5 being the best.Functional Names: The lowest common denominator of names, usually either named after a person,purely descriptive of what the company or product does, or a pre- or suffixed reference to functionality.(Infoseek, LookSmart)Invented Names: "Invented" as in a made-up name (Acquient, Agilent, Alliant, Google) or a non-Englishname that is not widely known.Experiential Names: A direct connection to something real, a part of direct human experience. Usuallyliteral in nature, but presented with a touch of imagination. (Netscape, Palm Pilot)Evocative Names: These names are designed to evoke the positioning of a company or product ratherthan the goods and services or the experience of those goods and services. Removed from directexperience, but relevant – evoking memories, stories, and many levels of association. (Virgin, Apple,Cracker Jack) 28
  30. 30. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of Computer Port Technology Consumer Product NamesComparing the names of computer networking technologies, peripheral device ports and the devices that love them. FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE Airport5 5 FireWire4 Wi-Fi 43 Bluetooth * 3 Full Metal Card2 Clik! 2 Magic Gate Bullet Drive Aerocard ClipperCom1 JumpDrive 1 iLink Credit Card Star Card CompactFlash Linx Memory Stick Cruzer0 Micro Vault Pyro 0 ExpressCard Microdrive Turbo Flash USB Aopen Busport Easidock Easyshare Linear Hi-Phone-1 Navman -1 Megahertz RealPort PCI PCXpocket SmartSwitch SwapSmart 802.11a 802.11b 802.11g Cyber-2 Netelligent -2 CARDport CyberExpress IEEE 1394 PCMCIA FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE* Bluetooth: Harald I Bluetooth (Danish Harald Blåtand) was the King of Denmark between 940 and 985 AD.However, since most non-Danes probably arent familiar with this bit of history, we are treating the name as Invented.The history behind the name does provide a story to tell, giving the name greater depth, and thus a higher ranking,than it would if it were just a random pairing such as Blue Martini. 29
  31. 31. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of Continuing Medical Education (CME) Company NamesMost Continuing Medical Education (CME) companies have chosen very descriptive Functional names,which tend to cluster around a few key words: center, continuing, health, medical, medi, education,communications, or institute. Even attempts at Experiential names have lead to clusters around such "ad"words as ad/advance/advanced/advantage.We created the Antidote to all this brand boredom with a truly engaging, evocative name. FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE5 Antidote 54 43 3 Blue Sky Broadcast The Cypress Foundation Discovery International2 Slack Incorporated Heartbeat 2 Impact Communications Pegasus Healthcare International1 Best Doctors Future Media Services 1 Baystate Health Systems Beam Institute Ciné-Med Contemporary Forums Estes Park Institute Creative Educational The Chatham Institute Concepts Foundation Corinth Group Holiday Seminars0 Communications Life House Productions Banner Health System 0 Dannemiller Memorial Phase V Communications Education Foundation Prime Medica Kaplan Medical CME Projects in Knowledge Kendle International Moceri Management Pri-Med AKH Consultant ArcMesa Educators Alpha & Omega Allergy Continuing AXDEV Global Worldwide Education Bimark Center for Current Communications Anesoft Corporation Medical Education Current Therapeutics Behavorial Technology Cogenix Innovations in Medical Transfer Group Excerpta Medica Education and Training CECity.com Imedex Innovative Surgical-1 Cleveland Clinic ImproMED Concepts -1 Foundation Center for Innovia Education Omega Productions Continuing Education Institute Complete Conference InnoVision Management Communications Distance Learning intellyst Medical Network Communications 30
  32. 32. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor Drug Information Intermedica Association Meniscus Limited The Endocrine Society METIS BioComm Endoscopic Plastic Pharmedica Holdings Surgery Educational Pragmaton Office of Seminar Medical Education FCG Institute for Sicola Communications Continuing Education Symbiotix Frank Moya Continuing TriGenesis Education Programs Communications The Governance Institute Hatherleigh Company Limited HealthOne CME HealthStream HMP Communications IMPC Travel Informedical Communications International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Joslin Diabetes Center Laboratory Corporation of America Lahey Clinic MedCases MPE Communications PDI Education and Communications PESI Healthcare Thomson Physicians World UBH International Continuing Education Inc. AdMed Continuing Medical AdvanceMed Education Committee Advanced Concepts of Acadiana Advanced Health Media Continuing Medical AdvancMed Education Consortium Advantage Healthcare Continuing Medical Inter@ctive Information Education, Inc. Solutions Cruise Meetings & Continuing Education Database Publishing Group Educational Symposia Inc Foundation for Better Health Care Foundation for Medical-2 Excellence -2 Health Forum Health Science Center for Continuing Medical Education Health Science Communications Healthcare Information Technologies Healthcare Management University HealthPartners Healthways Communications Health Partners Institute for Medical Education Home Study Educators 31
  33. 33. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor Institute for Advanced Health Education Institute for Advanced Medical Education Institute for Continuing Healthcare Education Institute for Healthcare Improvement Institute for Nuclear Medical Education Interactive Medical Networks - Primedia International Center for Postgraduate Medical Education International Institute for Continuing Medical Education International Medical Experience Exchange International Meetings & Science Joint Commission Resources Marketing Resources & Solutions MedCases Medcom Medical DecisionPoint Medical Education Broadcast Network Medical Education Collaborative Medical Education Group Medical Education Resources Medical Education Systems Medical Education Council of Pensacola Medical Educator Consortium Medical Management Institute Medical Media Communications Medical World Conferences MediCom Worldwide MediTech Media MedPlan Comm. Medpoint Communications MEDReach Medscape Professional Information Mgmt. Scientific Therapeutics Information Strategic Institute for Continuing Health Care Education University Childrens Medical Group FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE 32
  34. 34. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of Defense Industry Company NamesAs you can see, most of the companies in the defense industry are on defense when it comes to theirown company names, playing it very conservative with the naming. An exception in our view beingPrimordial, the defense industry company name created by Igor. FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE5 Primordial 54 4 Applied Perception Sunlight iRobot Earth Controls3 Fakespace Labs 3 Powerfield Aspen Systems Black Forest Engineering Chi Systems Aimpoint Eclipse Energy Alliant Techsystems Golden Season Azimuth Armor Holdings Hurricane Comm. QinetiQ Technologies2 Gray Research Luna Innovations 2 Raytheon Dyno Nobel Imperial Sword Mohawk General Dynamics Nascent Technology Soar Technology Nova Engineering Trident Systems Tao Systems Time Domain Touch Of Life Technologies Arrow Tech Challenge Carbon Technology Ingenuity Research Intelligent Automation Four Brothers Land Rover1 1 Soldier Vision Microwave Dynamics Nomadics Park Air Systems Phase IV Systems Pivotal Power Points North0 Charles River Axsun Technologies Coherent Logix 0 33
  35. 35. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor Analytics Blazeware Coherent Systems Goodrich Crossfield Technology International Lockheed Martin Cypher Research Coherent Northrop Grumman Laboratories Technologies Rockwell-Collins Elektrobit Design Intelligence Smith & Wesson Gallium Software Dynasafe Wellhose Defence Maymad Image United Vision Systems Solutions Nera US Dynamics Oktal Vision Intelligence Reveo Thales Valador Vectronix Altay Group American GNC BAE Systems Bird Enterprises Boldon James Bruhn NewTech Amphenol Carlyle Group Arpege Defense Crye Associates Astronautics Digicomp Research Barco EaglePicher Comrod Elbit Systems Creare Elron Electronic Dometic Industries Enertec Esterline Frequentis Technologies Nurad Technologies Foster-Miller Ontic Aerospace Giat Industries Omnisec-1 Heckler & Koch Phoenics -1 Humphrey Saalex Solutions ITT Industries Sabtech Industries Kollsman Sentel Kongsberg Defence Sypris Data Systems L-3 Communications Tadiran Comm. Marlborough Comm. Theon Meggitt Telindus MESH Tenix Group Milbert Engineering Textron Systems Santa Barbara Vipac Engineers & Focalplane Scientists SDT Sustav ZAI/AMELEX Shoghi Comm. Simrad Optronics Sonatech Top I Vision ABRO Advanced Simulation Technology EDO-2 EID -2 Electro-Optical Imaging Infrared1 Medical Coaches 34
  36. 36. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor Micro Systems Microwave Solutions Mission Critical Eyewear NavCom Defense Electronics Object Video Pacific Noise & Vibration Physical Optics Rotating Precision Mechanisms Sound Innovations Spectra Systems Spectrum Sciences & Software Systems Engineering Group Ultra Electronics Video Scoring FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVELevels of Engagement: These eight levels (y-axis levels from minus 2 to plus 5) represent the amount ofmaterial (meaning, stories, associations, imagery, multiple layers) in a name the audience has to playwith and personalize – and how "engaged" they are by a name. Names in the minus 2 level are the leastengaging, and likely to be quickly forgotten; the higher the number the better, with level 5 being the best.Functional Names: The lowest common denominator of names, usually either named after a person,purely descriptive of what the company or product does, or a pre- or suffixed reference to functionality.(Infoseek, LookSmart)Invented Names: "Invented" as in a made-up name (Acquient, Agilent, Alliant, Google) or a non-Englishname that is not widely known.Experiential Names: A direct connection to something real, a part of direct human experience. Usuallyliteral in nature, but presented with a touch of imagination. (Netscape, Palm Pilot)Evocative Names: These names are designed to evoke the positioning of a company or product ratherthan the goods and services or the experience of those goods and services. Removed from directexperience, but relevant – evoking memories, stories, and many levels of association. (Virgin, Apple,Cracker Jack) 35
  37. 37. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of Juice NamesIf youre looking for a juicy name taxonomy, youve come to the right page. Here is our competitiveanalysis name taxonomy of juice brand names. Fresh squeezed, and all the usual metaphors.For more juicy branding material, see our article about Juice Branding. FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE5 Snapple 5 Odwalla POM4 Sunkist Naked 4 Tropicana V83 Simply Orange Ocean Spray 3 Dole After the Fall Clamato2 Motts MinuteMaid Crystal Geyser 2 SoBe Welchs Nantucket Nectars Apple Time Floridas Natural Capri Sun Qoo1 Hawaiis Own Sunsweet Northland 1 Vruit Santa Cruz Tree Top Texsun Hansens Kerns Freshers0 Langers Kedem* 0 Martinellis Treesweet RW Knudsen-1 Good Day -1-2 -2 FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE* Kedem is a transliteration of a Hebrew word meaning: old, ancient, traditional. Kedem is a company that sellskosher wine and grape juice primarily to the American Jewish market. 36
  38. 38. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of Margarine NamesIf you thought that margarines -- aka "butter substitutes" -- existed in a parallel universe, you were right!Here is our competitive analysis name taxonomy of margarine brand names. Eat your heart out. FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE5 54 4 Blue Bonnet3 Parkay 3 Land O Lakes2 Butter Buds Olivio Willow Run 2 Chiffon Canola Harvest Earth Balance1 Saffola Country Crock 1 Soy Garden Smart Balance Imperial I Cant Believe Its0 Veggie Butter Romi Not Butter 0 Move Over Butter Brummel and Brown Nucoa Promise-1 -1 Fleishman Nuvel Pure-2 Benecol Take Control -2 FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE 37
  39. 39. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of Music and Media Download Services NamesAKA the iTunes space, but here including movie as well as music download services, plus tangentialservices such as NetFlix and TiVO that offer different combinations of online, offline, broadband, cable orsatellite delivery of multimedia content.As usual, the overwhelming mass of media download services are clustered in the lower left corner of thechart, representing the least engaging functional names, and this sample is probably but a mere fractionof all that is our there. Why do they do it? Perhaps in this case they are spurred on by the success ofiTunes and how it has entered the public consciousness. However, what they fail to realize, is that iTunesis propelled by the iPod phenomenon and both are byproducts of the Apple branding juggernaut, not tomention being one of the first to market with a service that gets it right.Woe to the iTunes followers who believe that names such as emusic, imusic, Musicnet and Netmusic willever get noticed in this sea of similar services. FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE5 TiVO Virgin Digital 5 Amazon.com4 4 Yahoo! Launch Atom Films3 Napster 3 MusicGremlin Epitonic Rhapsody2 Vitiminic Sirius Satellite 2 XM Satellite Radio Radio Audiogalaxy Connect1 1 Soundbuzz Glide Magazine Ampcast Disclogic Hear Music iRATE radio BeSonic0 Like Television Kazaa purevolume Akimbo 0 ReplayTV zerophase SHOUTcast Smithsonian Global Sound AllCoolMusic AOL Music ARTISTdirect K-Lite-1 download.com Lycos Music Mindawn -1 IFILM Partners In Rhyme iTunes IUMA (Internet 38
  40. 40. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor Underground Music Archive) MovieAdvanced MSN Music PeopleSound Wal-Mart 123MovieDownload Cinema Download DivX Movies DownloadShield.com easyMusic.com emusic ezMP3s.com FileSharingCity.com Free Movie Now IC-Musicmedia imusic iMusicShare Internet Downloads InternetMovies.com-2 MovieDownloadWorld -2 MP3.com MP3DownloadHQ.com Mp3Downloading MP3Must Musicload Musicnet MyFreeTunes.com Netlabels NetMusic Safe-Share.com Shared Movies SoundClick Ultimate Movie Downloads FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE 39
  41. 41. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 IgorTaxonomy of Search Engine, Browser and Web Portal NamesHere are some names you may be familiar with in the Internet industry. Note how many search engineswent with Functional names that include the words "search/seek" or "crawler/spider". FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE5 Yahoo! 54 Google 4 Magellan3 3 Safari Explorer2 Firefox Northern Light 2 Navigator Ask Jeeves Excite1 Mozilla Camino 1 Netscape Snap Altavista Mamma Cyberdog0 A9 Opera 0 Dogpile Overture Fathead AOL Alexa GoTo Inktomi * HotBot Lycos goHip iCab-1 -1 ICQ Teoma mySimon Rex MSN Thunderstone Open Directory WiseNut AllTheWeb Cyber411 FindWhat.com InfiniSearch Infoseek InfoTiger LookSmart MegaSpider-2 -2 MetaGopher MonsterCrawler Planet Search QuestFinder SavvySearch Search King SearchPort SuperCrawler 40
  42. 42. Building the Perfect Beast: The Igor Naming Guide ©2010 Igor WebCrawler What-U-Seek FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE* Inktomi: In Lakota mythology, Iktomi is a spider-trickster god and a culture-hero for the Lakota people.But since most people dont know that (or care), we are treating it as an Invented name. And besides, the"spider/crawler" metaphor has been pretty thoroughly mined by search engines.Social Networks Name TaxonomySocial networks have existed on the web for some time in the form of discussion groups, onlinecommunities, bulletin boards, webrings and matchmaking services. This chart is confined to rating thenames of the new breed of social networks, those that leverage many levels of relationships in the form of"a friend of a friend." FUNCTIONAL INVENTED EXPERIENTIAL EVOCATIVE5 Tickle 5 Ringo (purchased4 by Tickle) 4 Tribe3 Friendster Six Degrees 32 Live Journal 2 ICQ Match.com1 Meetup Ryze Spoke Software 1 Spotme Visible Path Craigslist Lunch Partners0 Sona 0 RealContacts Upcoming.org CAN (Community Action Network) Classmates Alpha3 InCircle Affinity Engines Ecademy Orkut PlanetAll itsnotwhatyouknow-1 EveryonesConnected Plaxo POP (People on -1 WhizSpark Evite Squiby Page) ZeroDegrees Friendspot Yafro TheSquare FriendSurfer Friendzy 41

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