J jones water 21 env eng action & planning uk


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J jones water 21 env eng action & planning uk

  1. 1. Environmental Engineering Criteria for action & planning Julian Jones
  2. 2. Dairy Farmer 1982 An Agricultural Perspective ….
  3. 3. © 2013 Iain Claridge IPCC 2013 report: “Human activity 'dominant cause' of warming …” Climate change … Why can’t we fix it ? Causes or effects ? What are the ‘tools’ ? - Public Health - Catchment Water Balance - Nutrient (Carbon) Cycling Planning - Biodiversity Gain / Social Equality
  4. 4. Parliamentary Question Mr. Drew: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what steps her Department is taking to define microbial public health standards for (a) water courses and (b) discharges into them. [2678] Mr. Morley: The Surface Water Abstraction Directive specifies microbiological standards for waters that are abstracted for potable water supply. The quality of the abstracted water determines the level of treatment of raw water required for potable consumption. The Bathing Waters Directive specifies mandatory and guideline standards for identified bathing waters. In the UK most are tidal waters not watercourses. The few inland bathing waters are all lakes or ponds. The Bathing Waters Directive is currently under review. There are no microbial water quality standards that are generally applicable to all water courses or discharges. The microbiological quality of inland watercourses is highly variable, due to land runoff from livestock agriculture and from urban drainage after rainfall, as well as from continuous discharges of treated effluent from sewage works. 13 June 2005, House of Commons, Hansard
  5. 5. Watercourses - Concentration & Dispersal Cycle Dry weather flows – allow sedimentation & concentration of wastes Wet (storm) weather flows – allow rapid ‘self-cleansing’ of accumulated river sediments - The ‘pathogenic flush’
  6. 6. Are river weirs a health risk? Our disrupted hydrological cycle allows extended periods of minimal flows in UK rivers. Self-cleansing is suspended for long periods – allowing dangerous accumulations of pathogens. 25,000+ storm overflows and other sources.
  7. 7. Multi drug resistant bacteria develop in sewage treatment plants As bacteria wind their way through sewage treatment processes, the selective pressures against them increase. In consequence, there is a greater effort by bacteria to pass on survival enhancing genetic information. The further along that the wastewater had progressed through the treatment process the greater the tendency was development of multi-resistant strains. Additionally, the study demonstrated that these multi- resistant bacteria also simultaneously carried, and then passed around their multiple transferable drug- resistance plasmids. Thus drug resistance and the transfer of multi-drug resistant occurs in wastewater treatment plants. [Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 1990 Feb;37(2):83-90.]
  8. 8. Raw Human Sewage Pouring Into America's Lakes And Streams ….. (SSOs) typically occur when rainwater seeps into broken sewer pipes and fills them past capacity. Treatment plants can't handle the rush of water and sewage, so overflow valves like SSO 700 in Cincinnati open up and let the disease-carrying waste spill out….. What it is, is human waste -- hundreds of gallons of it at a time flowing untreated from toilets into the creek. Sanitary Sewer Overflow 700 is not only disgusting, it is illegal. But the city won't shut it off because plugging SSO 700 and more than 100 pipes like it all over Cincinnati would require raising sewer rates about 1,500%. USAToday 20 Aug 2002 Underinvestment in sewerage infrastructure is a global problem
  9. 9. STRAINER&WETLAND FORSTORMSEWAGE EBLEY MILL FISH LADDER WEIR POTENTIAL HYDRO POWER SITEREGRADEDRIVER Naturalistic solutions to sewer incapacity are cheap & straight- forward Stroud Urban Wetlands & Severn Trent Water Lydia Williams, Leeds Metropolitan Univ, 1993 & 2003 (Water21)
  10. 10. A Local Authority … taking responsibility Storm Water Swale, Reedbeds & Ponds at Churchdown Park For Churchdown Council Tamás Böröndi, MSc Budapest University, 2011, Water21 … by disconnecting the sewer (achieved by a united & collaborative community focused on critical risks)
  11. 11. We need ‘Safe & viable plans for water’ everywhere Functioning landscapes that also benefit water resources, livelihoods & meet WFD Food, energy, water, biodiversity, leisure, etc. Stroud Urban Wetlands Lydia Williams, Leeds Metropolitan Univ, 1993 (Water21)
  12. 12. “Sustainability” “an issue of great confusion” (GCC Draft Report) (It means safe & viable) Ecological processes are complex … … and poorly understood Resource and pollution debts Precautionary approach Water (public health, flood & drought) = finite focus for sustainability* AND URGENT ACTION ! * Water Framework Directive , Localism & Agenda 21
  13. 13. Water Cycle Carbon CycleNitrogen Cycle We are part of nature and must integrate our actions with natural cycles
  14. 14. Our great misunderstanding with water. Problems with water resources are global … and so are the solutions But usually the real causes are overlooked
  15. 15. Drought and floods 'may become a way of life' TOWNS swamped by floods just months ago could suffer deluges each winter and droughts each summer, the Environment Agency says. A spokesman said parts of the South-East could see a regular pattern of floods every winter and droughts every summer because of extreme weather patterns. She said: "Climate change is believed to be the cause of these seemingly contradictory circumstances and the agency is gravely concerned that flooding will once again cause devastation this winter." "We have this very strange set of circumstances in which people are still cleaning up after the floods while we are having to top up rivers. "It is a serious concern that we could have floods each winter and water shortages in the summer." The Daily Telegraph 12/07/2001 Drought and floods 'may become a way of life' TOWNS swamped by floods just months ago could suffer deluges each winter and droughts each summer, the Environment Agency says. A spokesman said parts of the South-East could see a regular pattern of floods every winter and droughts every summer because of extreme weather patterns. She said: "Climate change is believed to be the cause of these seemingly contradictory circumstances and the agency is gravely concerned that flooding will once again cause devastation this winter." "We have this very strange set of circumstances in which people are still cleaning up after the floods while we are having to top up rivers. "It is a serious concern that we could have floods each winter and water shortages in the summer." The Daily Telegraph 12/07/2001 How is ‘climate change’ the cause of floods and droughts in a single year ? That just ‘may become a way of life’ … … this is a very strange set of circumstances.
  16. 16. Just as seen in UK – floods and drought afflicting the very same areas.
  17. 17. Caused by – Extremes in rainfall amplified by human disruption of the natural hydrological cycle (ecology). A ‘student’ level of understanding yet all largely ignored. Floods = Droughts Built environment & chemical agriculture Degraded landscapes are the biggest cause of flood & drought
  18. 18. "It cannot be repeated often enough that there is no shortage of water in Britain. We divert only a small fraction of the throughput of our water cycle for human purposes. We use less than 1% of total UK rainfall and less than 10% in the South East." GMB Union, Huffington Post , 30 April 2012 … rapid changes in perception presently Is there a UK water shortage ?
  19. 19. The ‘Full’ Hydrological Cycle Functioning ecology : ‘Balanced’ rainfall, steady evapo-transpiration, good infiltration to water table V Schauberger
  20. 20. Our ‘Half’ Hydrological Cycle Disrupted ecology and degraded landscapes: causes rainfall ‘extremes’, rapid evapo-transpiration, flooding, poor infiltration to (falling) water table – and ‘drought’ V Schauberger
  21. 21. UK must urgently adapt for extremes: EA Britain must become more resilient to both drought and flooding, EA chairman Chris Smith has said. New figures from the agency show that one in every five days saw flooding in 2012, but one in four days saw drought. Lord Smith said urgent action was vital to help "prepare and adapt" many aspects of Britain for such extremes. With the population of the water-stressed south-east of England projected to grow by almost a quarter by 2035, Lord Smith argued that the number of smaller reservoirs needed to be increased immediately and that new ways of transferring water from areas where it is plentiful to areas where it is scarce must be established. Part of the UK’s flooding problem is due to previous policies. For decades, farmers were paid to drain boggy land in order to improve it for grazing. BBC News, 4 March 2013 Forecaster Bill Giles tells Lord Smith: it’s not a new kind of rain. It’s completely normal The veteran meteorologist has criticised remarks by Lord Smith, the chairman of the Environment Agency, who had blamed the growing threat of flooding on a new kind of precipitation, known as convective rain. Mr Giles, who joined the Met Office in 1957 and was head weather presenter at the BBC between 1983 and 2000, insists that convective rain has been a regular feature of British weather since the “beginning of time”. Daily Telegraph, 10 Feb 2013 … nuance & perception is almost everything
  22. 22. Landscapes - Key ‘Climate Modifiers & Regulators’ Implications for Agriculture, farmers are ‘guardians’ of major aquifer recharge processes.  50+ years of chemical farming & drainage.  Severely disrupted water cycle.  Major cause of flood & drought Trees are also important moderators of temperature and ‘organs of water renewal’.  They intercept, capture and infiltrate rainfall, draw up groundwater. They create rainfall through evapo-transpiration, and ‘seeding’ (nucleation) of raindrops via pollens & terpenes. Thermal benefits. Wetlands provide similar benefits (Water Quantitave & Qualitative).  Pre-human intervention – 25% UK land area comprised wetlands, now less than 2%. Return to extensive wetlands essential for WFD. Important agents of climate & weather change operate at a micro-/sub microscopic level (bacteria [in clouds and soil], algae, plankton, solar wind & cosmic ray interactions, etc). The ecosystem is the main ‘engine’ of weather & climate – ‘powered & orchestrated’ by solar activity.
  23. 23. 2010 Losing up to 60 tonnes/Ha per annum - @ £100/tonne
  24. 24. Effects of temperature gradient on run-off & infiltration Solaractivity(thermal &solarparticleeffects)influencesrun-off &infiltrationthroughsub- surfacetemperaturegradient andit'seffectsonmicro&macroflora/faunaactivity accordingtosoil type&humuscontent determiningcapillaryactionandevaporation. 20o C 19o C 18o C 17o C 16o C 15o C 14o C 13o C 12o C 11o C 10o C 9o C 8o C 7o C 6o C Run-offaccelerated Nutrientleaching Groundwater removal NegativeTemperatureGradient (DisruptedEcology) Monocultural agriculture Built environments PositiveTemperatureGradient (FunctioningEcology)Polycultural agriculture&forestry Infiltrationenhanced Nutrientemission Groundwater recharge V Schauberger
  25. 25. Landscape lessons to learn … - Retention (attenuation) - Enhance infiltration - Reduce evaporation … with (multi) functional water, food & energy landscapes for greater resources, well being & social equality – all around the world. Water Heroes: Rajendra Singh – Empowering communities by restoring groundwater & rivers in Rajasthan since 1986 http://tarunbharatsangh.in/ hydratelife.org
  26. 26. Farming ‘crimes’… against the water cycle Arable field, Gloucestershire. 30cm of topsoil lost in 50+ years of arable farming (effects of tillage & chemicals) - agricultural soil degradation (capillary action) typically comprises the biggest single cause of flood & drought in any river catchment, also severely degrading watercourse biodiversity here. Good ecological status for watercourses can only be met with legitimate farming methods – long term.
  27. 27. A (micro)biological understanding of soil function Tillage and agrochemicals kill carbon sequestrating soil microbiology, limiting rain infiltration. Historic and ongoing releases of soil carbon to the atmosphere exceed that from burning fossil fuels. Biological monoculture farming enables carbon sequestration, water resource (flood & drought) benefits. - A long term transition for farmers. Light-independent photosynthesis by soil bacteria : 3 CO2 + 9 ATP + 6 NADPH + 6 H+ → C3H6O3-phosphate + 9 ADP + 8 Pi + 6 NADP+ + 3 H2O (The Calvin Cycle – an endothermic, cooling reaction that stores carbon (humus) & creates water).
  28. 28. Photosynthesis – plant selection Although Phragmites australis are classified as C3 photosynthesisers, recent studies of P. australis ecotypes have shown that individual population have not only adapted to different weather conditions through physiological alterations, but population have also changed from C3 to C4 process, or have become C3 - C4 intermediates, which exhibit characteristics of either C3 or C4 plants. Over 90 differing ecotypes of P. australis – making plant selection important. • Salt marsh ecotypes – C3 like C3 – C4 intermediates • Sand dune ecotypes – C4 like C3 – C4 intermediates • Swamp ecotypes – C3
  29. 29. • Gravel • Sand • Soil Soil Type Roots cannot pass through heavy clay easily, and in sandy or gravel material there is little microbial activity. The clay loam in the centre of the diagram is optimal for reed beds, but a proprietary soil mixture & method of installing is best.
  30. 30. Grazing livestock for improved soil carbon function (Mob Grazing) Rob Richmond, Chedworth, Gloucestershire (Nuffield Scholar). Achieving 0.8% Soil Carbon Sequestration per annum – by reverting to traditional grasses & herb varieties, careful ‘mob grazing’, no artificial fertiliser (composted manure only) – and few modern chemicals … enabling symbiotic microbial associations on plant roots.
  31. 31. Effective Catchment Regulation … Is largely a matter of ‘numbers & metrics’ - they provide the ‘lead’ here …. But of what ? Soil erosion risk areas Cath Edwards MSc Keele University 2012, Water21
  32. 32. How well do NVZs, ESAs or CSFs work ? Ogbourne St. George NVZ over time since designation F. Worrall, E. Spencer, & T.P. Burt, Journal of Hydrology, 2009 This study considers the concentrations of water nitrate in areas designated as Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) for between 12 and 15 years. • Sixty-nine percent of NVZs showed no significant improvement in water concentrations even after 15 years. • In comparison to a control catchment 29% of NVZs showed a significant improvement but 31% showed a significant worsening. • Differences between NVZs could not be significantly related to the size of the NVZ, uptake of the scheme, extent of uptake, land use change or geology of the local aquifer. • The lack of objective success for NVZ designation suggests that nitrate pollution control strategies based on input management need to be rethought.
  33. 33. … societies collapse when their investments in social complexity reach a point of diminishing marginal returns. While climate change, invasions, crop failures, disease or environmental degradation may be the apparent causes of societal collapse, the ultimate cause is usually an economic one, inherent in the structure of society rather than in external shocks which may batter them: diminishing returns on investments in social complexity Joseph A. Tainter. ‘The Collapse of Complex Societies’, 1988
  34. 34. Benefits of Hydropower Ebley Mill Comparison Head Kaplan Crossflow Archimedes Screw Return On Investment Range over Lifetime Lowest Highest £1,236,775 £4,925,990 £4,938,585 £220,160 £1,289,440 Arun Cappi MSc Loughborough University 2012, Water21
  35. 35. Ossberger Crossflow upstream 1.01 downstream 1.95 (Gain, 0.94). Shannon Weiner Biodiversity Index, measured from 0 (biologically inert) to 5 (undisturbed tropical rain forest) Archimedes Screw upstream 1.69 downstream 1.97 (Gain, 0.28). Ossberger Kaplan upstream 1.56 downstream 2.00 (Gain, 0.44). Benefits of Hydropower Cath Edwards MSc Keele University 2012, Water21 Traditional turbines are more effective at remediating the agricultural toxins that harm fisheries
  36. 36. Slad, Historic Land-Use Changes – Key Catchment Flood Identifiers Ordnance Survey 1902 & 1923 Arable Farming Dereliction of Millponds Paved Development Siltation
  37. 37. Defining critical flood risk 180,000+ cubic metres of water to store in catchment for control of a 1 in 75 year flood event – in a 14.5 Km2 catchment. Ilaria Pretto, MSc Trento University, Water21, 2008
  38. 38. Identifying historic water management structures – an opportunity for town to meet country – for mutual benefit Adam Broadhead, PhD Sheffield University, Water21 Heritage hydropower impoundment
  39. 39. Resolving risk by creating resources • Flooding is largely caused by disrupted natural landscapes and neglected historical solutions • The community-led approach is an effective route to resolve critical flood risk • Landowners have a preference for partnerships within their community (rather than with bureaucracies) • Attenuation volumes for flood/drought control – are feasible on all UK watercourses • Could be self-financing in the longer term • Huge potential for renewable energy, biodiversity, food production, irrigation reservoirs, drinking water, and leisure – by restoring landscapes • Goodwill is the key factor
  40. 40. Arun Cappi, MSc Loughborough University, Water21, 2011 - Gabriella Kovacs, MSc Budapest University, Water21, 2011
  41. 41. Surveying for flood attenuations
  42. 42. Scheme Maximum impoundment height (m) Max. capacity (m3) % of the 180,000 m3 target Number of impound ments 1 1.3 155720.3 86,5% 236 2 1.3 and 2 258835.0 143,8% 222 3 2 219118.2 121,7% 72 Slad Valley Flood Attenuation Scoping Study Anett Szabo, MSc Budapest University, Water21, 2011
  43. 43. Above: Claypits village near Stroud. 60 acres of additional plantation can provide 100% of the village’s potential domestic energy needs for a total cost of £25,000. Right: pumping station and conventional sewer connection, by comparison, costs an estimated £500,000, which wastes energy and fails to realise the full value of sewage as a sustainable resource – all adding up to negative environmental & climatic impacts. Reedbeds Biomass Plantation Lake Lindsay White, Leeds Metropolitan Univ, 1995 (Water21)
  44. 44. 2 kms Biomass Plantation (filling) Lake Reedbeds Applying the Claypits Approach to a War Zone – Heglig 1 Courtesy Oceans-ESU
  45. 45. A civil war had been fought over oil ... Courtesy Oceans-ESU
  46. 46. Oil wastewater at 50,000+ BOD Courtesy Oceans-ESU
  47. 47. 50,000 m3/day recovered water Heglig 1 Courtesy Oceans-ESU
  48. 48. Within 2 years of filling Heglig 1 lake, the local population were able to commence fishing Courtesy Oceans-ESU
  49. 49. Oil-waste system is just the start of a complete approach to the wider environment – here medicinal and other plants are prepared to create an ongoing economic framework, lasting long after the oil ceases flowing. Courtesy Oceans-ESU
  50. 50. Restoring biodiversity within and around oil systems – all for 90% less cost than the conventional approach Courtesy Oceans-ESU
  51. 51. Oceans ESU Ltd: Short Course on Reed Bed Technology, March 2010 Hydrological Monitoring Weather station data gives information on climatic influences of bioremediation systems Climate data is then used to develop mathematical models of each system
  52. 52. Developing the Catchment Plan Constructing a water / carbon balance model … Root zone water balance Transition zone water balance Aquifer water balance Critical flood/drought risk resolution provides a finite focus for action
  53. 53. Developing the Catchment Plan Mapping the historical … and the geological Ordnance Survey 10,560 - 1903 Position of Fault (British Geological Survey)
  54. 54. © 2013 Iain Claridge What are the ‘tools’ ? - Public Health - Catchment Water Balance - Nutrient (Carbon) Cycling Planning - Biodiversity Gain / Social Equality - Participatory Principle Collaborative goodwill is the key ‘tool’ for success !
  55. 55. www.water21.org.uk