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Update in clinical education

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Clinical Meeting Presentation - clinical Education

Clinical Meeting Presentation - clinical Education

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  • Common Responses to this are: Why me? What can I teach? How do I teach it?   How can I learn to teach it?
  • (Demoins University) (Pharmacy Guild of Australia)
  • Transcript

    • 1. UPDATE IN CLINICAL EDUCATION: Pharmacy Students and Experiential learning
    • 2.
      • As members of a profession, we are entrusted with a responsibility to continuously renew our ranks by educating our future clinical colleagues.
      • Despite the many challenges, we have a professional duty to teach young practitioners.
    • 3.  
    • 4.
      • American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2007; 71 (6) Article 120.
      • Pharmacy students’ Approaches to Learning in an Australian University.
      • Hypothesis being tested:
      • With increasing experience, students should employ deeper learning strategies over time
      • Adoption of more productive learning strategies should be reflected in academic results.
    • 5.
      • Meaning directed learning (Deep processing strategies & self regulation: Learning is the construction of knowledge)
      • Reproduction directed learning (Surface learning & reliance on regulation: Learning is intake of knowledge)
      • Undirected learning (Poor self regulation, dependence on external sources for help)
      • Application directed learning ( Strong vocational orientation & belief that learning is the use of knowledge)
    • 6.
      • Measure & Evaluate the approaches to learning that students adopt
      • Examine the relationship between student approach to learning and academic performance outcomes
      • Examine differences in students approach to learning between year groups and within the same year group over time
      • Evaluate the influence of gender & subject on students’ approach to learning
    • 7.
      • Preference for ‘ Application directed (vocational) learning’ compared to other learning styles (p<0.05)
      • No maturation in learning style developed as students progressed through curriculum (p<0.05)
      • Students were more likely to use surface and reproductive approaches to learning in 2 nd and 3 rd year as opposed to meaning directed learning (p=0.01)
      • Results not influenced by gender or subject type (Comment: No data or P-values listed)
      • Academic results not influenced by learning style (p=0.01)
    • 8.
      • Learning style and personality – KOLB’s Model
      • Learning style and Profession – Approaches to learning Model
      • Learning Style, Personality & Choice of Profession – no proven correlation for pharmacy
    • 9.
      • Adult Learning Should Be…
      • Active , where adult learners need to be actively involved in their learning in order for them to develop their learning needs.
      • In context , where adults are motivated to obtain the necessary knowledge and skills to solve specific problems.
      • Reflective , where adults learn from prior experience and generalize these experiences to new situations.
      • Practical , where adults learn by doing.
      • Multiple exposures (short duration) & with a diverse range of preceptors and institutions
    • 10.  
    • 11.
      • Difference between Undergraduate and post graduate pharmacy students
      • How many hours are considered essential for the development of practical skills
      • Status quo for preceptor:student:patient ratios in pharmacy placements
    • 12.
      • University Perspective
        • Supply Vs Demand Vs Competition
        • Quality training sites and preceptors were quoted as major issues affecting accreditation of university courses
        • Placements Vs Academic Research
      • Workplace / Industry perspective
        • Preceptor availability (52%)
        • Workload concern (9.2%)
        • Other: Reimbursement, student issues, amalgamation
        • Supply Vs Demand (46%)
      • Student perspective
        • Ability to engage in learning
    • 13.
      • Account for; adult learning principles, curriculum and student engagement
      • Assist students to
        • Understand their selected occupation
        • Develop the capacity to practice effectively
          • Access to authentic work activities (novel & routine)
          • Observation & listening
          • Access to experienced practitioners
          • Opportunities to reinforce and refine practical skills
      • Understand Limitations
    • 14.
      • Engaging registered pharmacists to act as preceptors / educators / facilitators
      • Maximise positive contributions from practice settings
      • Prepare students to be ‘agentic’ learners: This requires students to participate & negotiate in learning and become proactive and self directed adult learners as part of their professional preparation (Billet 2009)
    • 15.
      • Action Learning Project to improve satisfaction from all stakeholders for the pharmacy student experiential placements program
      • Phase 1: Operational Changes
      • Phase 2 : Clinical education needs analysis & training
      • Phase 3: Implementation
    • 16. Need / StakeHolder Benefit Students Industry University Multiple Preceptors √ √ √ Increased Capacity √ √ Appropriate preceptor-student ratios √ Authentic learning √ √ √ Workplace support √ √ √ Supervision training for pharmacists √ √ √ Mentoring training for pharmacists √ √ √ Enriched CPD portfolio √ Innovation √ √ √ Varied skills set & multitasked staff √ Networking and goodwill √ √ Increased research capacity √ √ √ Employment opportunities and staff retention √ √ √
    • 17.
      • In mid-late May 2010 staff pharmacists will be asked to participate in workplace questionnaire
      • Anonymous & voluntary
      • Objectives
        • Identify barriers for pharmacist involvement in education / supervision of students
        • Identify training needs/requests required for pharmacy staff to feel comfortable in the facilitation of student placements
        • Develop a series of education seminars relevant to pharmacy staff needs on mentoring, facilitation & clinical supervision
    • 18.
      • Kolb’s experiential Learning Model (Accessed 2.4.10;http://leadershipchamps.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/kolbs-experiential-model.jpg
      • American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2007; 71 (6) Article 120. Pharmacy students’ Approaches to Learning in an Australian University. Lorraine Smith, PhD, Bandana Saini, PhD, Ines Krass, PhD, Timothy Chen, PhD, Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich, PhD & Erica Sainsbury, MSc. Faculty of pharmacy, University of Sydney, Australia
      • Owens, Susanne & Stupans,I. 2008. “Experiential Placements in Pharmacy: ‘Quality Indicators for Best Practice Approaches to Experiential Placements in Pharmacy Programs’”. The Carrick Institute for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education. Australia.
    • 19.
      • Implications of Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Placements: Cecilia M. Plaza, PharmD, MS, and JoLaine Reierson Draugalis, PhD. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2005; 69 (3) Article 45.
      • Assessing Pharmacy Students’ Learning styles & personality types; A 10 year analysis. Avis, Shuck & Phillips 1999. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Vol 63. pp.27-33

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