“Paradigm Shift In Marketing And Finance Spectrum Of Business In India” Topic : Agro-Rural Financing : Emerging Dimensions Ashok Sengupta*, Shaukat Ali,*Agriculture, like all sectors of the economy, needs finance for its development. This paperattempts to analyze the issues in agricultural finance in India. The analysis reveals that the creditdelivery to the agriculture sector continues to be inadequate. It appears that the banking system isstill hesitant on various grounds to purvey credit to small and marginal farmers. If the recentexponential increase in food prices is an indication, India faces the risk of food crisis.Agriculture is defined as the science and practice of activities relating to, processing, marketing,distribution, utilization, and trade of food, feed and fiber. Agriculture remains an importantsector; it is highly diverse, its contribution in National GDP is approximately 17.2% and itsupports the majority of its population for livelihood. Agriculture growth is likely to be about 3.5% per annum during the 11th five year plan (2007-12).Farmers have inadequate savings to finance farming and other economic activities. An efficientagro-infrastructure helps in the optimization of resource use, output management, increase infarm incomes, widening of markets, growth of agro-based industry, addition to national incomethrough value addition, and employment creation. Agriculture finance is disbursed throughmultiagency networks consisting of Commercial Bank (CBs), Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) andCorporative.Keywords: Agriculture, Finance, Infrastructure, GDP, Rural, Marketing, Commercial Bank,Regional Rural Banks.*Asst.Professor, Braj Institute Of Management & Technology, Aligarh
INTRODUCTIONAgriculture has been a way of life and continues to be the single most important livelihood of themasses. Agricultural policy focus in India across decades has been on self-sufficiency and self-reliance in foodgrains production. Considerable progress has been made on this front. Foodgrainsproduction rose from 52 million tonnes in 1951-52 to 244.78 million tonnes in 2010-11. Theshare of agriculture in real GDP has fallen given its lower growth rate relative to industry andservices. However, what is of concern is that growth in the agricultural sector has quite oftenfallen short of the Plan targets. During the period 1960-61 to 2010-11, food grains productiongrew at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of around 2 percent. In fact, the Ninth andTenth Five Year Plans witnessed agricultural sectoral growth rate of 2.44 per cent and 2.30 percent respectively compared to 4.72 percent during Eighth Five Year Plan. During the currentFive Year plan, agriculture growth is estimated at 3.28 per cent against a target of 4 per cent.CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIAN ECONOMYAgriculture including allied activities, accounted for 14.5 per cent of gross domestic product(GDP) at 2004-05 prices, in 2010-11 as compared to 14.7 per cent in 2009-10. Notwithstandingthe declining trend in agriculture’s share in the GDP, it is critical from the income distributionperspective as it accounted for about 58 per cent employment in the country according to Census2001. Hence growth in agriculture and allied sectors remains a ‘necessary condition’ forinclusive growth. In terms of composition, out of the total share of 14.5 per cent that agricultureand allied sectors had in GDP in 2010-11, agriculture alone accounted for 12.3 per cent, followedby forestry and logging at 1.4 percent and fishing at 0.7 per cent . Reasonable growth inagriculture is important both from the nutritional point of view as well as to control food pricesand overall headline inflation.
a) Performance Of The Agriculture Sector During The Current Five Year Plan (2007-2012)The average annual growth in agriculture and allied sectors realized during the first four years ofthe Eleventh Plan Period, i.e. 2007-08 to 2010-11, is 3.5 per cent against the targeted growth rateof 4 per cent. Agriculture and allied sectors recordedAgriculture Sector: Key Indicators (per cent) 2009-10 2010- 2011-1S. no Item @ 11* 2 ** GDP – share and growth (at 2004-051 prices) Growth in GDP in agriculture & allied sectors 1 7 2.5 Share in GDP - Agriculture and allied sectors 14.7 14.5 13.9 Agriculture 12.4 12.3 Forestry and logging 1.5 1.4 Fishing 0.8 0.72 Share in total Gross Capital Formation in the Country (per cent at 2004-05 prices) Share of agriculture & allied sectors in total Gross Capital Formation 7.1 7.2 Agriculture 6.6 6.6 Forestry and logging 0.1 0.1 Fishing 0.5 0.53 Employment in the agriculture sector as share of total workers as per census 2001 58.2Notes: @ Provisional Estimates *Quick Estimates **Advance EstimatesGROSS CAPITAL FORMATION IN AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED SECTORS
As a proportion of the value added by agriculture to GDP, Gross Capital Formation (GCF) inagriculture and allied sectors rose to 20.1 per cent in 2010-11 from 13.5 per cent in 2004-05 at2004-05 prices this is a positive trend. However, the share of agriculture and allied sectors’ GCFin overall GCF of the economy at 2004-05 prices shows a mixed trend during the same period.GCF in Agriculture and Allied Activities (Figures in crore at 2004-05prices) Agriculture & alliedYear activities GCF/GDP in agriculture GCF GDP & allied activities2004-05 76096 565426 13.52005-06 86604 594487 14.62006-07 92057 619190 14.92007-08 105741 655080 16.12008-09 127127 655689 19.42009-10 131139 662509 19.82010-11 142254 709103 20.1AGRICULTURE CREDITSettled agriculture in India has had a long history because of the fertile plains of Northern Indiairrigated by the Indus, the Ganga-Jamuna river systems and the Brahmaputra in the East.Southern India has its own river systems and has, moreover, been characterised by its impressivehistory of sophisticated water management systems: perhaps among the most developedhistorically. As a consequence of this natural fertility and abundant availability of water,
ironically, population density grew early in India, and along with those different degrees ofpoverty. These problems began to engage the attention of even the British colonial governmentas early as the 1870s: the practice of extending institutional credit to agriculture can be tracedback to that period when farmers were provided with such credit by the Government duringdrought years. Thinking to do with credit cooperation began in the latter part of the nineteenthcentury. Finally, the Cooperative Societies Act was passed in 1904 and cooperatives were seenas the premier institutions for disbursing agricultural credit. With the intermittent failure of themonsoons and other customary vicissitudes of farming, rural indebtedness has been a serious andcontinuous characteristic of Indian agriculture. Because of the high risk inherent in traditionalfarming activity, the prevalence of high interest rates was the norm rather than an exception, andthe concomitant exploitation and misery that often resulted. Development of rural credit systemshas therefore, been found to be intrinsically very difficult and, as we will see, an issue ofcontinuing official concern for over a century. These problems began to engage the attention ofeven the British colonial government as early as the 1870s:the practice of extending institutionalcredit to agriculture can be traced back to that period when farmers were provided with suchcredit by the Government during drought years. Thinking to do with credit cooperation began inthe latter part of the nineteenth century. Finally, the Cooperative Societies Act was passed in1904 and cooperatives were seen as the premier institutions for disbursing agricultural credit.The early years of the twentieth century were characterised by continuous official attention to theprovision of rural credit: a new Act was passed in 1912 giving legal recognition to creditsocieties and the like (a precursor of micro-finance);the Maclagan Committee on Cooperation inIndia issued a report in 1915 advocating the establishment of provincial cooperative banks,which got established in almost all provinces by 1930 thus giving rise to the 3-tier cooperativecredit structure; the Royal Commission on Agriculture further examined the program of ruralcredit in 1926-27; Sir Malcolm Darling submitted another report on cooperative credit to theGovernment of India in 1935,just before the founding of the Reserve Bank of India. Thiscontinuing concern reflected the intrinsic problems of extension of rural credit which, to someextent, find resonance even today. It was then reported that in many provinces credit over dues tothese credit cooperative institutions constituted 60 to 70 per cent of the outstanding principaldue. During 2010-11, credit growth continued its momentum to reach the peak rate of 24.2 percent by end December 2010. The pick-up in credit reflected the improved demand conditions
associated with stronger industrial recovery and growth. Since January 2011, credit growth, however, has been decelerating, though it remained above the Reserve Bank of India’s indicative trajectory of 20 per cent for the year. A target of 40 per cent of adjusted net bank credit (ANBC) or credit-equivalent amount of off balance sheet exposures (OBE), whichever is higher as on 31 March of the previous year, has been stipulated for lending to the priority sector by domestic SCBs in the public and private sectors. Within this, sub-targets of 18 per cent and 10 percent of ANBC or credit-equivalent amount of OBE, whichever is higher, have been stipulated for lending to agriculture and the weaker sections respectively. FLOW OF AGRICULTURAL CREDIT The Indian banking system disbursed credit of ` Rs 4,46,779 crore to the agricultural sector as against a target of ` Rs 3,75,000 crore in 2010-11, thereby exceeding the target by around 19 per cent. Commercial banks and RRBs together extended credit to 104.96 lakh new farmers during 2010-11 and cooperative banks to 22.30 lakh new farmers, thus taking the total number of new farmers brought under the banking system to 127.26 lakh. The total number of agricultural loan accounts financed as of March 2011 was 5.50 crore. The credit flow to agriculture during 2011-12 by commercial banks, cooperative banks, and RRBs together was` RS 2,62,129 crore till October 2011, amounting to 55 per cent of the annual target of ` Rs 4,75,000 croreDIRECT INSTITUTIONAL CREDIT TO AGRICULTURE AND ALLIEDSECTOR (SHORT TERM)(Rupees crore)Year Loans Issued Loans Outstanding
Year Loans Issued Loans Outstanding Co- Co- RRB RR operative SCBs REC Total operative SCBs REC Total s Bs s s 112572000-01 91337 3967 . 4109 99413 79567 18825 . 14185 8 123262001-02 84092 7990 . 4722 96803 89092 18238 . 15936 6 133112002-03 92152 6261 . 6607 105019 92920 23690 . 16506 6 149132003-04 93566 8936 . 6017 108519 102307 28520 . 18305 2 167262004-05 114132 21728 . 7441 143301 110132 36071 . 21062 5 201672005-06 122067 27751 . 7489 157307 119932 57175 . 24564 1 250212006-07 135740 38766 . 10733 185239 136392 82564 . 31262 8 280042007-08 145778 40278 . 12953 199009 147982 93443 . 38615 0 110702008-09 . 73721 . 17157 . . 2 . 50653 . 145552009-10 . . . 21132 . . 4 . 65979 .2010-11 . . . 24519 . . . . 81725 . Structure of Agricultural Rural Credit System in India GOVERNMENT OF INDIA RESERVE BANK OF INDIA NABARD
COMMERCIAL REGIONAL RURAL BANKS RURAL CO-OPERATIVE CREDIT INSTITUTIONS BANKS LONG-TERM CREDIT STRUCTURE SHORT-TERM CREDIT STRUCTURE STATE CO-OPERATIVE STATE CO-OPERATIVE BANKSAGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS DISTRICT CENTRAL CO- OPERATIVE BANKS PRIMARY CO-OPERATIVEAGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS PRIMARY AGRICULTURAL CREDIT SOCIEITES DEPOSITORS AND BORROWERSTYPES OF CREDIT 1) Rural Housing Finance :-
This finance is provided by banks and other Regional Rural Banks in the rural areas for providing better housing and infrastructure facilities in rural areas. E.g. ICICI Bank, Mahindra Finance, HDFC Bank etc.2) Rural Micro- Financing : Microfinance is the provision of financial services to low-income clients or solidarity lending groups including consumers and the self-employed, who traditionally lack access to banking and related services. More broadly, it is a movement whose object is "a world in which as many poor and near-poor households as possible have permanent access to an appropriate range of high quality financial services, including not just credit but also savings, insurance, and fund transfers. Those who promote microfinance generally believe that such access will help poor people out of poverty. Microfinance is a broad category of services, which includes microcredit. Microcredit is provision of credit services to poor clients. Although microcredit is one of the aspects of microfinance.3) Rural Development Finance : Rural development finance is the finance provided for the overall development of rural area. Rural development financing finances economic development and job creation in the rural areas.4) Rural Agricultural finance : Rural agricultural financing is the most important part of financing among the different types of financing as 78% of Indian financing population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. TYPES OF MICRO FINANCE USED BY POOR PEOPLE HOUSE HOLD FINANCIAL GOAL
Healthcare, Retirement, Irrigation, Food securityreplacement migration, farm transportation, ,healthcost after flood equiptment, wells, livestock, treatment,etc home microentreprise festivals, social upgardation, self s , home obligation, insurance renovation, emergencies etc schooling, and education Demand and Fund transfer Medium time short time and chequesVarious Pension plan or depositsInsurance Plan deposits long term deposit Longer term Emergency Loan Short term loan loan for working capital MICRO FINANCE PRODUCTS SOURCES OF AGRO – RURAL FINANCE
A) Commercial Banks Commercial banks are now slowly coming to appreciate the business potential in financial inclusion and also the need for better involvement. RRBs that are expected to function with the social heart of cooperatives and financial acumen of commercial banks have a significant role to play in financial inclusion, especially in the post-amalgamation scenario. The vast postal network, leveraging on their immense outreach, could also be an effective vehicle for purveying financial services. Currently, there are 33,478 commercial bank branches in rural and semi-urban centers in the country. Out of these, there are about 12,340 branches in the rural and semi urban areas of the Central, Eastern and North-Eastern Regions, where the majority of the financially excluded population live. It is understood that each branch of Grameen Bank in Bangladesh services at least 4,000-5,000 borrowers, with 6-7 field officers per branch. Given the existing staff strength, it should be possible for commercial banks (including RRBs) to provide access to credit to at least 250 hitherto excluded households per annum at each of their existing rural and semi-urban branches. For this, banks will have to strengthen their staff and use a variety of delivery mechanisms.Usage of banking services by Indian households (HHs)Source: Census of India 2001 % % of % of Total of Rural Total Urban Total
No. HHs HHs HHs 19.1 13.8Total No. of HHs 9 100 3 72 5.36 28No. of HHs which use banking services 6.8 35.5 4.16 32.1 2.65 49.5DEPOSITS AND CREDIT OF SCHEDULE COMMERTIAL BANKS ACC TOPOPULATION GROUP.(Amount in Rupees Lakh) DEPOSITS CREDITPOPULATIONGROUP No. of No. of Amount No. of Amount Offices Accounts Accounts Outstanding 1 2 3 4 5 2241,54,85RURAL 32,320 0 420337,72 361,92,714 249276,96 (37.2 ) (30.5) (9.2) (30.5) (7.5) 1894,57,20SEMI-URBAN 20,601 6 614047,18 268,75,601 319972,87 (23.7) (25.8) (13.5) (22.7) (9.6) 1523,22,83URBAN 17,964 1 944992,24 160,19,694 558531,01 (20.7) (20.7) (20.7) (13.5) (16.7) 1689,34,25 2581651,9METROPOLITAN 16,075 4 1 395,59,873 2217388,48 (18.5) (23.0) (56.6) (33.3) (66.3) 7348,69,14 4561029,0 1186,47,88ALL-INDIA 86,960 1 5 2 3345169,32 (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0)Note : Amount In bracket are in %.
POPULATION GROUP-WISE OUTSTANDING CREDIT OF SCHEDULEDCOMMERCIAL BANKS ACCORDING TO PLACE OF SANCTION AND UTILISATIONMARCH 2010(Amount in Rupees Lakh) AS PER PLACE OF AS PER PLACE OF SANCTION UTILISATION No. of Amount Credit No. of Amount CreditPOPULATIONGROUP Accounts Outstanding Deposit Accounts Outstanding Deposit Ratio Ratio 1 2 3 4 5 6RURAL 361,92,714 249276,96 59.3 370,73,602 385149,55 91.6SEMI-URBAN 268,75,601 319972,87 52.1 270,47,387 367859,45 59.9URBAN 160,19,694 558531,01 59.1 162,41,797 593615,08 62.8METROPOLITAN 395,59,873 2217388,48 85.9 382,85,096 1998545,24 77.4 1186,47,88 ALL-INDIA 1186,47,882 3345169,32 73.3 2 3345169,32 73.3 B) Rural cooperative credit institutionsRural Cooperative Banking and Credit Institutions play an important role in meeting the growingcredit needs of rural India. The volume of credit flowing through these institutions has increased.The performance of these institutions, however (apparent in the share of total institutional creditand the indicators of their financial health), has been less than satisfactory and is deteriorating
rapidly. The Government of India, which is committed to reviving and revitalising the ruralcooperative credit structure (CCS) and attributes high priority and urgency to it, felt it necessaryto commission a fresh review. The Union Government constituted a Task Force to formulate apractical and implementable plan of action to rejuvenate the rural cooperative credit structure.The cooperative banks/credit institutions constitutes the second segment of Indian bankingsystem, comprising of about 14% of the total banking sector asset (March 2007).• Bulk of the cooperative banks operates in the rural regions with rural coop banks accountingfor 67% of the total asset and 67% of the total branches of all cooperative banks.• Share of rural cooperatives in total institutional credit was 62% in 1992-93, 34% in 2002-03and 53% in 2006-07.• Cooperative banks have an impressive network of outlets for institutional credit in India,particularly in rural India (1 PACS per 7 villages).In March 2007, there were 97,224 PACS inrural India against 30,393 branches of commercial banks (more than 3 times of outlet of coopbanks).• In March 2007, there were 102 savings A/C and 113 cooperative bank members per 1000 ruralin India.• Cooperative banks (both rural and urban) cater to small and marginal clients.By the end of 2008, there were around 31 State Cooperative Banks, 371 DCCBs and 94,950PACS. There were 717 Long Term Rural Cooperative Credit Institutions (LTCCIs) comprising20 SCARDBs and 697 PCARDBs.
LOANS AND ADVANCES OF PACS, SCARDBs AND PCARDBs (Numbers in million; Amount in Rupees crore) PACS SCARDBs PCARDBs Amount Amount AmountYear Advanced Advanced Advanced Outstandi Outstanding Outstanding ng No. of No. of No. of Amoun Outstandi Borro Amount Outstanding Borro Amount Outstanding Borro t ng wers wers wers2000-01 47 25698 34522 . 2586 12596 . 1866 82762001-02 56 30770 40779 . 2746 14110 . 2045 100052002-03 64 33996 42411 . 2962 15333 . 2151 108092003-04 51 35119 43873 . 2942 16221 . 2197 113362004-05 45 39211 48785 . 2291 17404 . 2506 126332005-06 46 42920 51779 . 2907 17678 . 2296 128702006-07 48 49613 58620 . 2436 18644 . 1970 121792007-08 . 57643 65666 . 2221 18327 . 1822 118002008-09 . 58787 64045 . 2585 16279 . 2045 112292009-10 . 74935 76480 . 3205 16999 . 2465 11512 PACS:PrimaryAgricultural Credit Societies SCARDB: State Co-operative Agricultural and Rural Development Bank PCARDB: Primary Co-operative Agricultural and Rural Development Bank Note : Data upto 1991-92 relate to as at end-June, and as at end-March thereafter.
Source : National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development, National Federation of State Co-operative Banks. C) Self Help GroupA self-help group (SHG) is a village-based financial intermediary usually composed of 10–20local women. Most self-help groups are located in India, though SHGs can also be found in othercountries, especially in South Asia and Southeast Asia.Members make small regular savingscontributions over a few months until there is enough capital in the group to begin lending.Funds may then be lent back to the members or to others in the village for any purpose. In India,many SHGs are linked to banks for the delivery of microcredit. D) Regional Rural bankThe Government of India set up Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) on October 2, 1975.Initially,five RRBs were set up on October 2, 1975 which were sponsored by Syndicate Bank, State Bankof India, Punjab National Bank, United Commercial Bank and United Bank of India. Capitalshare being 50% by the central government, 15% by the state government and 35% by thescheduled bank.Earlier Reserve Bank of India had laid down ceilings on the rate of interest to be charged bythese RRBs. However from August 1996 the RRBs have been granted freedom to fix rates ofinterest, which is usually in the range of 14-18% for advances. RRBs covered 525 out of 605districts as on 31 March 2006. After amalgamation, RRBs have become quite large coveringmost parts of the State in many cases. Assam Gramin Vikas Bank, an amalgamated RRB, covers25 districts, the highest in the country, while five other amalgamated RRBs cover 10 or moredistricts each. However, 40 RRBs covered two districts and 16 RRBs covered a single districteach in 2005-06. Increased coverage of districts by RRBs makes them an important segment ofthe Rural Financial Institutions (RFI) for financial inclusion. The number of branches of RRBsincreased to 14,494 as on 31 March 2006 from 13,920 branches as on 31 March 1989. Thenetwork of the 45 amalgamated RRBs (as on April 2007) was quite large and diverse varyingfrom 85 to 680 branches. The Uttar Bihar KGB, an amalgamated RRB, has 680 branches,
followed by Baroda Eastern UPGB with 539 branches. The branch network of stand-alone RRBsvaried between 8 and 242 as on 31 March 2006.RRBs - Comparative position of key performance indicators[Rs in Crore] 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09*ParametersNo. of RRBs 96 91 86No. of Branches 14526 14761 15158Districts covered by 534 594 617RRBsOwned Fund 7285.98 8732.59 10895.73Deposit 83143.55 99093.46 120184.46Borrowings 9775.80 11494.00 12733.80Investments 45666.14 48559.54 62629.45Gross Loan (O/s) 48492.59 58984.27 67858.48Loan Issued 33043.49 38581.97 43445.59CD Ratio 58.32 59.52 56.46Accumulated Losses 2759.49 2624.22 2325.59Profit (Before Tax) 926.40 1383.68 1859.36Loss 301.25 55.58 35.91Tax Paid to GoI 139.66 301.12 461.14Gross NPA 3178.01 3566.34 2804.02Gross NPA % 6.55 6.05 4.13Net NPA Amount 1625.41 1929.71 1114.54Net NPA % 3.46 3.19 1.68Recovery % 79.80 80.84 77.76Net Worth 4526.48 6107.37 8570.04SCHEMES FOR AGRO RURAL FINANCE:- 1) Kisan Credit Card (KCC) SchemeThe banking system has issued 1,078.36 lakh KCCs involving a total sanctioned credit limit of `5,27,052 crore as on 31 October 2011. The share of commercial banks stood at 45.6 per cent ofthe total number, followed by cooperative banks at 39.4 per cent, and RRBs at 15.1 per cent. 2) Agriculture Debt Waiver and Debt Relief (ADWDR) Scheme 2008NABARD is the nodal agency for implementing the Agriculture Debt Waiver and Debt Relief(ADWDR) Scheme 2008 in respect of Co-operative Credit Institutions and Regional Rural
Banks. NABARD has released ` Rs 25,113.92 crore towards debt waiver and ` Rs 3,986.02crore towards Debt Relief claims as on 31 December, 2011. 3) Financing Purchase of Land For agriculture Purpose :Objectives • To make the small and marginal holdings economically viable • To bring fallow lands and waste lands under cultivation • To step up agricultural production and productivity • To finance the share croppers / tenant farmers to purchase land to enable them to increase incomeEligibility (i) Small and marginal farmers i.e.. those who would own maximum of non- irrigated or irrigated land ( including purchase of land under the scheme) as stipulated by NABARD (ii) Share croppers / Tenant farmers. 4) Schemes Offer by various banks in IndiaAllahabad Bank • Kisan Shakti Yojana Scheme • Farmers are free to utilise the loan at their own choice • No margin is required • 50% of the loan amount may be utilized for personal/domestic purposes including repayment of debt to money lenders
Andhra Bank • Andhra Bank Kisan Green card • Coverage under Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS)Bank Of Baroda • Purchase of second hand tractors scheme for dry-land farming • Working capital needs to dealers/distributors/traders of agrl. Inputs/livestock inputs • Hiring agrl. machinery • Development of horticulture • Working capital for units engaged in dairy, piggery, poultry, sericulture etc. • Financing Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribes for purchase of farm implements, tools, pair of bullocks, creation of irrigation facilities.Bank of India • Star Bumiheen Kisan Card – for share croppers, tenant farmers and oral lessees • Kisan Samadhan card – Kisan credit card for crop production and other related investments • BOI Shtabti Krishi Vikas Card – electronic card for anywhere anytime banking for farmers • Funding for contract farming in hybrid seed production, cotton industry, sugarcane industry etc. • Special schemes for SHGs and to empower women folk • Star Swarojkar Prashikshan Sansthan (SSPS), a new initiative to provide entrepreneurial training tofarmers • Crop loans : Upto Rs. 3 lakhs at the rate of 7% per annum • Collateral security: loans up to Rs. 50, 000, no collateral required, but for above Rs. 50, 000, RBI directives are followed.Dena Bank
• Dena bank is most active in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and UT of Dadra and Nagar haveli. • Dena Kisan Gold Credit Card Scheme • Maximum credit limit up to Rs. 10 lakh • Provision of 10% towards domestic expenses including education of children • Longer repayment period up to 9 years • Loan is available for any type of investment in farm such as farm implements, tractors, sprinklers/drip irrigation systems, oil engine, electric pump sets, etc. • Short term crop loan up to Rs. 3 lakhs @ 7% • Disposal of loans within 15 days of application • No collateral up to Rs. 50, 000 for farm loans and up to Rs. 5 lakhs for setting up agri- clinic and agri-business units.Indian Bank • Production Credit : Crop loans, Tie-up with sugar mills & Kisan Credit Card Scheme, Crop loans to tenant farmers, share croppers and oral lessees • Agricultural Investment Credit : Land development, minor irrigation, micro irrigation, farm mechanization, plantation and horticulture • Agricultural Structured Loans : Kisan Bike, Agri- Vendors Bike, Agri. Clinics and Agri Business Centres • Group Lending for Agricultural Development: Loan to joint liability groups / Self Help Groups • New Agricultural Avenues: Contract farming, Organic farming, rural godowns, cold storage, medicinal and aromatic plants, bio-fuel crops etc..Oriental Bank of Commerce • Oriental green Card (OGC) Scheme • Composite Credit Scheme for Agricultural lending • Setting up of cold storages/godowns • Financing commission agents
Punjab National Bank • PNB Kisan Sampuranrin Yojana • PNB Kisan Icha Purti Yojana • Growing potatoes/fruits against pledge of cold storage receipts • Self propelled Combine Harvestors • Development of Forestry nursery • Wasteland development • Mushroom/Prawn culture and mushroom spawn production • Purchase nad maintenance of milch animals • Dairy Vikas Card Scheme • Schemes for pisciculture, piggery, bee-keeping etc.State Bank of Hyderabad • Crop loans and Agrl. Gold loans • Marketing of agricultural produce • Cold storage/private warehouse • Minor irrigation & Dug well scheme / development of old well scheme • Land development finance • Purchase of tractor, power tiller and implements • Purchase of Agrl. Land/fallow/wastelands • Vehicle loans for farmers • Drip irrigation and sprinklers • Self Help Group • Agri Clinics and Agri Business Centres • Yuva Krishi Plus SchemeState Bank of India • Crop loan Scheme (ACC) • Storing produce in their own premises and renewal of loans for next season • Kisan Credit Card Scheme
• Land Development Schemes • Minor Irrigation Schemes • Purchase of combine Harvestor • Kisan Gold Card Scheme • Krishi Plus Scheme- for customized hiring of tractor to rural youth • Arthias Plus Scheme – for Commission agents • Broiler Plus Scheme – Broiler farming • Lead Bank SchemeSyndicate Bank • Syndicate Kisan Credit card (SKCC) • Solar Water Heater Scheme • Agri-clinics and Agri-business centresVijaya Bank • Loans to Self Help groups • Vijaya Kisan Card • Vijaya Planters Card • KVIC Margin Money Scheme for Artisans and Village IndustriesCONCLUDING REMARKSIn India, the rural finance institutions have some regulatory restrictions as they cannot acceptdeposits. This makes them dependent on the government loans and donations for their workingcapital. If they are allowed to accept deposits from their customers then they will be able togenerate their own sources of funds which they can disburse. This will enhance their lendingcapacity. Since borrowing is often riskier than saving. Another aspect is that the rural financialinstitutions in India are not well regulated. The proper regulation should be there since thismarket is now developing at rapid speed. There should be collaborations between banks andrural finance institutions which will help both, the banks and the rural finance institutions. Thebanks will be able to lend to priority sector described by RBI and the rural finance institutionswill get easy funding. With the loaning facilities other financial services should also be given
focus like micro-insurance, micro-deposits etc. According to a 1998 World Bank study report1,000 clients of the rural finance institution Grameen Bank in Bangladesh were escaping povertyevery month. In the year 2007 more than 100 million people received a microloan. For ruralfinance institutions the arrangement of funds is not the only problem but the human resource i.e.finding training attracting and retaining the staff is also a major concern. There should be morefocus on the literacy of the borrowers to make them more aware and also to make the proper useof the loan taken. The focus should not be only on rural segment but the urban people who areBPL (Below Poverty Line) should also have access to the rural finance facility. The growth in SHGs isvery good in India but it is still not growing in comparatively underdeveloped states like Jharkhand,Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh than the states like Maharashtra, Bihar,Assam and Rajasthan. These states with low growth but high need should be given more priority.And this also shows that this is alsorelated with literacy. Further there is a need of anindependent regulator who will monitor cases of abuses.SELECTED REFERENCES 1. Government of India, Economic Survey, various issues. 2. Verma S B Book : Rural Management, New Delhi, Deep & Deep publication 2011 3. Role Of Commercial Bank, Chapter 4, Financial Report NABARD 4. Reserve bank of India, Publication: Basic Statistical Returns Of Scheduled Commercial Banks In India, , March 2010, Volume 39 5. http://www.icrier.org/pdf/Mandira%20Sarma.pdf 6. http://finmin.nic.in/the_ministry/dept_fin_services/banking/rrbkeyindicator.pdf 7. Strategies and Structures for Commercial Banks in Microfinance Glenn D. Westley Inter- American Development Bank Washington, D. C. Sustainable Development Department
8. Reserve bank of India, journal.9. Role of Banks In Agriculture & Rural Development, ICAI journal10. Annual Report of NABARD.11. Report on Federation of State Cooperative Finance12. Indian budget 2012.13. Cherunilam Francis : Business Environment, New Delhi, Himalaya Publication Pvy Ltd ,2011