Learning Goals
in Serious Game Specification
Jože Rugelj
University of Ljubljana
Faculty of Education
Chair of Didactics o...
Introduction
§  Characteristics of new efficient approaches
to education:
Ø student centered
Ø problem based
Ø motivat...
Games and learning
§  Children’s play is important activity where they develop
skills for life regardless of age or level...
Serious Games
§  Serious games must
Ø have well defined learning goals and
Ø promote development of important strategie...
§  In well designed serious games instructional content is
blurred within game characteristics.
§  Students play the gam...
§  The first step in development process is to determine
what you want the learning outcomes to be!
(e.g. affective chang...
§  Different types of game design techniques to effectively
convey knowledge.
§  Knowledge to be taught dictates the des...
§  Classification schemes == hierarchies for defining
knowledge (Bloom's taxonomy):
Ø lower levels prerequisite for uppe...
Game design process - SADDIE
Phases in production process
§  Specification of “didactical problem”
§  Analysis
curricull...
Specification and analysis
§  Identification of learning goals and outcomes
§  Analysis of learning outcomes (Kapp 2012)...
Web portal for serious games at FE UL
PSST IP Linz 2013
11
§  hrast.pef.uni-lj.si/igre
§  hrast.pef.uni-lj.si/games
Declarative knowledge
§  = factual knowledge = verbal knowlege
§  Any piece of info that can be learned through
memoriza...
Specification phase
§  It is mainly didactical task
§  Done by teacher or other expert for teaching/learning
§  Identif...
Methods for teaching facts
§  Elaboration
linking new info with previous info, showing relation of new facts
with previou...
Game techniques for declarative knowledge
Stories
§  Brain has natural affinity to narrative construction.
Ø  Facts can ...
Sorting and matching
§  Learner needs to place content into appropriate location
or connect two objects/facts (on factual...
“Johnny’s World of Hardware”
§  Diploma thesis
§  The goal of the game is to help Johnny to repair
computer.
§  Learnin...
PSST IP Linz 2013
18
Conceptual knowledge
§  Grouping of similar or related ideas, events or objects
§  They have common attribute or set of ...
“World of Variables” game
§  Diploma thesis
§  The goal of the game is to organize the logistics for delivery
of goods t...
Learning goals
§  Pupil after playing a game
Ø  understands the idea of variable,
Ø  knows variable has a name,
Ø  is ...
Game 1: Cleaning up the mess in the lab
Game 2: Carriers
“Sick computers” game
§ Student project in the Use of ICT in Education course
§ The learning goal of the game is to expl...
26
PSST IP Linz 2013
Didactic game about functions/procedures
TIME MESH game
PSST IP Linz 2013
29
§  Serious learning game for learning history
topics of common interest, important fo...
TIME MESH
PSST IP Linz 2013
30
§  Adventure game, player moves back to history, using time
machine (stories).
§  The game helps to imagine life in cert...
Rule-based knowlege
§  Rule is a statement that express relationship between concepts.
§  Rules provide parameters dicta...
“Nick and Social Networks” game
With the help of applications will make students familiar about the pros
and cons of socia...
The objectives of the game are that the student learns get
familiar with social network, its strengths and weaknesses. It
...
PSST IP Linz 2013
35
Procedural knowledge
§  A series of steps that need to bo followed in particular
order to reach a specific outcome
§  St...
“Forced landing” game
PSST IP Linz 2013
37
Fiona and Computer Network
§  Student project in the Use of ICT in Education course
§  The goal of the game is to help F...
Learning goals and goals of the game
§  Learning goals are usually not identical to goals of the
game
§  Computer games ...
Measurement vs. Completion Achievements
§  Measurement Achievements (MA)
Ø  MA given to player for completing task to ce...
Ø  rewards can decrease players sense of authonomy
=> less intrinsic motivation
Ø  getting a reward also decrease willin...
Achievement Difficulty
§  Actual difficulty needs to be on a level, that is attainable
but challenging for players. (i.e....
Goal Orientation
§  Two types of goal orientation:
Ø performance orientation
Ø mastery orientation
§  Performance orie...
§  Permanence and visibilty of achievements
§  Negative achievements
Ø  do not punish player for failures
Ø  rather pr...
Use of games in classroom
§  Limited time for use of alternative teaching/learning
resources in formal education
§  Hint...
Suggested methodologies
§  Game as a motivation before the lecture
§  Teacher playing game during the lecture
§  Game a...
Motivation before the lecture
§  The importance of motivation
§  The game environment can be used to focus the student’s...
Teacher playing game during the lecture
§  Still traditional approach, but with the attractive/multimedia
elements
§  Il...
Game as a group activity in the classroom
§  In collaboration with pupils from other locations
§  Constructivistic appro...
Game as a home activity
§  As a continuation of the first two methods
§  As a independent activity, but followed by anal...
Project SEGAN (LLP)
PSST IP Linz 2013
51
SEGAN - Community of Practice about Serious Games
§  It produces reports on the design, development, and
evaluation of Se...
Serious games projects
§ Design of serious games is suitable for teacher
education.
§ Students at the Faculty of Educati...
Conclusions
§  Game can be very “powerful” instructional technology.
§  Its use can be justified by all relevant learnin...
Learning goals in serious games
Learning goals in serious games
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Learning goals in serious games

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Presentation for PSST IP summer school 2013, Linz
Author: dr. Joze Rugelj, Assoc.Prof.

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Learning goals in serious games

  1. 1. Learning Goals in Serious Game Specification Jože Rugelj University of Ljubljana Faculty of Education Chair of Didactics of Computer Science PSST IP Linz 2013 1
  2. 2. Introduction §  Characteristics of new efficient approaches to education: Ø student centered Ø problem based Ø motivational Ø active Ø directed to higher ordered educational goals Ø supported by ICT §  Serious games can integrate most of the characterstics mentioned above. §  Take the simplest and most efficient technology! PSST IP Linz 2013 2
  3. 3. Games and learning §  Children’s play is important activity where they develop skills for life regardless of age or level of development: Ø  quick adoption to new circumstances Ø  handling change with ease. §  When child plays, she discovers concepts from real world and fundamental relationships between them are made. §  Games provide motivation for learning, thus increasing the chance that the desired learning outcomes will be achieved. §  But motivation is just prerequisite for learning. It is not enough! PSST IP Linz 2013 3
  4. 4. Serious Games §  Serious games must Ø have well defined learning goals and Ø promote development of important strategies and skills to increase cognitive and intellectual abilities of learners. §  Important elements contributing to educational values of games are sensual stimuli, fantasy, challenge and curiosity (desire to know or learn). PSST IP Linz 2013 4
  5. 5. §  In well designed serious games instructional content is blurred within game characteristics. §  Students play the game and have fun, forgetting about the “learning” part of the experience. (Eventhough they are constantly presented with new concepts which they have to adapt in order to be successful in game.) §  Important role of pedagogs and cognitive psychologists in definition of learning goals and didactical approaches in serious learning games design. PSST IP Linz 2013 5
  6. 6. §  The first step in development process is to determine what you want the learning outcomes to be! (e.g. affective change, behavioural change, productivity improvement, what will be result of game intervention, ...) §  Learning goals are exprresed in terms of learning outcomes. §  What people learn? (i.e. different types of knowledge:) Ø  facts Ø  concepts Ø  rules Ø  procedures Ø  soft skills PSST IP Linz 2013 6
  7. 7. §  Different types of game design techniques to effectively convey knowledge. §  Knowledge to be taught dictates the design techniques and game mechanics. §  ! Mistake: Using same techniques to teach different types of knowledge PSST IP Linz 2013 7
  8. 8. §  Classification schemes == hierarchies for defining knowledge (Bloom's taxonomy): Ø lower levels prerequisite for upper Ø identification of type of content and the domains §  Meno’s paradox: “How can you learn something you know nothing of?” PSST IP Linz 2013 8
  9. 9. Game design process - SADDIE Phases in production process §  Specification of “didactical problem” §  Analysis curricullum, time, resources, technology, … §  Design content, “story”, graphical, feedback, … §  Development §  Implementation §  Testing and Evaluation PSST IP Linz 2013 9
  10. 10. Specification and analysis §  Identification of learning goals and outcomes §  Analysis of learning outcomes (Kapp 2012): Ø type of knowledge required Ø didactical methods (instructional strategies) needed Ø game techniques §  Types of knowledge to be learned (?taught): Ø  declarative Ø  conceptual Ø  rule-based Ø  procedural Ø  soft skills PSST IP Linz 2013 10
  11. 11. Web portal for serious games at FE UL PSST IP Linz 2013 11 §  hrast.pef.uni-lj.si/igre §  hrast.pef.uni-lj.si/games
  12. 12. Declarative knowledge §  = factual knowledge = verbal knowlege §  Any piece of info that can be learned through memorization §  Consists of Ø  facts Ø  terminology Ø  jargon, acronyms §  Needed for higher levels, facts need to be learned first §  Usually based on behaviourist learning theory PSST IP Linz 2013 12
  13. 13. Specification phase §  It is mainly didactical task §  Done by teacher or other expert for teaching/learning §  Identifiaction of weak points in learning process that need special support §  Some general ideas about the solution of the identified problem. §  Analysis phase should bring more info and the framework for the final product (i.e. didactic game) PSST IP Linz 2013 13
  14. 14. Methods for teaching facts §  Elaboration linking new info with previous info, showing relation of new facts with previous knowledge (context) §  Organising placing facts into logical groupings, "chunking” §  Association linking term to its image, linking term to its definition §  Repetition PSST IP Linz 2013 14
  15. 15. Game techniques for declarative knowledge Stories §  Brain has natural affinity to narrative construction. Ø  Facts can be better remembered when told in a story than presented as a list. Ø  Legal arguments are more convincing in a narrative tale than in a legal precedent. §  Elaboration techniques for embedding facts in known context. PSST IP Linz 2013 15
  16. 16. Sorting and matching §  Learner needs to place content into appropriate location or connect two objects/facts (on factual level or above) Ø  Example: Johnny’s World of Hardware Replayability §  Playing games more times, with some changing elements, suports memorization. §  Keeping content fresh, but still conected to facts that need to be memorized. Ø  Examples: Calculus drill games PSST IP Linz 2013 16
  17. 17. “Johnny’s World of Hardware” §  Diploma thesis §  The goal of the game is to help Johnny to repair computer. §  Learning goal: Ø  getting familiar with PC components §  Mini games for collecting points (repetition, matching) §  Points needed to buy damaged components (story) §  Target audience: primary school SEGAN project - Zaragoza 2012 17
  18. 18. PSST IP Linz 2013 18
  19. 19. Conceptual knowledge §  Grouping of similar or related ideas, events or objects §  They have common attribute or set of attributes (ex: concepts of: free market, math proofs, virus, Trojan horse ...) §  Instructional strategies Ø  Methaphoric devices Ø  Examples and non-examples Ø  Attribute classification §  Game techniques Ø  Matching and sorting items or contents based on the attributes of that items, not based on memorisation Ø  Experiencing the concept players are learning about Ø  Experiencing examples and non-examples of the concept PSST IP Linz 2013 19
  20. 20. “World of Variables” game §  Diploma thesis §  The goal of the game is to organize the logistics for delivery of goods to some planets in the universe. §  Learning goals: Ø  variables (types, declarations,…) Ø  assignments §  Target audience: primary school §  Semantic model, independent of syntax §  Understanding of concepts 20 PSST IP Linz 2013
  21. 21. Learning goals §  Pupil after playing a game Ø  understands the idea of variable, Ø  knows variable has a name, Ø  is aquainted with with types of variables, Ø  is aware of the fact that different types are not compatible, Ø  knows that different types require different amount of memory, Ø  is familiar with assignement statements, Ø  is aware of meaning of both “sides” of assignment, Ø  knows what is the value of variable after assignment, Ø  can predict the values of variables after executing part of a program (with several assignements).
  22. 22. Game 1: Cleaning up the mess in the lab
  23. 23. Game 2: Carriers
  24. 24. “Sick computers” game § Student project in the Use of ICT in Education course § The learning goal of the game is to explain how viruses, worms and Trojan horses affect computers. § Target audience: secondary school § Understanding of concepts § Game technique: Doctor (player) talks with the patients and tries to diagnose their “disease”. Then he can prescribe appropriate medicine. PSST IP Linz 2013 25
  25. 25. 26 PSST IP Linz 2013
  26. 26. Didactic game about functions/procedures
  27. 27. TIME MESH game PSST IP Linz 2013 29 §  Serious learning game for learning history topics of common interest, important for European history §  EU LLP Comenius 2 years project, 7 partners from 6 EU countries (PT, ES, BE, UK, EE, SI)
  28. 28. TIME MESH PSST IP Linz 2013 30
  29. 29. §  Adventure game, player moves back to history, using time machine (stories). §  The game helps to imagine life in certain history periods and to get familiar with certain concepts (e.g. Enigma machine) §  Player is active participant in historical events. §  Option for collaborative playing §  Can be used in a classroom as introductory activity or for revision, or as a homework §  http://www.timemesh.eu PSST IP Linz 2013 31
  30. 30. Rule-based knowlege §  Rule is a statement that express relationship between concepts. §  Rules provide parameters dictating a preferred behaviour with predicatble results (e.g. etiquete). §  Instructional strategies Ø Providing examples Ø Role playing §  Game techniques: Ø experience consequences of not following the rule, Ø simulate work tasks, Ø playing board games that outlines and provides the rules that must be learned, Ø sorting or matching items according to rules to be learned. PSST IP Linz 2013 32
  31. 31. “Nick and Social Networks” game With the help of applications will make students familiar about the pros and cons of social networks. The player helps the main character Niko to increase its popularity so that the correct decisions relating to the use of social networks to collect points and consequentlly friends. Every correct decision increases the number of friends who want to attend his birthday party. PSST IP Linz 2013 33
  32. 32. The objectives of the game are that the student learns get familiar with social network, its strengths and weaknesses. It can also provide information and develop the right attitude toward the protection of property rights and privacy. The game is aimed at primary school children, who learn about internet safety and social networking. PSST IP Linz 2013 34
  33. 33. PSST IP Linz 2013 35
  34. 34. Procedural knowledge §  A series of steps that need to bo followed in particular order to reach a specific outcome §  Step by step instructions for performing a task §  Instructional strategies Ø Start with a “big picture” Ø Teach “how” and “why” §  Game techniques Ø Practice following the procedure in difficult situation (simulator) Ø Presenting challenge to overcome following the procedure Ø Experiencing procedure in various modes (demo, tutorial, play mode/test, free play, ...) PSST IP Linz 2013 36
  35. 35. “Forced landing” game PSST IP Linz 2013 37
  36. 36. Fiona and Computer Network §  Student project in the Use of ICT in Education course §  The goal of the game is to help Fiona to connect to the Internet and to set up local area network §  Learning goals: Ø  to set up networking components §  Target audience: secondary school §  Learning procedures needed to set up a local area network PSST IP Linz 2013 38
  37. 37. Learning goals and goals of the game §  Learning goals are usually not identical to goals of the game §  Computer games motivate via fun, instant visual feedback, challenge, curiosity and fantasy, active participation, intrinsic and prompt feedback, challenging (achievable) goals and mix of uncertainty and open-endedness. §  Achivements represent goals in the game. §  They affect: Ø  performance, Ø  motivation, Ø  attitude. PSST IP Linz 2013 39
  38. 38. Measurement vs. Completion Achievements §  Measurement Achievements (MA) Ø  MA given to player for completing task to certain degree. Ø  Performace measured against other players, own performance or standard set by game designers. Ø  MA are evalutive in nature => can be linked to feedback =>reflection increases perception of competence =>intrinsic motivation §  Completion Acheivements (CA) Ø  offered as an award for completening task Ø  no assessment of player’s performance of task Ø  performance contingent vs. non-performace contingent achiv.; (latter requires no skills or efforts to complete) PSST IP Linz 2013 40
  39. 39. Ø  rewards can decrease players sense of authonomy => less intrinsic motivation Ø  getting a reward also decrease willingness for replay Ø  players less likely take risks (to get a reward earlier) §  Boring tasks need to be “paired” with extrinsic motivations (e.g. achievements) Ø  intrinsic motivation not affected by rewards §  Interesting tasks do not need achivements, learners just need feedback. PSST IP Linz 2013 41
  40. 40. Achievement Difficulty §  Actual difficulty needs to be on a level, that is attainable but challenging for players. (i.e. ZPD) => best performance and enjoyment §  Player’s efficacy must be high enough for them to feel confident in attempting it. §  Four factors affecting self efficacy: 1. level of expertise on the subject matter 2. vicarious* experience (e.g. using leaderboard) *experienced in the imagination through the feelings/actions of another person 3. social persuasion: givng s.o. verbal boost (e.g. “well done”) 4. how a person feels: stress level, emotional condition, percieved physical state. PSST IP Linz 2013 42
  41. 41. Goal Orientation §  Two types of goal orientation: Ø performance orientation Ø mastery orientation §  Performance orientation: Ø  player concerned with others’ performance Ø  typical for games Ø  less in-game risks Ø  less exploration Ø  player typically perform better only with simple, non-complex tasks §  For complex tasks (creativity, strategies) instill mastery orientation. PSST IP Linz 2013 43
  42. 42. §  Permanence and visibilty of achievements §  Negative achievements Ø  do not punish player for failures Ø  rather provide feedback within the system §  Achivements as currency Ø  currency for completening tasks Ø  use currency to enhance game Ø  it shoud not be the main reason for playing §  Competitive vs. non-competitive (cooperative) achievements Ø  advanced players can help less experienced Ø  keep groups small Ø  metrics should assess individual performance within group PSST IP Linz 2013 44
  43. 43. Use of games in classroom §  Limited time for use of alternative teaching/learning resources in formal education §  Hints how to overcome this problem §  Each of the presented methods has some positive effects on teaching/learning PSST IP Linz 2013 45
  44. 44. Suggested methodologies §  Game as a motivation before the lecture §  Teacher playing game during the lecture §  Game as a group activity in the classroom §  Game as a home activity / independent learning PSST IP Linz 2013 46
  45. 45. Motivation before the lecture §  The importance of motivation §  The game environment can be used to focus the student’s attention on what needs to be learned §  Motivational elements Ø  Illustration of the era (time and space) Ø  Identification with the main character §  Activities: Ø  Teacher showing scenes as an illustration before the lesson Ø  Teacher showing parts of the game before the lesson §  Recommendation: the activity should be followed by gameplay PSST IP Linz 2013 47
  46. 46. Teacher playing game during the lecture §  Still traditional approach, but with the attractive/multimedia elements §  Illustration of the teacher’s explanation of the theme §  Motivational elements: Ø  Illustration of the era (time and space) Ø  Identification with the main character §  Activities: Ø  Teacher playing parts of a game during the lesson Ø  Teacher playing minigames during the lesson §  Recommendation: the activity should be followed by gameplay PSST IP Linz 2013 48
  47. 47. Game as a group activity in the classroom §  In collaboration with pupils from other locations §  Constructivistic approach – not classical lectures §  Motivational elements: Ø  Flow experience Ø  Challenge of the game that should fit the ability of the player Ø  Feeling of control of the situation Ø  Clear, appropriate and immediate feedback Ø  Peer interaction Ø  Collaboration: responsibility for the learning outcomes of the group and others §  Activities: Playing the game in groups during the lesson §  Recommendation: time consuming – plan enough time (min. 2 hours) PSST IP Linz 2013 49
  48. 48. Game as a home activity §  As a continuation of the first two methods §  As a independent activity, but followed by analysis and reflection in classroom §  Motivational elements: Ø  Flow experience Ø  Challenge of the game that should fit the ability of the player Ø  Feeling of control of the situation Ø  Clear, appropriate and immediate feedback §  Activities: Ø  Home activity followed by discussion/group work in classroom based on the game, making joint conclusion, detecting and correcting misunderstandings §  Recomendation: some initial background is needed PSST IP Linz 2013 50
  49. 49. Project SEGAN (LLP) PSST IP Linz 2013 51
  50. 50. SEGAN - Community of Practice about Serious Games §  It produces reports on the design, development, and evaluation of Serious Games and their use in specific contexts. §  Network supported by virtual tools and face to face events. §  SEGAN results also include: Ø  development of a repository with products and projects related to Serious Games Ø  setting up of small-scale, local events on the design and development of Serious Games Ø  setting up of a series of annual European conferences and Summer Schools http://seriousgamesnet.eu PSST IP Linz 2013 52
  51. 51. Serious games projects § Design of serious games is suitable for teacher education. § Students at the Faculty of Education, UL, design and implement serious games as their study tasks § The profile of graduates from “CS in education” § Different learning goals for students: Ø  analysis of all crucial elements, Ø  identification of learning goals by teachers / curriculum, Ø  definition of a didactical approach, Ø  specification of technical requirements, Ø  implementation, Ø  testing and evaluation, 53 PSST IP Linz 2013
  52. 52. Conclusions §  Game can be very “powerful” instructional technology. §  Its use can be justified by all relevant learning theories. §  But it can only be efficient when it is properly designed and properly integrated into learning / teaching! §  Very challenging topic in computer science teacher education! PSST IP Linz 2013 54
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