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Joy o'neill 2012 report based on m sc research Joy o'neill 2012 report based on m sc research Document Transcript

  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012Service Children: How do they cope withtransitions between schools?’A report based on an MSc in Learning and TeachingdissertationByJoy O’Neill 1
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012IntroductionMy research has focused on a small rural primary school where 75% of the pupilpopulation are children from HM Forces families. The families experience high levelsof mobility and as a result, approximately 50% of the school population changesevery year. This occurs in addition to the normal transitions into Reception and out ofYear 6. The aim of the project was to consider the impact on Service children ofmultiple transitions and the implications for their learning. The research cycleconsidered the views of pupils, parents and staff as well as pupil observations, pupilassessments and data scrutiny. As a result of the findings, a number of interventionswere designed and implemented to address the needs of pupils, parents andteaching staff. The intended focus of all of the interventions has been to enablechildren to overcome the disadvantages of frequent moves and to provide teacherswith enough information to allow them to construct appropriate learningopportunities. Staff have shown a wide spectrum of views on the importance of pupiltransition and induction. However, the project has been generally welcomed byparents, who viewed this as an opportunity to shine a light on an often hidden issue.The issues faced by Service ChildrenOfsted, in their 2011 survey, described Service children as a unique group.Inspectors found that Service children faced a number of issues including: problemswith school admissions, children missing parts of, or repeating areas of, thecurriculum, poor transfer of information about pupils between schools, slowassessment and support for Service children with special educational needs and ageneral lack of awareness of Service families and their additional needs. Martin et al(2000) discussed the unusual developmental pressures that Service children face asa result of the unique demands of the military environment. They cited stressorssuch as regular house moves, possible educational issues, friendship issues,prolonged periods of separation from the serving parent and possible bereavement.Attachment literature would suggest that global nomads are at risk when seeking todevelop new and secure attachments and friendships (Ender, 2002). 2
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012How does mobility impact on Service Children?When Service families are relocated to new areas they often face a bewildering arrayof differences and inconsistency, such as encountered when moving between theeducation systems of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, and of course,overseas locations (outside of Service Children’s Education schools). Pupils mayarrive with very little prior notice and with little or no documentation from theirprevious school. Children may have gaps in their education through having missedcertain parts of the curriculum or conversely, they may have covered a particulartopic many times over. Many Service children have had thirteen - fourteen moves bythe time they reach secondary school and often for Service families the onlyconsistency is inconsistency (Ofsted, 2011).In 2001, the US Army Secondary Education Transition Study carried out a detailedpiece of research that focused on three aspects associated with Army children andtransition: ‘Procedures’, the transfer and interpretation of records, ‘Policy’, thecurriculum requirements and ‘Support and Systems’, the partnership between theschools and the units and the social and emotional needs of the student. They foundthat in any move the issues of timely transfer of records are critical and that onarrival at a new school learning is impeded as the pupils concentrate on adjusting totheir new surroundings. Additionally when the time comes to leave, pupils arefrequently ‘distracted by pre-move grieving for the friends they will miss and by theconcerns about the transition’ (SETS, 2001, p95). Perhaps, the most significantfinding is that ‘the first two weeks at the new school and the last few weeks beforeleaving’ is an important period for pupils (SETS, 2001, p95).The SETS project found that many military parents were keen to know what learningopportunities were available to their children in the new schools and how theseopportunities compared to those for other children. Furthermore, they often acted asadvocates for their children by providing the school staff with information about theirchild and ensuring that suitable learning opportunities and pastoral provision wereput in place to meet the needs of their child. 3
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012An action research project to look at Service Children and how they cope withtransitions between schoolsBeginning with my research question, how do service children cope with transitionsbetween schools, I reflected on the school and its current context. An examination ofthe school data revealed that the school has a significant fluctuation in its pupilseach year in addition to the newly arrived Foundation Stage children and Year sixpupils who leave to attend secondary school. On average, the school lost and gainedapproximately eight to ten children during every term from across all key stages.Further scrutiny of data indicated a wide spectrum of academic attainment by pupilson arrival at the school and in some cases concerns around possible specialeducational needs.The aim of the study was to consider the specific educational impact of transition,due to postings on Service Children. Additionally to investigate the provision for thecontinuity of education, the barriers to learning that Service Children face and theinterventions that can mitigate some of these issues. Furthermore I wanted touncover:  What methods the teachers used to assist service children when they entered their new school.  How far these measures helped children to overcome any difficulties they might have in making pastoral and learning progress.  To what extent would it assist teachers to have individual conversations about prior learning with parents and children, which could then form the basis of individual learning plans, before entry to the school.  What tools do Service Children use to assist themselves?Based on research from the USA SETS (2001) and the Military Child EducationCoalition (2011), which indicated that the first two weeks are the most crucial whensettling new children into school, it was crucial that I began the proposed project inthe first week back to school in September. The project cycle needed to last a 4
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012minimum of six months as research has suggested that most service children takeup to six months to reconnect and settle in a new area (Coe, 2007).Additionally as the SENCO was concerned about the general lack of informationfrom previous schools, I also decided to consider the extent to which it would assistteachers to have individual conversations about prior learning with parents andchildren, before entry to the school. I felt that such conversations may enableindividual learning plans to be put in place.The cycles took place in September 2011, January 2012 and April 2012 and eachconsisted of:  Semi structured pupil interviews with the seven newly arrived pupils in key stage two, carried out at school, each lasting approximately fifteen to twenty minutes.  Semi structured interviews with the parents of the seven newly arrived children, carried out in the parents’ home, each lasting between 30 and 60 minutes.  Questionnaires for the key stage two teachers, teaching assistants, Head teacher, SENCO and Family Support worker.  Seven pupil observations in the classroom each lasting ten minutes and focused minute by minute.  Seven information sheets to gather background data on each child from the Head teacher and school office (September only)  A termly (every 12 weeks) base line assessment on all seven children on arrival carried out by the class teacher.  Scrutiny of a sample of literacy and numeracy assessment data for each of the seven children.My success criteria was: to be able to gain enough knowledge about each child tobuild a picture of their life and learning experiences; to share this knowledge withteaching staff to enable them to construct appropriate learning experiences for eachchild; to promote the culture and context of Service children within the school; toevaluate the current induction processes and to investigate the role that parents andcommunity have in the pastoral and academic transition of the child. 5
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012FindingsThemes in the first cycleThe following themes emerged during the first cycle:  During their school career three of the children had experienced periods of time out of school during their school career due to admissions issues. The time out of school averaged four to six weeks although the time period for some children was longer. It should be noted that this information is not normally recorded in pupil records and the school was unaware that these gaps had existed.  The parents of three of the children had not provided any information on their children to the school either before arrival or on joining the school and these parents also had very limited contact with the school during the first two weeks. This caused the Head teacher concern as she felt that parents should be involved with the school during the arrival and induction stage and beyond.  No previous school records for four children had been received by the school within the first two weeks. This was despite the school office making contact with the previous school to request the records.  A pastoral induction plan is in place for every new child at the school, however, not all teachers allowed children in their classes to participate fully.  Six of the children had experienced between two and eleven school and early years setting moves during their lives. This information is unlikely to be recorded on the pupil’s records and for that reason it is unlikely that schools will know how many transitions the child has experienced.  The parents of three of the children raised multiple concerns to the Head teacher within the first two weeks.  Based on the base line assessment and work scrutiny five of the children were working below average for their age on arrival at the school.  The school also felt that two of the children had possible undiagnosed SEN on arrival at school.  All of the children said they felt nervous or upset about being in a new school. 6
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012  Five of the children experienced peer friendship issues on arrival at the school and within the first two weeks.  Six of the children were visibly distressed and withdrawn in class or showed emotional outbursts during the first two weeks.First cycle interventionsAfter analysing the themes from the first cycle, which seemed to revolve around alack of clear information, I decided that my initial focus should be on providing staffwith the information that they needed on each child in order to allow them to planappropriate learning experiences. Research suggests that in order for children tomake a successful transition into a new school they need to settle quickly and feelvalued, as well teachers need to learn about the new children as quickly as possible(Foley and Rixon, 2008). Where this information was not available, I wanted toencourage staff to investigate the matter and gather their own information on thepupils. Finally, as a number of pupils were experiencing friendship difficulties Iwanted to provide an intervention that targeted friendship concerns.My first priority was to meet with staff and share each child’s case study, whichwould help the staff to create a picture about each child’s experiences andeducational needs. I had anticipated that the teaching staff would find thisinformation useful, as it would provide them with knowledge that they had beenunable to gather elsewhere. Furthermore, I hoped that the knowledge from thelearning conversations could then be used to develop an individual learning plan.Where gaps still existed in the jigsaw, I suggested that staff should make contactwith previous schools to glean the missing information. However, I received aspectrum of responses from the teaching staff. When I shared the information, oneclass teacher keen to find out as much as possible about each child. The other classteacher appeared to be unconcerned “It seems to me that if the parents hadn’tmoved so many times the issues wouldn’t exist … their answer seems to be to moveif they are unhappy”. This attitude was also shared with some of the teachers in theSETS study who felt that the Army should stop moving families. The teachercontinued “I don’t worry about what other people say about the child. I only want toknow what grade the old school graded them at”. This opinion is in contrast to the 7
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012results of the SETS project, which stated that ‘listening to students quickly expandsthe teachers understanding of them’. I also met with the Head teacher and SENCOto share my findings.Both teachers wanted the Family Support Worker to be responsible for any focusedwork on friendship issues. They perceived friendships to be pastoral and their role asteachers to be academic. Following this response I approached the Family SupportWorker to facilitate the creation of a focused social and emotional support for thesechildren. After discussions, it was decided that a number of short but regularPersonal Social Emotional Development (PSED) sessions would be put in place forthe pupils and run by the Family Support Worker. These PSED sessions weredesigned to target friendship issues and other social skills.Themes in the second cycleThe following themes emerged during the second cycle:  One child is preparing to move again after only a few months at the school.  Based on teacher assessments six of the children are still working below the expected average for their age.  The parents of four of the children are not engaging with the school or providing the information required to allow the school to plan for their needs.  Six of the children continue to have emotional or behavioural needs which are evident in class.  Five of the children continue to have friendship issues.  Five of the children felt confused by the different learning methods that were used in their new school.  Four of the children are receiving additional one to one support for English and/or Maths to aid progress but this is not specifically focusing on any gaps in their learning.  Two of the children have had a significant number of school absences due to illness or family holidays. 8
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012  The parents of three of the children have requested additional support for their children and these children are receiving outside specialist support from an educational psychologist, a doctor and a social worker.  Perhaps of most interest was the perception of the parents of five of the children who had a differing view of how their child was settling in the school compared to the perception of the staff. The parents generally thought their child was doing better academically or settling in well pastorally when the staff thought the children were not. The notable exception was a child in year 4 whose parents were very concerned about him and the teacher did not seem to share this view.Second cycle interventionsAfter analysing the themes from the second cycle, I decided the second interventionshould focus on the seeming difference in perception between the parents andschool concerning children’s learning needs. In conjunction with the Head Teacherand SENCO, it was decided that an intervention should be designed to encourageparents to provide up to date information on their child’s previous academic andpastoral experiences. It was hoped that this information would provide enoughknowledge about each child to enable the teachers to construct appropriate learningactivities. In addition it was hoped that this would encourage parents to engage withtheir children’s current learning in school and at home.Previously the school has invited parents to attend presentations on differentlearning styles and approaches at the end of the school day, as well as to attendtraditional parent/teacher meetings. The Head informed me that “in general Serviceparents are not keen to attend despite sending reminders home”. The Headexplained that historically the school had a low response rate from parents whenasked to complete questionnaires or attend parents at the school. However, therewas generally a high parent turnout rate at events such as merit assemblies, schoolperformances and fairs. We considered possible barriers to attending, such as, thetime of day, day of the week, childcare issues, work commitments and the venue. Iinvestigated options such as temporary crèche facilities, using an area of the baseas a venue and offering refreshments to tempt parents to attend. I spoke to the 9
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012parents of three of the children to gauge their responses to the suggestions. It wasfelt that holding the meeting on the base was too “heavy handed” and that parents“did not want neighbours and people from work” seeing them go into school at theend of school because “then everyone would know their child had problems becauseit’s on the school newsletter”.With this in mind, I planned a series of parent meetings to be conducted by theSENCO and the class teacher and held within the school day. These meetings wouldbe offered by invitation only and not be advertised on the school newsletter. Theletter, sent by the Head, would be clear, free from jargon and written in a non-threatening way. The Head teacher would then follow up with a friendly telephonecall two days before the meeting to confirm the times of the meetings and theparents attendance.These meetings were held in February and achieved 100% parent attendance. Ayear 6 girl’s mother attended the school for the first time since her daughter joined.The SENCO gathered additional information on all of the children “I’ve found outthings I didn’t know or wasn’t told before” but she still felt that the parents of two ofthe children were reluctant to discuss their child’s special educational needs. One ofthe class teachers still had reservations about the usefulness of the informationgathering. The other teacher felt upset by the comments from parents which shetook as a sign that she had not done enough in class for the children.Themes in the third and final cycleThe following themes emerged during the third and final cycle:  All of the children had made some academic progress in varying degrees but despite this six of the children continue to be working below the expected level for their age. This information appears to relate to the work of Galton et al (1999) who found that many pupils experienced a stall in progress after transfer and that an estimated two out of every five pupils failed to make the expected progress during the following year. As a result of the lack of academic progress these six children are receiving additional academic support both in the class and from a one to one teacher at the end of the 10
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012 school day. Many of the children are also receiving top up lunch time sessions.  The SENCO is working with two of the children who have special educational needs in addition to the work being carried out by class teachers.  Four of the children continue to experience peer friendship issues and are continuing to receive additional social skills support from the Family Support worker.  Three of the children continue to experience emotional and behavioural difficulties and are continuing to receive additional support from the Family Support worker.  Four of the children are working with outside professionals for specific additional support. These professionals are: an educational psychologist, a doctor, a social worker and a specialist dyslexia teacher. The parents of two of these children are actively involved in partnership working with these professionals.  For the first time since September the parents of four of the children have engaged in a meaningful way with the school and they are beginning to offer some insights into their child’s previous learning experiences.  One of the children is about to move house again.Third cycle interventionFollowing the third action research cycle I put into place my third and finalintervention. This intervention was comprised of a final staff meeting and a detaileddiscussion with the Head teacher to debrief her on all of my findings over the sevenmonths. As part of the staff session, I discussed the summary of my findings to date,the literature that underpinned my findings and also some suggestions for furtherchanges within the school after the project had finished. I also answered anyquestions the staff had on both the project and the school in general. Finally, I tooksome suggestions for future research. 11
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012DiscussionThe focus of my research was on Service children and how they cope withtransitions between schools. Prior to the research cycle the school had significantconcerns around the timely transfer of pupil information from one school to anotherand thus the implications for the teaching staff in preparing for children who theyknow nothing or very little about. This mirrors the concerns of both Ofsted (2011) andSETS (2001) who claim that the timely transfer of records are critical when a childmoves.I reflected on the extent to which it would assist teachers to have individualconversations about previous learning with parents and children prior to or uponentry to the school. Could this information form the basis of individual learning plansfor the children? Information from the school shows that no records were receivedwithin the first two weeks for four of the seven children. Without this informationteachers reported to find it difficult to place the children in the correct learning groupwithin the class. Even when records are received they often only refer to the child’slast school and contain no information on the numerous previous schools. Researchfrom the Royal Navy and Royal Marines Children’s Fund (2009) and Ofsted (2011)informs us of the nomadic nature of Service children who experience regular moves,often up to fourteen times during their school careers. On arrival at the school five ofthe children were working below average for their age, and at the four - month pointsix of the children were working below the expected average for their age. Thisseems to be in contrast to the results of the DCSF commissioned three RapidAnalysis Papers in 2009, which suggested that Service children do better than theirnon - mobile peers. At the end of the final cycle in month seven, these six childrencontinued to work below the expected level for their age. This is significant in light ofthe research carried out by Galton et al (1999) that claims that many pupilsexperience a stall in progress after transfer and that an estimated two out of everyfive pupils failed to make the expected progress during the year immediatelyfollowing the change of school.As a result of the information gathering process, I was able to actively listen to thechildren, parents and staff and was then able to build a detailed picture of each child. 12
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012Edgington (2004) reminds teachers of the relevance of carefully gathered pupilinformation and how such information could be used to construct appropriatepastoral and learning experiences. As well Leach and Moon’s research (2007)praises the concept of tailoring learning materials to each individual student. Formobile pupils with a complicated school career, this approach could assist inidentifying any gaps in learning and then offer a plan to address these gaps.Additionally it allows pupils a voice in the transition process.I was proactive in sharing the newly gathered information with the teachers, SENCO,Head teacher and Family Support Worker. However, it should be noted that thisinformation was received in different ways by some of the staff members being moreresponsive than others. I would like to think that all schools want to do the best fortheir pupils and I feel that in order to do this schools need to understand their pupils.Although the teacher may feel a pressing need to concentrate on assessing theacademic level of the new child and introduce them to full curriculum activities fromthe start; gaining an understanding of the issues that arise in Service life and thenature of mobility in respect of Service children is really the first step to providingthem with effective support.Some of the parents seemed relieved to be given the chance to talk about their childand previous experiences and in many cases they also shared their worries. I felt asif they viewed me as a “go between”, a person who had an understanding of Servicelife and who understood the context of what they were telling me. The involvement ofthe parents is key because they are the one constant in a child’s life. It would seemreasonable to expect that they have full information on their child’s transitions andany key events. However, I would like to explore in future research why someparents appear to build barriers which prevent them from sharing vital informationabout their child prior to or on arrival at school.The overall results of this small scale project lead me to conclude that the impact onservice children when moving to a new school is not confined to academic successbut also affects the child’s social, emotional and behavioural functioning within theschool setting. In this study all of the children continue to be affected eitheracademically or pastorally at the seven month point. This seems to be in contrast to 13
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012the transition cycle research carried out by Service Children’s Education, whosuggests that the majority of children will have settled by the six month point.Recommendations  A robust and consistent induction and leaving process should be put in place to support every new pupil on arrival and departure.  Schools should request pupil records from the previous school and be persistent in this request until the records arrive.  School staff should make time to speak to pupils and parents prior to or shortly after arrival to gather pastoral and academic information. This knowledge will ensure an authentic understanding of the whole child. Additionally, this information will allow schools an opportunity to mitigate some of the issues that arise from children arriving without records.  Schools should give new pupils the skills and the knowledge they need to succeed when they arrive in a new school. This should include making both the academic rules and the daily routine used in the school explicit.  In addition to base line assessments, teachers should gather information on a child’s prior learning experiences by initiating conversations with the pupil and parents. This should also help to identify any gaps in learning that may exist.  Schools should develop structures, which allow pupils to ask about things they do not understand, particularly their concerns about classroom learning and the expectations of their new teachers as discussed by Galton et al (1999).  Teachers should also consider the emotional impact of mobility on pupils and investigate the use of appropriate interventions to support peer friendships and any emotional and behavioural issues should they arise. 14
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012  Schools should act promptly to support newly arrived Service children with suspected or diagnosed special educational needs.  All professionals who work with Service children should have an understanding of the context of Service life and the key issues that Service families may face. Schools should not assume that because members of staff work with Service children that they understand the issues for Service children.  Schools should seek to work in partnership with parents to better support pupil’s academic development and pastoral well- being.FinallyIt is important for schools to remember that although Service families are often verygood at adapting to change, some moves may prove more difficult than others.Therefore, schools should be alert to the needs of pupils and families and offertimely and effective support as required beyond the induction stage. 15
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  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012MOD, 2010, JSP 464, http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/3C09CB15-E95C-41CF-8A06-13027254A03B/0/jsp464part1.pdf [accessed 30/08/11]MOD Children and Young People’s Trust Board, (2010) Harnessing the positivebenefits of living in a Services community to ensure that every Service child andyoung person’s experiences and opportunities help them to achieve the bestpossible outcomes whilst also supporting, protecting and intervening where needed,to help those most vulnerable, to achieve their ambitions, Children and YoungPeople’s Strategy and Improvement Plan 2010-2013.Ministry of Defence. (2011a) The Armed Forces Covenant, London: Ministry OfDefence.Ministry of Defence. (2011b) The Armed Forces Covenant: Today and Tomorrow,London: MOD.Newman, T. and Blackburn, S. (2002) Interchange 78: Transitions in the Lives ofChildren and Young People: Resilience Factors, Summary of Full Report, Edinburgh:Scottish Executive Education Department.Nind, M., Sheehy, K. and Simmons, K. (2003) Inclusive Education: Learners andLearning Contexts, London: David Fulton Publishers.Ofsted, (2005) Inspection Report, Service children’s Education Headquarters, June2005.Ofsted. (2011) Children in Service families No. 100227 May 2011.O’Neill, J. (2008) What would an effective ‘Transition and Induction’ Policy look like inrelation to Service Children at Halton School?O’Neill, J. (2010) “It’s hard for me I move a lot”, Evaluating Policy and Practice: TheProcess of designing and implementing a one-year Pilot Project to Support ServiceChildren at Halton School during periods of Mobility and Parental Deployment.Megan Age 11 20
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012Padfield, P. (2011) Inclusive Educational Approaches for Gypsy/Traveller Pupils andtheir families: An ‘Urgent need for progress’?http://www.scotedreview.org.uk/pdf/241.pdf [accessed 30/08/11]Pexton, S. (2012a) A pilot study: The welfare, emotional; wellbeing and supportneeds of primary school service children and their families separated during activeservice. A psychological assessment of the impact of deployment in school agedservice children (Aged 8-11) and their families, Dpsych, City University: London.Pollock, D. and Van Reken, R. (2011) Third Culture Kids: The Experience ofGrowing Up Among Worlds, London: Nicholas Brealey.Research Methods in Education, (2003) Milton Keynes, The Open University.Rudduck, J and McIntyre, D. (2007) Improving Learning by Consulting Pupils,London: RoutledgeSecondary Education Transition Study (SETS). (2001) United States Army:Arlington.Service Children in State Schools Handbook, (2008) Wiltshire: CEAS.Service Children’s Support Network. (2012)http://www.servicechildrensupportnetwork. com/research.html [accessed 21/01/12]Smith, T. (1997) Recognising Difference: The Romani Gypsy Child Socialisation andEducation Process, British Journal of Sociology of Education, Vol. 18, No. 2 (1997),pp. 243-256.The Global Movement for Children organisation (2010) Who are Children on theMove? http://www.gmfc.org/en/action-within-the-movement/gmc-actions/actions-by-imperatives/other-campaigns-a-actions/current-actions/90 [accessed 20/08/12].The Royal Air Force Families Federation http://www.raf-ff.org.uk/ [accessed20/06/11]. 21
  • MSc Learning and Teaching University of Oxford Copyright © Joy O’Neill 2012The Royal Air Force Families Federation http://www.raf-ff.org.uk/ [accessed29/08/12].The Royal Navy and Royal Marines Children’s Fund. (2009) The OverlookedCasualties of Conflict.The Nation’s Commitment, (2008) Cross-Government Support to our Armed Forces,their Families and Veterans Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State forDefence and the Minister of State for the Armed Forces. The Stationary Office:London.Thomas, G., (2009) How to do your research project, London, Sage.Turner-Cobb, J. (2005) Children’s Transition to School: Learning and HealthOutcomes, University of Bath.About the AuthorJoy O’Neill is a Service wife and mother, an Early Years Teacher, UniversityLecturer, Doctoral Student and a National Governance Leader.Joy has worked to support Service children and their families for over 19 years in theUK and Overseas. Concerned by the increasing issues for Service Children shefounded the Service Children Support Network which works with professionals andmembers of the military to support Service Children. Her first book ‘Service Children:a guide for education and welfare professionals’ was published in August 2011. 22