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History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
History of lighting - display & exhibit
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History of lighting - display & exhibit

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History of lighting - display & exhibit area

History of lighting - display & exhibit area

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  • 1. 724 - History & Theory of Interior IlluminationDisplay and Exhibit José Albuquerque Fonseca Display and Exhibit
  • 2. Period until 1900.Niagara Falls Illumination in 1860 had200 colored and white calcium, volcanicand turpedo lights called Bengal Lights,the kind used by ships at sea. In 1895Daniel McFarlan Moore invents a lampusing nitrogen or carbondioxide, he began makingelectric signs using theseluminous tubes bent into theform of letters or shapes. Display and Exhibit
  • 3. Jan 1879 - First ElectricalIllumination took placein Niagara Falls andhad the effect of32,000 candles.July 1879, 16 open arclamps, projecting 2,000candlepolwer each.In 1892, the original own-er of the ‘Maid of the Mist’.Frank LeBland placed a4,000 candlepower light on the Canadian Maid of the Mistdock. It lite up the American Falls. Colored Gelatin Plates wereplaced in front of the lights providing a variety of colors.1907 - American & Bridal Veil Falls by Electric Light, Design by W.D´Arcy Ryan. (Photograph: George Curtis).Illuminations shone in 1879 at the Blackpool Illuminationsannual Lights Festival, in Lancashire, England and consistedof just eight arc lamps which bathed the Promenade. Display and Exhibit
  • 4. May 1892 - The first electric signerected in New York, on the site ofthe present Flatiron Building, was thewell-known Manhattan Beach sign onthe uptown wall of the old Cumber-land Hotel at 23rd St. and Broadway.H.J. Heinz while watching the electriclight message, formed a grand idea.The following day he communicated with O. J. Gude, and not long afterwardanother electrical sign dominated the same spot. A huge green pickle flashedon and off, and some of the 57 varieties werefeatured in electric lights.1893 - Nikola Tesla uses cordless lowpressure gas discharge lamps, powered by ahigh frequency eletric field, to light his labora-tory. He displays gas discharge lamps at theWorld Columbian Exposition.The Exposition sparkled with the illumination of thousands of electric lights.The World’s Fair also featured electrified moving sidewalks, launches, andelevated trains. The Westinghouse Company won the bid with its alternat-ing current and the working scaled system allowed the public a view of apolyphase power which could be transmitted over long distances. Display and Exhibit
  • 5. 1893 - Moore patented Electrical 1895 - Vitascope was an early filmLight Display for signage. projector demonstrated by Charles Francis Jenkins and Thomas Armat. They had made modifications to Jen- kins patented "Phantoscope", which cast images via film & electric light onto a wall or screen. April 23, 1896 the first public exhi- bition of the Vitascope in the Koster and Bial’s Music Hall an important vaudeville theatre located at Broad- way and Thirty-Fourth Street. Display and Exhibit
  • 6. 1897 - Tennessee Centennial Expo- sition. It celebrated the 100th anni- versary of Tennessee’s entry into the union in 1796, although it was a year late . Extravagant displays of electric lights quickly became a feature of pub- lic events.In 1895 Daniel McFarlan Moore inventes the luminoustube. A main attraction at the Electrical Exhibition of 1898was the "Moore Chapel," a small chapel mock-up illuminat-ed by Moore’s tubes, at Madison Square Garden. Over thedoor, a Moore Tube sign welcomed visitors to the "MooreVacuum Tube Chapel". (Electrical Engineer, May 12, 1898)1898 - Illuminated murals instained glass by the RambushDecorating Studios. Display and Exhibit
  • 7. January 2, 1898 - Scientific AmericanSupplement - Frantz Dussaud, a Swissphysicist called his projection systema “téléoscope.” It used an electric arclight source for a large, bright picture.The Trans-Mississippiand International Ex-position was a worldsfair held in Omaha, Ne-braska from June 1 toNovember 1 of 1898.Its goal was to showcasethe development of theentire West, stretch-ing from the MississippiRiver to the Pacific Coast.Night view of the GrandCourt. Photograph byFrank Rinehart, 1898. Display and Exhibit
  • 8. During the period from 1900 to 1920Broadway was “flanked with a double rowof this new type of electrical advertising”.The roots of fluorescent technology reachback to the Peter Cooper Hewitt’s mercury-based lamps, introduced in 1901.Lee De Forest invented the Audion vacuumtube in 1906, creating the entire basis oflong-distance audio and TV communications.The Audion helped to usher in the widespreaduse of electronics. Display and Exhibit
  • 9. In the first decade of the 1900s,years before developing thecompact Home ProjectingKinetoscope, Edisonmarketed an essentiallytheatrical 35 mm ProjectingKinetoscope for domestic use.1902 - Edward Raymond Turn-er. First film in the world withnatural color National Me-dia Museum, Bradford, UK. Display and Exhibit
  • 10. By their sinuous nature, neon tubeslend themselves to script. Moore tubesigns used script in the early 1900s;Claudes first neon sign in the U.S. re-produced Packards script logotype. 1901 Pan-American Ex- position, Buffalo, NY. Exhibits: Electric Tower (the fair’s center piece) designed by John Galen Howard and the Electric- ity Building designed by Green & Wicks. The “Clicquot Club Ginger Ale - World’s Largest Seller,” spectacular on the Put- nam Building was another O. J. Gude Company installation. Nineteen thou- sand lamps and twenty-nine flashers helped the Eskimo boys and their sled get over the frozen snow. Display and Exhibit
  • 11. 1904 - The year that turned LongacreSquare into the place known as TimesSquare, Oscar J. Gude installed a so-phisticated advertisement for Trimble.The sign was placed on the north sideof 47th Street, between Broadwayand 7th Avenue, making it the first ina long line of electronic advertisementsto be placed at this key intersection.The Trimble name could be seen from al-most a mile away down certain corridors.1905 - The “Petticoat Girl” sign madeits debut, featuring “the illusion of flut-tering skirts produced by a series ofvery rapid flashes of bulb form the bot-tom of the skirt and the petticoat, whilethe rain was switched on and off everytwenty seconds.” Display and Exhibit
  • 12. The city of New York banned the new year´sfireworks so that Alfred Ochs, publisher ofthe New York Times and host of the TimesSquare party had to come up with anoth-er highlight to get the attention of themasses and so in the year 1907 to 1908,a huge lighted ball lowered a flagpole Behrens became the industrial designer specializing in German electricity. Poster for the bulbs AEG, 1910 1908 Coney Island. Luna Park Lagoon with 750 and 1000 Watt Mazda Lamps Display and Exhibit
  • 13. September 25, 1909,an entire fleet of in-ternational warshipsin the Hudson Riv-er was illuminated.This display of lightsand naval power wasso impressive that itwas reenacted uponthe people’s request. Neon signs are made using electri- fied, luminous tube lights that contain rarefied neon or other gases. They are the most com- mon use for neon lighting, which was first demon- strated 1910 by Georges Claude at the Paris Motor Show. Display and Exhibit
  • 14. The popular success of the "Petticoat Girl"electric bulb sign prompted successors whichsimilarly incorporated primitive iterations ofanimation during the 1910s. The CorticelliSpool Silk sign featured a frolicsome kittenplaying with a spool of silk snatched from thepumping needle of a sewing machine andthe brief tagline "Too Strong to Break". Luminograph, patented in 1913, projected film onto photocells, which controlled relays, which controlled light bulbs. The later Epok substituted tubes for the relays. An American version shown in Times Square even let live dancers to perform in front of the photo-cells. By 1937, the Wondersign added color. Display and Exhibit
  • 15. 1915 - The Panama-Pacif-ic International Exposition(PPIE) in San Francisco.Lighting was designed byWalter D’Arcy Ryan, includ-ing the Scintillator search-light display.The centerpiece was theTower of Jewels, whichwas illuminated by over 50powerful electrical search-lights at night. This fair setthe pattern for the lightingof future fairs. Display and Exhibit
  • 16. 1917 - "Wrigleys Spearmint" sign, erected on Broadway between43rd and 44th Streets. installed by O. J. Gude. The Wrigleys sign,embodied several archetypal characteristics of electric bulb sign spec-taculars of the period, such as a national company branding through theuse of iconic text (and not a graphical logo), repetitive animation of mun-dane tasks and an adherence to incongruous Beaux-Art iconography. Display and Exhibit
  • 17. 1917 - Davis & Shaw Furniture Co. had the firstelectric outdoor advertising sign in Colorado.Davis & Shaw Furniture Company’s electric ad-vertising sign on the Pioneer Building at Lar-imer and Fifteenth Street in Denver. The signwas built in 1917 almost as tall as the PioneerBuilding and remained in place until 1925,when it was blown down in a windstorm. Coca-Cola sign as a landmarks in Times Square since 1920. As early as 1923 Coca-Cola brought a new dimension to its billboard by adding neon lighting. Display and Exhibit
  • 18. Period from 1920 to 1940In1919 Thomas Wilfred built his firstClavilux, a mechanical invention thatallowed the creation and perfor-mance of Lumia, which was Wilfred’sterm for Light Art. In 1924 Moreinventes the vacuum bulbs used intelephotography and in 1925 im-proved it for use in television. Display and Exhibit
  • 19. Before neon signs began to proliferate in New Yorkduring the 1920s, another type of electric sign pre-dominated throughout the city. These were the "panelreflector" signs. The concept behind them was simple:they were comprised only of a painted signboard, il-luminated by incandescent bulbs housed in a hoodedfixture mounted to the top of the sign. Display and Exhibit
  • 20. Hollywood represented a city, but alsoan industry, a lifestyle and an aspiration.Was officially crowned when the “Holly-woodland” sign was erected in 1923.1925 - Niagara Falls Il-luminated Winter Scene.Niagara Falls Illumina-tion Board first installationwas a Twenty-four carbonsearchlights each 26 inchesin diameter, emitting a totalof 1,320,000,000 candle-power. Display and Exhibit
  • 21. 1925 - Paris International Exposition ofModern Industrial and Decorative Arts Display and Exhibit
  • 22. In 1930 there were at least five dif-ferent theatrical-television systemsdemonstrated — in actual theaters.The first was on January 16 at theRKO-Proctor 58th St. Theater inNew York. It was an RCA system thatproduced a ten-foot-wide image.In April Ulises Sanabria conductedhis first demo in Chicago. On May22 General Electric in Schenectady, 1931- Radio pioneer Lee de Forest filedNew York (left). On July 28, John a patent for a means of etching videoLogie Baird presented his version images onto motion-picture film. Byin London. In July 30, RCA showed 1933, a different version evolved intoa different system in Schenectady. the Fernseh “intermediate film” system.LExposition Coloniale de 1931 à Paris Display and Exhibit
  • 23. Historically, Columbus Circle may havebeen second only to Times Square in thenumber of big off-premise roof signsThe General Motors sign seen in a Sam-uel Gottscho photo, February 11, 1932. With Callo- way’s band a young Dizzy Gillespie would run into a saxo- phonist named Charlie Parker. Result: the thing that would overtake swing — bebop. Calloway became so popular that he would one day replace Ellington as the Cotton Club’s regular act. Display and Exhibit
  • 24. This print depicts two NYC art deco land-marks, the GE Building and the Chrysler Build-ing, the George Washington Bridge, which alsohas deco elements. These three iconic piec-es of architecture were completed in 1930and 1931, and this print dates from 1933. C4 IX Citroen, 1931 1933 - YESCO erected the first neon sign in Las Vegas for the Boulder Club. Young Electric Sign Company (YESCO) is a manufacturer of electric signs based in Salt Lake City. The company was founded by Thomas Young in 1920. Display and Exhibit
  • 25. "The great roof signs of the Harlem YMCA date to the buildingsopening on New Years Day 1933, making them among the oldestfunctioning neon signs in New York today. Determined notto lose business to movie houses and other amusementvenues, YMCAs across the United States almost invariably hung largeilluminated signs high on their facades by twentieth century." Display and Exhibit
  • 26. D e s i g n Lettering: The Hanbook to Lighting Fixture Suc- cess, 1932. Posters for the Chicago World´s fair 1933The Capitol The-ater is a 700-seattheater in Burling-ton, Iowa. Openedin 1937, with thefirst showing beingMark Twains clas-sic "The Prince andthe Pauper". Display and Exhibit
  • 27. "Neon Script," Specimen sheet for Gillies Gothicfirst published Bold, from American Type Founders,in Signs of the 1934, reproduced in Heller & Filis.Times maga-zine, July 1933,from Alf Beck-ers 100 Alpha-bets.Steven Heller and Louis Filis recent book, Scripts: Elegant Lettering fromDesigns Golden Age provides some insight on the evolution of classic scriptletterforms. "In commercial contexts, a script would never be used for, say,a railway sign or other official posting," they write, "but it was common andappropriate for virtually any other type of signage . . . which demanded anad hoc or handwritten appearance." Display and Exhibit
  • 28. Indoors, video projection had em- braced a broad range of technolo- gies. In electronic television, there were ultra-high-brightness cathode- ray tubes. Direct-view (non-projection) systems improved to the point where this actual screen photo could be shot of a Telefunken matrix (shown at left) in 1935. Color projection was shown by 19381935 - Brussels Interna-tional Exposition. Le Cor-busier designed part of theFrench exhibit and the Belgianmodernist architect VictorBourgeois designed the GrandPalace. Display and Exhibit
  • 29. 1937 - The cathedral of light was a main aesthetic feature ofthe Nuremberg Rallies that consisted of 130 searchlights, atintervals of 12 metres (40 feet), aimed skyward to create a se-ries of vertical bars surrounding the audience. The effect wasa brilliant one, both from within the design and on the outside.British Ambassador Sir Nevile Henderson said that it “was bothsolemn and beautiful... like being in a cathedral of ice.” Display and Exhibit
  • 30. 1939 - New York World’s Fair. “TheWorld of Tomorrow.” The Fair includ-ed color photography, nylon, air con-ditioning, fluorescent lamps, the View-Master, and Smell-O-Vision. The fairwas also the occasion for the 1st WorldScience Fiction Convention. USSR Pavilion at New York World’s Fair. Exhibition in the USSR Pavilion included the life-size copy of the interior of Mayakovskaya station of the Moscow Metro. Designer of the station, Alexey Dushkin, was awarded Grand Prize of the 1939 New York World’s Fair. Display and Exhibit
  • 31. During the period from 1940 to 1960In 1941, Schnetzler made a mercury-thallium lamp having an efficiency of70 lm/W. In 1942, A.H. McKeag fromGEC (England) made a giant leap dis-covering calcium and strontium-acti-vated halophosphates. Lamps usingthis formulation were introduced in1946. In 1958 Philips marketed anintegral lamp, included the dischargetube within an evacuated bulb. Display and Exhibit
  • 32. 1940 - Lisbon World’s Fair. The Fair in order to celebrate both Foundation ofthe Portuguese State (1140) and the Restoration of Independence (1640),constituted the largest of its kind held in the country until Expo 98.Included thematic pavilions connected with the history, economic activities,culture, science, regions and territories. It also included a pavillion of Brasil,the only foreign country invited. It´s Chief Architect was Cottinelli Telmo. Display and Exhibit
  • 33. 1946 - Mars Signal Light Co. Chicago magazine ad print.1948 - Armstrong Asphalt Tile Ads -Future Styles. Display and Exhibit
  • 34. 1951 - Vegas Vic is the unofficial, yet most widely usedname for the Las Vegas, neon sign that resembles acowboy that was erected on the exterior of The PioneerClub. The sign designed by Pat Denner was a departurein graphic design from typeface based neon signs, to afriendly and welcoming human form. 1952 - Astro Boy was a Japanese manga car- toon adapted into the first, most popular ani- mated Japanese televi- sion series called anime. Display and Exhibit
  • 35. 1954 - GM Parade of Progress Show. The 1955 - Ad from Ameri-tent was illuminated on the outside with can Bicyclist for Deltacolored flood lights and on the inside light- lights and Carlisle tires.ed with multi-colored fluorescent tubes.1954 - Lytescape outdoor lighting. Display and Exhibit
  • 36. In some cases, as at Long Island Citys landmark Pepsi-Cola spectacular, thesign faithfully reproduces a logotype designed previously by others. But inmost examples, the lettering is the original work of sign painters in a neonshops layout department. Some New York signs that play the con- trast between script and block letters. (T.Rinaldi) Very often, sign makers played the con- trast between an elegant script and block letters. This practice seems to have peaked in the 1950s. Typically, the signs use script for the owners name, as though the sign was a personalized invitation. "Be- fore the advent of modern logo design, scripts gave the illusion that the business name was a signature," write Heller and Fili: "They made the impersonal person- al." Smith’s Bar & Grill, 701 8th Avenue, Man- hattan - DaNite Neon Sign Co., 1954. Display and Exhibit
  • 37. 1958 - Tokyo Tower. The tower is used 1958 - The Atomium in Brusselsto broadcast signals for Japanese me- Worlds Fair. It forms the shapedia outlets and has an observatory. of a unit cell of an iron crystal. Display and Exhibit
  • 38. One of the most recognized classics is theMcDonald’s single-arch “Speedy” sign, aprime example of which is in Green Bay, WIat 1587 Shawano Avenue. It is a parabolicsign of the type used from July, 1958 toAugust, 1959. Display and Exhibit
  • 39. During the period from 1960 to 1980William Louden and Kurt Schmidt(GE) makes the first practicable high-pressure sodium lamps in 1964.Philips made a leap forward in 1965with the introduction of the tin oxidesemiconductor mirror, and later thebetter tin-doped indium oxide film.This led in 1983 to a lamp reachingthe symbolic barrier of 200 lm/Wthe highest efficacy reached yet. Display and Exhibit
  • 40. Lettering of the 60s & 70s is a celebration of beau-tiful and stylistically diverse hand-drawn letteringbefore the advent of Letraset and the computer. Cus-tom lettering gave designers’ imaginations full reinto develop individu-alistic solutions un-constrained by typo-graphic practicalities.Saul Bass graphic de-signer and filmmak-er, known for his de-sign of film posters. Display and Exhibit
  • 41. 1962 - Space Needle at Century21 Exposition Seattle World’s Fair. Paul Thiry was the fair’s chief architect Seattle-born Minoru Yamasaki de- signed the The World of Science, the U.S. Science Exhibit with NASA mod- els and mockups of various satellites, and the Project Mercury capsule that had carried Alan Shepard into space. Victor Steinbrueck and John Gra- ham, Jr. designed the Space Needle. Display and Exhibit
  • 42. 1964 -New YorkWorld’s Fair“ P e a c ethroughU n d e r -standing” Display and Exhibit
  • 43. 1965 - A large-screen videooutlet appeared in the HoustonAstrodome, an electronic score-board (created by Fair-Play) withcentral video-matrix screen.In 1972, Stewart-Warner in-stalled the first (black-&-white,light-bulb-based) instant-re-play video scoreboard at Arrow-head Stadium in Kansas City.The famed Stardust sign became a symbolof Las Vegas. In 1967 the old circular signwas replaced by a new $500,000 roadsidesign. The new signs form was blurred by ascatter of star shapes, a shower of stardust.At night, incorporating neon and incandes-cent bulbs in the animation sequence, lightfell from the stars, sprinkling from the top ofthe 188-foot (57 m) tall sign down over theStardust name.In 1991, the Stardust signs Googie letter-ing was replaced with a subdued Futuratypeface. Display and Exhibit
  • 44. 1967 - The Pittsburgh Out-door Advertising Corporationinstalled the Westinghousesign using 3,000 feet (910 m)of neon tubing filled with anargon gas, giving the displayits characteristic blue color.What distinguished the West-inghouse sign was the com-mon perception that there werepractically an infinite number ofsequences in which the sign’selements could be lit, and that no sequence was ever repeated. In reality, thecycle of display patterns would repeat every six minutes, employing a sub-set of 120 lighting combinations created by Westinghouse designers. Toheighten interest in the sign, lighting patterns would be changed from timeto time by selecting different sequences from the 120 available displays. Display and Exhibit
  • 45. Expo ‘67 - MontrealRichard Buckminster Fullers The USSR pavilion is one of the The Canada pavilion is the larg-geodesic dome became one of most popular sites. Atomic en- est at the Expo. The centralthe symbols of Expo 67. It would ergy holds a place of honour structure is an inverted pyra-later house the Biosphère, an with its various peaceful appli- mid, called Katimavik, “meetingecowatch centre. The structure cations. The conquest of space place” in Inuktitut A stylized treeglows in the sunlight due to and a replica of the Vostok satel- with 1,500 fall-coloured leaves,acrylic skin and is lit up at night. lite occupies an important place. photographs of Canadians. Display and Exhibit
  • 46. 1969 - The Fernsehturm is a television tower in the city centre of Berlin, Germany. It is as asymbol of Berlin, which it remains today, as it is easily visible throughout the central and sub-urban districts of Berlin. With its height of 368 meters, it is the tallest structure in Germany. 1971 - Telkom Joburg Tower 269 m (883 ft). South Africa’s government run and the coun- try’s largest telecommunications company. Display and Exhibit
  • 47. 1973 - four high-brightness color Eidophor pro- jectors provided video viewing on the “Telescreen” at the indoor Capital Centre in Landover, Maryland. Eidophor’s basic technology was the use of electrostatic charges to deform an oil surface. Eidophor was eighty times brighter than CRT. Telescreen was “theatre television” where tele- vision images would be broadcast onto screens.1974 - Dramalux,and Lumiere projectordownlighting Lytes-pots at the San Francis-co Museum of Art. Thedownlighting appealto the taste for modernstyle. With contempo-rary interiors featuringtrack lighting as an iconof modern design. Display and Exhibit
  • 48. Okinawa ‘75 World’s Fair.To commemorate the American handover of Okinawa to Japan in 1972. The theme of the exposition was the oceans, andfocused on oceanographic technologies, marine life, and oceanic cultures. The motto was “The sea we would like to see” Expo from AquapolisAquapolis - The centerpiece of Expo 75, was a floating city designed by Japanese architect Kiyonori Kikutake. It was envisionedas a concept of how humans could live harmoniously on the ocean, and a prototype for marine communities.WOS Group Pavilion USA Pavilion Mitsui Childrens Water Pavilion Display and Exhibit
  • 49. 1976 - Interior lighting design image of Louisiana Superdome GTE Sylvania.1977 - Studio 54 Light DJ view. Display and Exhibit
  • 50. During the period from 1980 to 20001980 - Entertainment Lighting Con-sole product developed for use at Dis-ney’s EPCOT. 1981 Kliegl Command.1992 ETC introduces the Source FourERS Sensor dimmer. 1994 HorizonControls introduces software to allowany Win3.1 computer to control light-ing. 1998 Rosco/ET Eclipse dedicatedcontrol surface for Horizon Controls. Display and Exhibit
  • 51. 1980 - The first installation of what Mitsubishicalled Diamond Vision was at Dodger Stadium inIt was followed by Astrovision (Panasonic), Starvi-sion (EEV), Super Color Vision (Toshiba), Jumbo-Tron (Sony), and a system from Omega’s sportstiming group, all with variations on the tube idea.1981 - Astro Wars, portable video game toy was madewith Vacuum Fluorescent Display (invented in Japanin 1967). VFD emits a bright light with high contrastand support display elements of various colours. 1982 - Disney World´s Epcot Center sign completed. Display and Exhibit
  • 52. 1982 - World’s Fair Knoxville, Tennessee. Electric En-ergy Exhibit, The Sunsphere (266 ft.) had multi sensorydisplays called sunscopes. 1984 - Brown Boveri Research, Switzer- land invented the structure for passive- matrix LCD. This technology is not backlit, active matrix is, and produces less contrast. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly. This is the prototype with 540x270 pixels. Display and Exhibit
  • 53. 1984 - Caesar´s Palace sign is the first of a new generation of four color, computerized electron- ic message centers.1988 - Expo 88 World’sFair, Brisbane, Australia.Sound sensitive fountainsoutside the West GermanPavilion. High Definition TVreceived its premiere at theJapan Pavilion and text-basedInternet at the Swiss Pavilion. Display and Exhibit
  • 54. The 1991 Times Square sign was on dis-play for 13 years. It featured a $3 mil-lion display with the world’s largestCoca-Cola bottle and was the only TimesSquare billboard with a daytime and even-ing performance, as 12,000 neon andincandescent lights powered up to add to thenight time show. 1993 - Nichia Chemical intro- duced an outdoor-brightness blue LED developed by Shu- ji Nakamura. For “pioneer- ing development of emissive technology for large outdoor video screens,” both Mit- subishi and Nakamura re- ceived Emmy awards this year. Display and Exhibit
  • 55. 1994 - OrientalPearl Radio & TVTower, Shangai, China.The tower is brightlylit in different LED se-quences at night. Kobe Luminarie is a light festival held in Kobe, Ja- pan, every December since 1995. The installa- tion itself is produced by Valerio Festi and Hiroka- zu Imaoka. Lights are kept up for about two weeks and turned on for a few hours each evening. Each light is individually hand-painted. Display and Exhibit
  • 56. 1998 - The biggest advertiser - in terms of neon acreage - the Nasdaq market. A $15 million, multimedia kaleidoscope of stock tickers, video screens and colorful billboards that festo on the cylindrical tower of the building on Broadway be-Expo ’98 Lisbon - Its mot- tween 42nd and 43rdto “The Oceans, a Heritage Streets. The sign was roughly thefor the Future” was in- size of three basketball courts.tended as an appeal to theworld to protect the sea.The accompanying WorldMaritime Summit broughtscientific evidence andled to the creation of theEuropean Maritime Agency.The main feature was ashow called AquaMatrix,video and light projec-tion, pyrotechnics, fireand an acrobat walk-ing a wheel over a cable. Display and Exhibit
  • 57. Period from 2000 to 2012.With high brightness resolution LEDs, thebillboard has been transformed into the high-tech electronic display. Changing a sign mes-sage, it’s a click with a mouse, rather thansending out a crew to pull down and replacea billboard message. High Efficiency Plasma(HEP) technology is a new and unique genreof electrodeless, RF driven lighting inventedby Ceravision. Display and Exhibit
  • 58. 2000 - Interior viewof Sony Center atrium,Berlin, by Helmut Jahn,during artificial sun-set sequence. Lightingdesign Yann Kersalé 2000 - Kinetic Light Installa- tion artist Paul Tzanetopoulos. SEGD Honor Award. This dy- namic landmark gateway into LAX airport includes 32-feet- high letterforms, a ring of fifteen 120-feet-tall pylons forming a bold gateway into the airport. Display and Exhibit
  • 59. 2003 - Olafur Eliassons The Weather Projectat Tate Modern, London. 2004 - D-Tower, Doetinchem, The Netherlands by Lars Spuybroek, NOX, indicating love as the dominant mood of citizens. 2004 - The new Times Square Coca- Cola digital sign includs GPS to manage the controls. Trillions of colors, a 30-ton display uses more than 2.6 million LEDs. 32 sculpted LED screens enable the sign to have a 60” vertical and a unique 140º horizontal viewing angle. 2002 - Olym- pic rings Salt Lake City Winter Games, spanned 600’ on a near- by hillside. They were only on dur- ing the Olympics. Display and Exhibit
  • 60. 2005 - Guinness World Records has named A Sympho-ny of Lights, the worlds largest permanent light and sound show.It is a synchronised building exterior decorative light and laser multimedia dis-play, featuring 44 buildings on both sides of the Victoria Harbour of Hong Kongaccompanied by music. The technology was developed by Australian firm Laser-vision and cost 44 million HK dollars and is held every night for ten minutes. Display and Exhibit
  • 61. 2008 - TRIPLE BRIDGE GATEWAY PKSB Architects with Leni Schwendinger Light Projects. Manhattan’s Port Authority Bus Terminal. It is the biggest bus sta- tion in the United States and the busiest in the world by traffic volume. Reflective panels emit a carpet of light onto the roadbed creating a luminous urban “room”.July 2006 - Coney Island Parachute Jump wasunveiled in Recipient of New York Construc-tion Magazine’s “Award of Merit”, the New YorkLandmarks Conservancy’s “Lucy G. Moses Pres-ervation Award” and the highest lighting designindustry award, The Lumen. The revisualizationof the landmark 277-foot structure, widely con-sidered Brooklyn’s answer to the “Eiffel Tower”. Display and Exhibit
  • 62. 2008 - HauptwacheLuminale, Frankfurt.2009 - The GP2X Wiz game con-sole uses an AMOLED (active-matrixorganic light - emitting diode) display technology.2009 - Eden Park developed a microplasmapanel. UV is used to excite phosphor to generatevisible light. The electrodes are external tothe microplasma cavities where the UV is gen-erated, working life will be 50,000 hours.The panels contain no mercury, it pro-vides over 30 lumens/watt, projected torise to 100 lumens/watt in the near future. Display and Exhibit
  • 63. Buildings as video screens2009 - Harrah’s Resort Media Façade. DesignTeam: Mike Hansen (digital media producer) GeorgeRobbins (art director), Zach Horn (motion graphics).Color Kinetics (LEDs), C-nario (control system software), 2010 - Better City, Better Life, the theme of Expo Shanghai China. Dream Cube: Society for Environmental Graphic Design Honor Award. 2010 World Expo Shanghai Corporate Pavilion Display and Exhibit
  • 64. 2011 - Burton Inc. Japan rolls out True3D laser plasma display.Building mapping video projection2011 - Nomada produce, designand operate the Sharjah Light Fes-tival (UAE). This team of artists andtechnicians discover new new vi-sions when it comes to create anevent. Light, image, video, soundand mapping are the techniques. Display and Exhibit
  • 65. The German company DISTEC developed the first so- Signs in the highway illuminat-lar-driven backlit scroller for outdoor advertising. The ed at night may not exceed asolar unit uses premium quality monocrystalline pan-els manufactured by Schott®. The solar unit tracks maximum luminance level ofthe course of the sun by a two-axis tracking system seven hundred fifty (750) cd/in an angle of horizontally up to 270°, and verti- m² or Nits, regardless of thecally up to 85° and generates approximately 40% method of illumination.more power than conventional, static solar cells. Asadditional benefit, the tracking reduces the panelspace needed to provide the requisite energy. Canada’s first LED video billboard network (four connected screens) created by Lightvision. The pos- sibility of a citywide or regional display-advertising network. Display and Exhibit
  • 66. 2011 - "Solar Equation" is a large-scale artinstallation of a faithful simulation of the Sun,100 million times smaller than the real thing.Commissioned by the Light in Winter Festivalin Melbourne, the piece features the world’slargest spherical balloon, which istethered over Federation Square andanimated using five projectors. The solar anima-tion on the balloon is generated by live mathe-matical equations that simulate the turbulence,flares and sunspots that can be seen on thesurface of the Sun. This produces a constant-ly changing display that never repeats itself. Dior building, 57th St., Manhattan. Rosco LED LitePads provide the look of smooth highlight- to-shadow transitions in decorative sheets. Display and Exhibit
  • 67. 2011 - Pan Arab Games produc-tion of the world’s largest videoscreen to date. 55000 individualvideo pixels sync with 44000 feetof LED net spread across a stadium.2012 - London Olympics. The Cauldron.Thomas Heatherwick and Studio one builta 204 petals in 30’ stems olympic flame. Display and Exhibit
  • 68. 2012 - Expo Chicago, Navy Pier Contemporaryand Modern Art Exhibit. Studio Gang’s Architec-tural design.2012 - RichardOsborne lightinstalla tions.2012 - LaserS c u l p t u reD e u t s c h eN a t i o n a lBibliothek. Display and Exhibit
  • 69. 2012 - Daniel Burenand 1024 Architecture.Each year, Monumentainvites an internation-ally renowned artist toconceive a site-specificinstallation for the greatnave of the Grand Pal-ais in Paris. A vastatrium space with13,500 square me-ters. Buren decided to gofor something not on a“monumental” scalebut rather on a “hu-manistic” scale. *He filled the space withhundreds of coloredglass disks, creatingsurreal colored forest thathe called Excentrique(s). Display and Exhibit
  • 70. Eurovision Song Contest 2012 - Baku Crystal Hall in Azerbaijan. Lighting designer Jerry Appelt. The largest music tele- vision program in the world. Live broadcasts, live view- ing and internet viewers. MA Lighting consoles - all lighting, triggered via Timecode 1,400 moving lights (2,891 lighting fixtures) with 39,860 parameters.Miami Tower, an iconic sym-bol of the city, has reinvent-ed the city skyline with a newstate-of-the-art exteri-or LED lighting system.This will save the build-ing owner nearly $260,000annually and reduce light-ing related energy by 92%. Display and Exhibit

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