Geography - Population
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Geography - Population

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This is a PowerPoint presentation that is meant to be used as a visual-aid in the lesson on Chapter 3 in World Geography : Building a Global Perspective, or on the topic of population and culture

This is a PowerPoint presentation that is meant to be used as a visual-aid in the lesson on Chapter 3 in World Geography : Building a Global Perspective, or on the topic of population and culture

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Geography - Population Geography - Population Presentation Transcript

  • World Geography Chapter 3 Population and Culture
  • Los Angeles New York Mexico City Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo Buenos Aires Nairobi Lagos Moscow London Paris Tehran Cairo Delhi Mumbai Dahka Culcutta Beijing Tokyo Shanghai Manila Jakarta Sidney
  • Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography Main Idea The study of human geography focuses on a number of population topics, as well as many cultural topics. Objectives
    • Explain why population density is distributed unevenly around the
    • world
    • Identify some possible effects of population growth
    • List some of the elements of culture
    • Describe how cultures change
  • Key Terms Culture Population Density Birthrate Immigrant Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography Emigrant Rural Culture Hearth Cultural Convergence Diffusion Cultural Divergence The Beliefs and actions that define a group of people’s way of life People who leave a country to live in other places The number of live births each year per 1,000 people The restriction of a culture from outside cultural influences Countryside (not urban) People who move into the country The average number of people in a square mile or a square kilometer A place where important ideas begin and from which they spread to surrounding cultures Occurs when the skills, arts, ideas, habits, and institutions of one culture come in contact with those of another culture The process by which a cultural element is transmitted across some distance from one group or individual to another
  • Human Geography
    • Culture
      • Beliefs and actions that define a group of people’s way
      • of life
    • Includes a wide range of topics
      • Languages, religions, customs, economic and political
      • systems, etc.
    • Demography
      • Study of populations
      • Birth, marriage, migration, death, etc.
    Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • Where People Live
    • Most people live on a small share of Earth’s surface
    • Population density
      • The average number of people in a
      • square mile or a square kilometer
    • Why do people choose to live where
    • they do?
      • Half of Earth’s surface is unlivable
        • Deserts, mountains, etc.
      • Where soil is fertile, water is plenty, climate is mild, etc.
    Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • People and Environments
    • People adapt to where they live
      • People wear shorts in heat, more clothes in winter, etc.
    Population Density
    • Arable land is land that can be farmed
    • Human activity has altered Earth’s surface
      • Cutting down trees, grazing animals on wild grasses, etc.
    • Divide the population of a region by the amount of arable
    • land
    Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • Calculate Population Density The population of Olive Branch is approximately 31,830. The amount of arable land in Olive Branch is approximately 36.2 square miles. Calculate the population density of Olive Branch. 31, 830 36.2 879.28 per square mile Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • Population Growth
    • Effects of rapid population growth
    • Several factors
      • Technology helps food production
      • increase
      • Improved medical care allows people to live longer
    The Effects of Growth
      • Negative consequences
        • Famine, disease, and natural resource depletion
      • Positive consequences
        • Increase in levels of technology and creativity
    Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • Comparing Growth Rates
    • Birthrate & Death rate
      • Number of births each year per 1,000 people (birthrate)
      • Number of deaths each year per 1,000 people (death rate)
    • “ Zero population growth”
      • Birthrate and immigration equals death rate and
      • emigration
    • Immigrants & Emigrants
      • People who move into a country (immigrants)
      • People who leave the country (Emigrants)
    Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • Comparing Growth Rates
    • Areas with high population densities
      • Many of these people live in metropolitan areas
        • An area with a central city surrounded by suburbs
    • Rural means countryside
      • Growing slower than urbanized areas
    • Urbanization
      • The growth of city populations
    Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • The Nature of Culture
    • Culture reflected in both objects and ideas
    • Nonmaterial (ideas) ways
        • Religion, government, patterns of behavior, etc.
      • Material (objects) ways
        • Things that people make (food, clothing, architecture,
        • etc.)
    Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • Language
    • Cornerstone of culture
      • Culture could not pass to the next generation without it
    Religion
    • Important aspect of culture
      • Helps people answer questions about who they are
      • Supports values that people consider important
    • Monotheism and Polytheism
      • The worship of one God (monotheism)
      • The worship of more than one god (polytheism)
    Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • Cultural Landscapes
    • As people use natural resources to alter the face of the
    • Earth, they produce unique cultural landscapes
    Social Organization
    • Every culture creates social organization
      • By organizing its members into smaller units
      • Meant to help people work together to meet basic needs
    • Different ways of dividing
      • Family is most important in all cultures
      • Some have social classes that rank in order of status
    Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • Cultural Change
    • Changes can be internal
      • New discoveries and ideas
      • Inventions
      • Development of language
    • Changes can be external
      • Technology
      • War
    Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • Cultural Convergence
    • Cultural convergence
      • Occurs when the skills, arts, ideas, habits, and
      • institutions of one culture come in contact with those of
      • another culture
    • Diffusion
      • The process by which a cultural element is
      • transmitted across some distance from one group or
      • individual to another
      • Occurs because of the migration of people
    Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • Cultural Divergence
    • Governments limit cultural contact and the spread of ideas
    • Cultural divergence
      • The restriction of a culture from outside cultural
      • influences
    • Control transportation and communication
      • Restrict free movement in and out of country
      • Limit access to newspapers, internet, radio, and
      • television
    Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • Discussion On the next slide is a drawing of an island. Imagine that you have been stranded on this island with 100 other people, and you cannot build a raft nor signal for help. You must build a community on this island. Where would you start building your community’s homes? Discuss how natural resources influence population density. Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography Freshwater Spring Freshwater Spring Forest Grassy Plain Ocean Rocky Coast Section 1 : The Study of Human Geography
  • Main Idea The world’s countries have a variety of government and economic systems based on differing philosophies. Objectives
    • List four characteristics shared by all countries
    • Describe how various types of government differ from one
    • another
    • Explain how various types of economic systems differ from
    • one another
    Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Key Terms Sovereignty Unitary System Federation Confederation Authoritarian Dictatorship Totalitarianism Monarchy Democracy Traditional Economy Market Economy An economy which is a free enterprise system Command Economy A political system in which the people choose their leaders and have the power to set government policy One central government runs the nation Government that is run by one leader, who has all the power A political system in which government tries to control every part of society An economy in which nearly all goods and services produced by people are consumed in their own family or village An economy controlled by a single, central government A political system in which power is concentrated in a small group or even a single person A nation’s freedom from outside control A political system in which monarchs inherit their positions by being born into the ruling family A political system in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments A political system in which smaller political units keep their sovereignty and give the central government only very limited powers Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • The World’s Countries
    • Nearly 200 independent countries in the world
      • Vary greatly in size, military power, natural resources,
      • economic importance, etc.
    • Four characteristics that define a country
      • Clearly defined territory
      • Population
      • Sovereignty
      • Government
    Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Territory
    • Includes the land, water, and natural resources within a
    • country’s boundaries
    • How a nation defines its boundaries
      • Natural divisions, such as a river or mountains
      • Can shrink or expand
    • Unequal distribution of natural resources on the planet
      • Country’s resources may be more important than size
      • Has led to conflict between nations
    Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Sovereignty
    • Freedom from outside control
      • Entitles country to act independently, deal equally with
      • other countries, and protect its territory and citizens
    • Geographic factors can strengthen or weaken a country’s
    • sovereignty
      • Mountains surrounding a country can make defense
      • easy
      • Plains surrounding a country can make defense hard
    Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Types of Government
    • A society makes and enforces public policies, protects the
    • society from outside threats, and provides for its common
    • needs through the institution of government.
    • There are only a few types of political systems.
      • Classified according to structure and basis of authority
        • Classify governments based on the relationship
        • between local and central governments (structure)
        • Classify governments based on the source of their
        • authority (basis of authority)
    Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Government Structure
      • Unitary system
        • One central government
      • Confederation
        • The central government has limited powers while
        • local governments keep their sovereignty
      • Federation
        • Power divided between national and local
        • governments
    Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Government Authority
      • Authoritarian
        • Run by a leader, who has all, or nearly all, power
        • Its most extreme form is totalitarianism
        • Today, its most common form is dictatorship
        • Most common in history is monarchy
      • Democracy
        • People choose their leaders and have the power to
        • set government policies
        • Representative democracies exist when only a
        • nation’s eligible adult citizens may vote
    Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Discussion Each of the next 3 slides will show a diagram of one of the eight government types mentioned in this section. Discuss with the class what government type that the diagrams represent, and why the diagram represents that government type. Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Limited Central Government Powerful Local Government Powerful Local Government Powerful Local Government Confederation Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Very Powerful Government or Individual Completely Controlled Politics Completely Controlled Economy Controlled Citizen’s Personal Lives Totalitarianism Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Elected Governments (Central and Local) Citizens Who Have the Power to Set Government Policy Citizens Who Choose Their Leaders Democracy Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Types of Economic Systems
    • What three basic questions must an economic system
    • answer?
      • What (and how many) goods and services will be
      • produced?
      • How will these products be produced?
      • How will the products and the wealth gained from
      • their sale be distributed?
    Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Traditional Economy
      • Also called “subsistence economies”
        • Found in rural parts of less developed nations
        • Nearly all goods and services produced are
        • consumed by the family or village
        • No surplus is produced
          • Nothing or little left for trade
    Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Market Economy
      • Capitalism
        • Free enterprise system that gives great freedom to
        • individuals and groups
          • Decide what will be produced, how much will be
          • produced, and the prices that will be charged
          • Decisions strongly influenced by the laws of
          • “ supply and demand”
      • United States is not “pure” capitalism
        • Government provides some goods and services
        • Limited role in regulating private business
    Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Command Economy
      • Controlled by a single, central government
        • Government decides what and how much to produce,
        • where economic activities will be located, and what
        • prices will be charged for goods and services
        • Decisions are made to achieve social and political goals
      • Communism
        • State owns and operates all major farms, factories,
        • utilities, and stores
        • Also called planned economies
    Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Mixed Economy
      • Mix of traditional, market, and command economies
      • Socialism
        • State should own and run some basic industries, such
        • as transportation, communications, and banking, while
        • private enterprise operates in most other parts of the
        • economy
        • Wealth should be distributed more equally
        • Called “Welfare States”
          • Provide many social services such as housing and
          • health care
            • High taxes to pay for these things
    Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Discussion Each of the next 3 slides will show a diagram of one of the three economy types mentioned in this section. Discuss with the class what economy type that the diagrams represents, and why the diagram represents that economy type. Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Consumers Law of Supply & Demand Private Enterprise Price and Production Government Market Economy Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Owns Businesses Government Determines Production Operates Businesses Command Economy Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems
  • Produce for Personal Consumption Families Little Exchange of Goods Little Surplus Traditional Economy Section 2 : Political and Economic Systems