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Initial training for schools on basic FBA/BIP concepts.

Initial training for schools on basic FBA/BIP concepts.

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  • Take 3 minutes to go around and have each person at your table share. Nominate one person in your group to share out with the entire group
  • Audience will have yes/no cards and will answer a series of questions so that trainers will have an idea about the participants knowledge regarding the FBA process and BIP’s
  • We have a new and exciting project designed to improve the quality of functional behavior assessments and the behavior interventions designed for students with disabilities who also have problem behavior. The Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Education (MCIE) in collaboration with Baltimore City Public Schools (City Schools) is working on a two year project to provide initial and ongoing professional development and technical assistance for Functional Behavior Assessments (FBAs) and Behavior Intervention Plans (BIPs). We have a professional development team, composed of 4 MCIE Behavior Intervention Facilitators and 5 City Schools Behavior Intervention Facilitators. Our initial work will focus on training and assistance to school psychologists and social workers and developing demonstration sites. We expect to be providing a variety of additional training opportunities for school-based teams. 
  • When there is a “manifestation” finding, the IEP team must conduct a FBA if one was not conducted prior to the behavior. No timeline is established for completion of the FBA and development of the behavior intervention plan. Then there is “ no manifestation” finding involving a student who had been removed or have been removed to interim alternative educational setting---for violations involving dangerous weapons, illegal drugs, controlled substances and serious bodily injury to another person---the child is to receive, FBA “as appropriate”……Maryland COMAR regulations require that IEP team meet within 10 business days after the removal of a student with a disability if a FBA has not been conducted.What does “as appropriate” mean? First, nothing in IDEA explains what “as appropriate” means; however it can be inferred to mean….”professional choice”…”professional judgment”….another possible interpretation is that the “new” language relects the fact that the ten day deadline was eliminated.
  • This may need to go with additional considerationsMaryland state law: If restraint or seclusion is used for a student with a disability, and the student’ IEP or behavior intervention plan does not include the use of restraint or seclusion, the IEP team shall meet, in accordance with COMAR, within 10 business days of the incident to consider: (a) the need for a FBA(b) Developing appropriate behavioral interventions; and(c) Implementing a behavior intervention plan
  • While there are certain circumstances were IDEA requires an FBA and/or BIP, there is nothing in the law that prevents an IEP from concluding that an FBA and BIP are appropriate supports for a student. Therefore, whether or not hey happen to be diagnosed with a disability….best practice would suggest that an FBA or BIP is appropriate for any child who is exhibiting repeated patterns of behavior that impede on the student’s learning or overall quality of life.Preventative=to help provide supports for student whose behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others.Evaluation=when appropriate FBA should be used just like any other assessment tool to gather relevant functional information. Should especially be used when student behavior is concern and determining educational needs. If utilizing an FBA, it is considered best practice to utilize multimethod, multisource, and multisettingassessment process.
  • On 3/19/09 a group of 21 school psychologist and social workers met to offer input regarding current a desired practices for conducting high quality FBAs and developing BIPs. It was indicated during this needs assessment that It was indicated that often positive behavior strategies are utilized to assist in reinforcing appropriate behavior. Many school psychologist and social workers reported that they were knowledgeable about the process for developing FBAs and BIPs, including how to use forms, collecting data and appropriate tools to be used to gather information about students While this may pose a challenge, many reported that they have a desire to collaborate with necessary school staff, including teachers, other service providers and administrators.
  • On 3/19/09 a group of 21 school psychologist and social workers met to offer input regarding current a desired practices for conducting high quality FBAs and developing BIPs. Results of this discussion suggest that barriers to implementing effective and efficient FBAs and BIPs are: Implementation:Getting the team together; implementation; follow thru evaluationAccountability ()ConsistencyImplementation ()Skills/Knowledge:Teachers understanding of their own impact on/control over behaviorIdentifying intervention that are unique to the child, and fit their specific needsLack of information on how to complete FBA for individual students!Lack of rest of school understanding them/importanceLack of training; inconsistent philosophy toward improving children’s behaviorAdministrator and teacher trainingCollaboration/Teaming:CollaborationCollaborative developmentBuilt-in teaming timeCommunicationUsing Data and Individualizing:SpecificityNo data-based decision making!Using data to create themBuy In:No one wants to do for regular education studentsDifferent Agendas – rationale for FBAs & BIPsTeacher supportFrequency of change of processResistanceBuy-in from all staff (resource teachers, etc.)Teacher/staff buy-inTime:Lack of time to gather information to develop and lack of time and resources to implementTime to have effective consultationTime ()Time to really functionally assess
  • During this needs assessment potential solutions were also identified by school psychologist and social workers. These includeConsistent Policy: Referral processAccountabilityCollaborationBest PracticesConsultation vs. CounselingData CollectionImproved formsReduced Counseling Caseload Professional DevelopmentFor School Psychologists and Social WorkersFor other school staff
  • More Work? You may be responsible for facilitating this collaborative process as you are looked at as a specialist regarding behavior issues. You should not be held solely responsible for completing the FBAs and BIPs, but you are the most knowledgeable so it seems most appropriate for you to be in a leadership role on your collaborative teams. Over time your school teams will become more efficient and competent in developing effective FBAs and BIPs. More Changes?Yes, there will be changes to the current FBA and BIP process; including possible changes to the forms that you currently use as we recognize that there are some limitations. However, ongoing professional development and support within the schools will assist with some of these changes. Resources, tools and modifications to the current form will also assist with this change. In addition, to get out from under the microscope adherence to the law and outcome 7 will help to lift the consent decree.More time?To be honest, at first it will take you more time than you’re used to, but the idea is that over time you will have less kids to do FBAs/BIPs for and less kids on your caseload because with an effective BIP their behaviors will be managed in the classroom.It will be just like learning ET and MDOIEP. At first, it was very cumbersome to learn a new system, but once you used it regularly and found your own personal system for using it, it was much easier and has been a useful tool.
  • Why do we do FBA? “It’s easy to miss something you’re not looking for”-often teachers are busy doing their job and only notice the problem behavior bc it catches their attn so that’s what they are focused on-much more diffucult sometimes to identify antecedents and/or consequences because they don’t stand out as much and so arent the focus. FBA forces us to focus on those factorsSchool psychs and social workers have the skills and trainings to help facilitate the FBA process in order to determine why students are engaging in problem behavior
  • Will go into each one of these in detail but this is a quick overview of the big pieces
  • Shift from general descriptions of behavior to an operational definition that is clear and measurable. Clear to an observer who may be unfamiliar with the child. When collecting data it is important to include how to record instances of behavior. For example, if you measure hitting peers, should the observe count each time the student hits a peer or the episode in which he hits peers several times over a period of time as one instance.
  • Important to collect observational data on relevant behavioral characteristics. For example, if the behavior is temper tantrums, duration would be most important. If the behavior is acts of physical aggression (hit, kick, bite), frequency might be more appropriate.
  • Setting events often occur out of context/at a different time than the bx so can be overlooked as contributing factors. include things like time of day, day of week, illness/fatigue
  • Setting events occur prior to behavior but not directly proceeding the target behavior and increase the likelihood that the behavior will occur.Think about your own patience level when you are tired or hungry-are you more or less likely to take out your frustration in an inappropriate way
  • Behavior always communicates a need, this function for the behavior can be categorized in two ways:As an effort to obtain or gain access to a task or item or as a way to avoid to escape a nonpreferred task or activity. It may be a tangible item, attention or social interaction with adults or peers or it may be a sensory reaction (i.e. escape from a room that is too crowded or noisy, flapping hands as a way to self-stimulate).
  • What is the function of this student’s behavior?
  • Based on the video you just saw, take a minute to come up with a summary statement for Sally’s behavior. (gauge time: individual vs. at tables in group)Have someone share. Go over our summary statement
  • I think this cartoon summarizes quite well what happens a lot of times in schools. Teams choose new behaviors that might “work” for the average student but are not truly replacement behaviors because they don’t “work” for the student.
  • Designed to address thefx of the bx by determining a “replacement bx” that serves the same fx as target bx but is more socially appropriate/acceptable given the setting/contextAlter external factors: can be proactive-try to change situations to make problem bx less likely to occur in the first place; or can be planned response to alter effectiveness of problem bx when it does occur (this will make it less likely to reoccur in the future)Teaching: goal is to make new skill more effective and efficient than problem bx at meeting student needsMonitor: Important to define measureable goals and data collection procedures. Don’t’ want to have staff put in all that work for something and then not know if its working or not
  • Intervention strategies: (prevention, teaching, response, crisis) will be expanded upon later
  • Desired bx is the ideal…to get at this you might ask the teacher: if you woke up tomorrow and the problem was gone, what would the student be doing; what do you expect students in your class to do; however, this doesn’t serve the same purpose for the student (student does not get access to what they want using this behavior) so we have to find a linkReplacement: An acceptable alternative bx that serves the same fx as problem behavior but is more appropriate given the expectations and norms of the given setting ; may be a skill already in the student’s repertoire that simply needs to be strengthened and reinforced more often or may be a new skill that will be taught to the student
  • Presenter will go over this example and make clear why the desired behavior is not appropriate and how the replacement behavior better meets the student’s needs even though it may not be ideal for adults
  • In your small group, please discuss the video and determine the desired behaviors and the replacement behaviors
  • Prevention is aimed at setting the student up to be successful-head off problem bx BEFORE it occursAddress setting events: provide scheduled snacks for student who is more likely to engage in problem behavior when hungry; work with parents to keep a regular bedtime to reduce fatigue, change schedule so difficult subjects are not at end of day if that is identified as a “problem time”Address antecedents: modify work, provide supports (calculator, manipulatives, screen reader, access to computer), limit contact with a peer that seems to trigger the student
  • Students don’t always know how to do what we’re asking them to do, so we must teach
  • Go over components of teaching plan worksheet provided in the handoutTeaching Plan activity: -If time permits, have groups work on filling out teaching plan -If low on time, presenter will briefly go over parts of teaching plan with the whole group
  • Student has been reinforced (intentionally or unintentionally) for problem behavior likely for quite some time-will take time for them to realize that this bx is not going to work anymore (extinction burst-behavior may become more intense before it goes away)
  • Can’t always prevent despite best efforts-need a consistent plan for how behavior will be handled when it occursNeed to eliminate reinforcement for problem behaviors while simultaneously providing reinforcement for new skills/replacement bxConsistency-at first, reinforcement needs to be immediate, frequent, and powerful-can be faded over time but have to get student hooked and build in success right from the start or they will revert back to old behavior which is more effective and efficient for themAlso, important to keep in mind, that if the plan is to ignore, you really have to commit so before you decide on that strategy make sure you can tolerate an increase in the behavior (student will likely escalate or even try other behaviors to get what they want/need); if you wait til the behavior escalates and then give in, you are actually reinforcing the escalated behavior
  • Modify: based on either mastery of goals (increase goals or fade reinforcement or supports) or non-response to intervention (modify reinforcements bc of satiation or increase reinforcement schedule, change strategies, revisit FBA to verify fx of bx)Revisit function and replacement behavior: If data shows intervention isnt working, maybe the function isnt correct or maybe the replacement behavior isnt a true replacement for the kid because it is not as effective and efficientCaveat: always look at treatment integrity before makes changes
  • Crucial to determine to what degree intervention is being implemented as intended/designedNeed to modify intervention: If intervention script indicates that student can earn rewards twice/day but teacher has only offered reward once/day, this data shouldn’t simply be interpreted as the teacher is not implementing the intervention with high integrity. If the student is responding, this indicates that the reinforcement schedule piece of the intervention can be modified)
  • Math intervention-100%, 67%, and 33% implementation of intervention. Bottom line: student skills’ improved more when intervention was implemented with higher integrityWith 100% integrity all of the intervention components were implemented, with 67% only 2/3 of the components were implements and with 33% only 1/3 of the components were implemented.
  • Self-report-Intervention script/chklst (some more accurate self-reporters than others)Independent observer: (observer reactivity-teachers may implement 100% bc they know someones watching; may cause resentment-should probably be done by admin or someone else in supervisory or mentorship type role)Products: bx chart, DBRC (cant be “fudged” as easily, sometimes presence of physical reminder helps w integrity)Strategies to increase tx integrity: Tx acceptability (more likely when teacher is involved in choosing intervention), Providing a script for teacher to reference, providing performance feedback (graphs like the one on previous slide can be powerful)
  • Paperwork is cumbersome;Boxes=forms. Pull you in the wrong direction
  • Example of info that can be included in the “comments” space: did not sleep well the night before; substitute teacherUse the “Comments” space to include important setting event data
  • For example, a student who is attempting to avoid work, is put on timeout as a consequence, thereby reinforcing the behavior as effective for avoiding said work. Keep in mind that consequences are not only PUNITIVE actions. Remember to consider both adult and peer responses, unintentional consequences, results of the behavior that are not necessarily something that an adult enacts upon a student (e.g, not having to complete work, getting attention even if its negative attention)
  • The other “functions” listed are NOT true functions. Several list internal states of the student and go back to blaming the student rather than focusing on addressing environmental factors which is the basic principle of FBA. The communicative intent section is where you can fill in the function of the behavior (obtain or avoid/escape tangible, attention, or sensory)
  • Behavior always communicates a need, this function for the behavior can be categorized in two ways:As an effort to obtain or gain access to a task or item or as a way to avoid to escape a nonpreferred task or activity. It may be a tangible item, attention or social interaction with adults or peers or it may be a sensory reaction (i.e. escape from a room that is too crowded or noisy, flapping hands as a way to self-stimulate).
  • Distinguish between replacement behavior and desired behavior Same thing with “Teaching Strategies” section-What skills could be taught to increase the occurrence of the appropriate behavior and improve achievement (think of “appropriate” here as “functionally equivalent replacement behavior” as well)
  • For example, time out is a common strategy, but this consequence is reinforcing for a student with escape-maintained behavior because they are effectively escaping the activity they do not want to engage in


  • 1.
  • 2. ConductingFunctional Behavior Assessments (FBAs)DesigningBehavior Intervention Plans (BIPs)
    Basic Elements and Effective Practices
  • 3. Behavior Intervention Facilitators
    Thea Brooks
    Chris Gaither
    Meka Kahn
    Karmen Mills
    Eve Northrup
    Stephanie Parkhurst
    John Paz
    Patricia Roberts-Rose
    Sarah Scrivener
  • 4. Ice Breaker – Getting to Know You
    Share the following in your small group:
    Share something about yourself that no one would know by looking at you.
  • 5. YES/NO
    N o
    I know why I am here?
    I independently complete the Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans for my school?
    I feel comfortable facilitating the Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plan process?
    I feel confident that my school is effectively implementing Behavior Intervention Plans?
  • 6. Objectives for Professional Development
    Big Picture/Overview
    System Strengths and Needs
    Best Practices in Developing FBAs and BIPs
    Maneuvering Through Current Forms
  • 7. The Big Picture
    Who: Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Education (MCIE) and Baltimore City Public Schools (City Schools)
    What: Professional development and technical assistance for FBAs and BIPs
    Why: To develop high quality FBAs and BIPs
  • 8. When do we need FBAs?
    • Disciplinary change in placement (culminating 10 days) where:
    • 9. Behavior manifestation of disability (No FBA on file)
    • 10. Behavior is NOT manifestation of disability (“as appropriate”)
    • 11. Behavior involved weapons, drugs, or serious bodily injury (“as appropriate”)
  • When do we need FBAs?
    • Use of restraint and seclusion with a student (COMAR):
    • 12. Must result in referral to IEP Team for FBA
    If student does not have an IEP or BIP (may also refer to SST)
    If student has an IEP and BIP but they do not specify the use of restraint and/or seclusion
    If student has an IEP and BIP that specifies the use of restraint and seclusion to determine if goals and plan are adequate
    • Broader interpretation of IDEA:
    • 14. Positive behavior support
    • 15. When behavior interferes with the student’s learning
    • 16. Evaluation/assessment tool, when appropriate
  • Where are we now???
  • 17. Issues and Challenges
    Using Data and Individualizing
  • 18. Self-Identified Solutions
  • 19. What does this mean for you?
  • 20. “Nobody can go back and start a new beginning, but anyone can start today and make a new ending.”
    ~Maria Robinson
  • 21. Professional Development
    Workshops and Courses
    Self-Paced Modules
    Online Learning
    Behavior Series (‘demonstration’ sites)
  • 22.
  • 23. “It’s easy to miss something you’re not looking for.”
    Everyone can see the “what” (problem behavior)
    Much harder to figure out the ‘why’
    You can help teachers figure out the ‘why’
  • 24. Key Components of FBA
    Operational definition of target behavior
    Conditions under which behavior does and does not occur
    Setting events
    Function of target behavior
    Student strengths/preferences/interests
  • 25. Operational Definition
    Refers to observable characteristics of the behavior or to events in the environment that can be observed
    Can you see it or hear it?
    The definition is so clear that another person unfamiliar with the behavior could measure it consistently
    Could you act it out precisely?
    The boundaries of the behavior are clearly delineated so that responses can be easily included or excluded
    Do you know when to record that a new behavior started?
    Adapted from http://www.kipbs.org
  • 26. General
    Ambiguous, Subjective, and Vague
    Objective, Specific, and Measurable
  • 27. Behavioral Characteristics
  • 28. Behavior Sequence
  • 29. Make the problem behavior more likely to occur
    Set the stage for behaviors
    Setting Events
  • 30. ABC’s of Behavior
    Events that occur immediately prior to behavior
    Events that occur following behavior
    May reinforce or punish behavior
  • 31. Functions of Behavior
  • 32. Example 1
    Tara has never been a great fan of the lunch room. Sitting in lunch room with the rest of 4th and 5th grade she often throws food from the table and is removed from the lunch room without a fuss to eat at table by herself.
    Possible Function?
  • 33. Example 2
    Michael, an 8 year old with Asperger’s Syndrome, loves to hang out with his peers at recess. Unfortunately, his peers don’t feel the same way. Typically Michael runs up behind them and jumps on them, or kicks them in the shin, then runs away laughing and looking behind him. His peers tend to respond by shouting at him and pushing him away.
    Possible Function?
  • 34.
  • 35. Summary Statement
    When ______________________, student will
    ____________________ in order to ________________.
    (behavior) (function)
    This is more likely to occur when __________________. (setting event)
    Sample: When ignored by peers, Sally insults other students (e.g., calls them cow) and throws objects at students in order to obtain the attention of her peers. This is more likely to occur during lunch and recess.
  • 36.
  • 37. Purpose of Developing a BIP
    Allow student access to same outcome/meet same need through more appropriate means
    Modify environment and/or response to reduce problem behavior
    Teach new skills to replace problem behavior
    Monitor student success and effectiveness of interventions
  • 38. Key Components
    Definition of:
    Target behavior
    Desired behavior
    Replacement behavior
    Measurable goal statement
    Intervention Strategies
    Plan to monitor student progress and treatment integrity
    Scheduled times to review document and modify if necessary
  • 39. Desired Behavior vs. Replacement Behavior
    What adults want student to do
    Does not serve same function as problem behavior
    Ultimate goal for student behavior
    An acceptable alternative to desired behavior
    Serves same function as problem behavior
    May not be ultimate goal, but a step in the right direction
  • 40. An Example
    Target behavior: Tom yells, pushes papers off his desk, or walks out of the room when given a math assignment to complete independently at his desk
    Function: Avoid math work
    Tom will complete assigned math work independently within the time allotted.
    Given a color card system, Tom will display the red card on his desk to indicate that he needs to take a break or the yellow card to indicate he needs help with an assignment.
  • 41. Competing Behavior Pathway
    O’Neil et. al (1997)
    do work
    more work
    Setting Events
    Leaves room, yelling, papers on floor
    given difficult
    after long periods of seat work
    avoid task,
    removed from
    ask for break, ask for help.
  • 42. Target behavior: When ignored by peers, Sally insults other students (e.g., calls them cow) and throws objects at students in order to obtain the attention of her peers. This is more likely to occur during lunch and recess.
  • 43. Prevention Strategies
    Proactive-minimize likelihood of problem behavior occurring
    Modifications to environmental or interpersonal factors
    May address setting events or antecedents
  • 44.
  • 45. Teaching Strategies
    Included if new skill is being taught
    Should indicate who will teach new skill, how and when it will be taught
    How new skill will be reinforced
    Teaching Plan Worksheet
  • 46. Response Strategies
  • 47. Response Strategies
    Planned response for when behavior does occur
    Alter consequences so that problem behavior is no longer rewarding
  • 48. Competing Behavior Pathway
    O’Neil et. al (1997)
    do work
    more work
    Setting Events
    Leaves room, yelling, papers on floor
    given difficult
    after long periods of seat work
    avoid task,
    removed from
    ask for break, ask for help.
  • 49. Progress Monitoring
    Everyone’s favorite: data collection!!
    Compare pre-intervention behavior to post-intervention behavior
    Know when to modify intervention strategies
  • 50. Treatment Integrity
    Even more data collection!!
    Without it, we can’t draw defensible conclusions about success/failure of intervention strategies
    Helps determine if certain pieces/steps of intervention can be removed or modified
  • 51. 100% Treatment Integrity = Greatest Improvement
  • 52. Treatment Integrity
    Teacher self-report
    Independent observer
    Permanent products
  • 53. Reframing the FBA/BIP Form
  • 54. Reframing the FBA/BIP Form (1)
    Currently reads: “Antecedents”
    Translation: Sections I, II, III and IV of “Antecedents”, actually deal with both setting events and immediate triggers.
  • 55. Reframing the FBA/BIP Form (2)
    Currently reads: “Describe what happens AFTER the behavior occurs.”
    Translation: What happens immediately after the behavior occurs that may increase or decrease the behavior?
  • 56. Reframing the FBA/BIP Form (3)
    Currently Reads: “Function of Behavior”
    Translation: Focus on the “Communicative Intent” section
    Other sections are FACTORS that may influence behavior but are not FUNCTIONS
  • 57. Functions of Behavior
  • 58. Reframing the FBA/BIP Form (4)
    Currently reads: “Generate a summary statement…”
    Translation: When (antecedent), student will (behavior) in order to (function). This is more likely to occur when (setting event).
  • 59. Reframing the FBA/BIP Form (5)
    Currently reads: “What is the appropriate behavioral goal?”
    Translation: What is the appropriate functionally equivalent replacement behavior?
  • 60. Reframing the FBA/BIP Form (6)
    Currently reads: “Response Strategies”
    Translation: How will you respond to the problem behavior without unintentionally reinforcing it?
    May need to include a crisis plan
  • 61. A well-translated form will result in an effective, efficient FBA/BIP.