byzantine empire


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  • “ Built between 425 and 433, this small mausoleum adopts a cruciform plan, and the crossing is covered by a dome. On the outside, the architect simply juxtaposed masses. However, in contrast to Romanesque architecture, the mausoleum walls give the impression of being simple partitions designed to mark off the interior spaces. Blind arcades are its only decoration. The inside is relatively small and extremely simple. The mausoleum was intended from the very start to be covered with mosaics, and these are the oldest in Ravenna. The eye is seduced by the brilliance of the colours, which mask the architecture and create an illusionistic effect. The principal scene depicts the martyrdom of St. Lawrence at the moment when the saint approaches the red-hot gridiron. The other niche represents the Good Shepherd, and on the upper walls are the apostles.”
  • On the other side of the Nave a procession of 26 martyrs leaves the Palace of Theoderic and moves towards Christ the King
  • San Vitale's apse mosaic dates from 526 to 547 AD. It depicts a clean-shaven Christ astride the world, flanked by San Vitale (being handed a martyr's crown), two angels, and Bishop Ecclesius, who founded the church.
  • byzantine empire

    1. 1. Byzantine art,architecture and culture
    2. 2. Byzantine Empire• Capital of Eastern Roman Empire moved to Constantinople (330 AD) – More advantageous trade route between Asia and Europe – Other factors: Situated; port; forests; water; agricultural land• Rome falls to the Goths in 476 AD• Reached its highest expression of power in early 6th (500s) century when Justinian took the throne• Longest-lasting empire just short of Egyptian• Exerted strong cultural influence over Christian world
    3. 3. Byzantine Empire with Time
    4. 4. architecture
    5. 5. Byzantine Architecture• Most famous church : Hagia Sophia – Name means “Holy Wisdom”• Church is the culminating example of Byzantine architecture known as arcuate domicile• Built between 532-537 AD• Was once the largest church in the world
    6. 6. Hagia Sophia
    7. 7. Hagia Sophia• Bricks alternated with mortar were not properly/evenly balanced for weight – Destroyed twice – Damage/Collapse occurred during two earthquakes – Rebuilt by Justinian I• Arches buckled and buttresses were erected• New research suggests actually survived b/o these features: windows, pendentives, mortar/brick ratio; mortar itself flexible and self-sealing.
    8. 8. Stone remains of the basilica Marble blocks from the ordered by Theodosius II, second church showing the Lamb of God
    9. 9. Hagia Sophia• Long plan + Dome (Holy Sepulcher)• Emphasis is placed on the elevated central pavilion –ie, the dome – Image of heaven – Tall, open spaces – Need for light• Pavilion is a large dome with two half domes flocking the east and west sides• Took five years to finish
    10. 10. Ground-plan of the Hagia Sophia A section of the original architecture of Hagia Sophia
    11. 11. Hagia Sophia• In order to create a transcendental environment, dome could not be heavy as seen in typical barrel vault techniques• Architects Anthemius and Isidore created and used pendentives • Triangular masonry devices that carried the weight of the dome on massive piers
    12. 12. InsideHagiaSophia
    13. 13. Hagia Sophia• Shows elements of old basilica styles – Columned side aisles – Gallery for female worship• Overwhelming visual impression from dome
    14. 14. Need for light• Light = symbol of divine wisdom, illumination• Forty windows make the dome appear to be floating• Light refracted off the rich mosaics and colored marbled interior• Nave= oval• 184’ high
    15. 15. Ravenna: Mausoleums•Built between 425 and 433 BC.•The mausoleums were covered withmosaics.•Brilliance of the colors, which mask thearchitecture and create an illusionisticeffect.•Notable - Mausoleum of Galla Placidiaand Mausoleum of Theodoric
    16. 16. Ravenna : Mausoleum of Galla Placidia
    17. 17. InsideMausoleum ofGalla Placidia
    18. 18. Mausoleum of Theodoric
    19. 19. Mosaics
    20. 20. Mosaics• Mosaics are icons – A window into the world of the sacred• One stands before the icon and speaks through its image to the reality beyond – (Justinian had several mosaics of himself created; thought he represented Christ on Earth)• Religious figures always surrounded by halo of light.
    21. 21. The Deësis mosaic with Christ as ruler from the Hagia Sophia
    22. 22. Some Other Examples of Mosaics
    23. 23. Justinian and Theodora
    24. 24. Emperor Justinian and Attendants Tile Mosaic (540 – 547 AD)
    25. 25. Theodora
    26. 26. Christ the Good Shepherd
    27. 27. St Lawrence
    28. 28. Concentric Circles
    29. 29. Sant Apollinare / Nuovo
    30. 30. Christ the Sustainer
    31. 31. Icons • Often painted on wood • Used in the home as well as in churches
    32. 32. Controversy Surrounding Icons• Many people believed them to be idol worship.• These people became known as iconoclasts.• Byzantine Emperor banned them for a time.• Patriarch of Rome not recognized as main Christian authority by the Byzantines.• Patriarch of Rome declared all opposition to icons a heresy.• Heresy – anything attacking the basic principles of the church.• Heresy was punishable by excommunication• Excommunication – being kicked out of the church.
    33. 33. Split in the Christian Church• 1054 AD Christian Church split into two parts.• Western Church – Roman Catholic Church• Led by the Pope, in Rome• Eastern Church – Eastern Orthodox Church• Led by the Patriarch of Constantinople.
    34. 34. Split in the Christian Church
    35. 35. Byzantine Sculptures• The most prominent works of sculpture are manufactured Byzantine capitals ornamental plant and animal motifs.• But the major works of sculpture is the small Byzantine works, pamphlets and carved boxes in ivory.
    36. 36. Archangel Ivory•The Archangel ivory is the largest survivingByzantine ivory panel, now in the BritishMuseum. Dated to the early 6th century, itdepicts an archangel holding a sceptre andimperial orb.•The archangel is usually identified asMichael, and the panel is assumed to haveformed the right part of a diptych, with thelost left half possibly depicting EmperorJustinian (reigned 527–565).
    37. 37. Archangel Ivory
    38. 38. Barberini Ivory •The Barberini ivory is one fifth of a Byzantine ivory imperial diptych dating from Late Antiquity, now in the Louvre, Paris, France. It is carved in the classical style known as late Theodosian, representing the emperor as triumphant victor.
    39. 39. Barberini Ivory
    40. 40. Consular Diptych •In Late Antiquity a consular diptych was a particular type of diptych (a pair of linked panels, generally in ivory, wood or metal and decorated with rich sculpted decoration) which could function as a writing tablet but was also intended as a deluxe commemorative object, commissioned by a consul ordinarius and then distributed to reward those who had supported his candidature as rewards and to mark his entry to that post.
    41. 41. Consular Diptych
    42. 42. Imperial Diptych •In Late Antiquity, an imperial diptych is a theoretical type of ivory diptych, made up of two leaves of five panels each and each with a central panel representing the emperor or empress.
    43. 43. Imperial Diptych
    44. 44. Byzantine Literature• Four different cultural elements are to be reckoned with: – The Greek – The Christian – The Roman – The Oriental
    45. 45. Byzantine Literature• Genres Historians and Annalists Encyclopedists and Essayists Secular Poetry Ecclesiastical and Theological Literature Popular Poetry
    46. 46. Historians and Annalists• Jurists - Procopius, Agathias, Evagrius, Michael Attaliates.• Statesmen - Joannes Cinnamus, Nicetas Acominatus, Georgius Pachymeres, Laonicus Chalcondyles.• Generals and diplomats - Nicephorus Bryennius, George Acropolites, Georgius Phrantzes.• crowned heads - Constantine Porphyrogenitus, Anna Comnena, John VI Cantacuzene.
    47. 47. Historians and Annalists• Jurists - Procopius, Agathias, Evagrius, Michael Attaliates.• Statesmen - Joannes Cinnamus, Nicetas Acominatus, Georgius Pachymeres, Laonicus Chalcondyles.• Generals and diplomats - Nicephorus Bryennius, George Acropolites, Georgius Phrantzes.• crowned heads - Constantine Porphyrogenitus, Anna Comnena, John VI Cantacuzene.
    48. 48. An image and text from John Skylitzes ChronicleA work of 11th Century Byzantine Historical scholar.
    49. 49. Encyclopedists and Essayists• Patriarch Photios, Michael Psellos, and Michael Choniates are regarded as the greatest Encyclopedists of Byzantium
    50. 50. A page from a 16th-century edition of the vast Byzantine Encyclopaedia, the Suda
    51. 51. Secular poetry• They wrote romances, panegyrics, epigrams, satires, and didactic and hortatory poetry.• The only genuine heroic epic of the Byzantines is the Digenis Acritas.
    52. 52. Byzantine Music• Byzantine music is the music of the Byzantine Empire composed to Greek texts as ceremonial, festival, or church music.• Byzantine music is closely related to the ancient Greek system.• It remains the oldest genre of extant music, of which the manner of performance and the names of the composers, and sometimes the particulars of each musical works circumstances, are known.
    53. 53. Byzantine Music• The identification of "Byzantine music" with "Eastern Christian liturgical chant" is a misconception due to historical cultural reasons. Its main cause is the leading role of the Church as bearer of learning and official culture in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium), a phenomenon that was not always that extreme but that was exacerbated towards the end of the empires reign (14th century onwards) as great secular scholars migrated away from a declining Constantinople to rising western cities, bringing with them much of the learning that would spur the development of the European Renaissance.
    54. 54. Byzantine music notation style in a 1823 "Book of Hymns at the Lords Resurrection"
    55. 55. Dance• Antiquity was originally held to have some kind of educational value, as evidenced in Platos dialogues on this point in The Laws. However, as Greek culture gradually conquered Rome, dancing lost most of its educational value and was simply used as a method of entertainment, this coincided with the perception that being a dancer was not a particularly admirable job to have, and that its performers were generally of low social status.
    56. 56. Popular Dances of ThatPeriod• Syrtos (literally "dragged dance")• Geranos ("circle dance")• Mantilia ("kerchiefs")• Saximos• Pyrrichios ("war dance")• Kordakas ("indecent dance")
    57. 57. Musical Instruments• Byzantine instruments included the: • Guitar • Single, double, or multiple flute • Sistrum ("tambourine, instrument with bells") • Timpani ("drum") • Psaltirio ("psalter") • Lyre • Keras ("horn (musical)") • Kanonaki
    58. 58. Byzantine Musicians
    59. 59. Byzantine Economy• The Byzantine economy was among the most advanced in Europe and the Mediterranean for many centuries. Europe, in particular, was unable to match Byzantine economic strength until late in the Middle Ages. Constantinople was a prime hub in a trading network that at various times extended across nearly all of Eurasia and North Africa, in particular being the primary western terminus of the famous silk road.
    60. 60. Byzantine Economy contd.• One of the economic foundations of the empire was trade. Textiles must have been by far the most important item of export; silks were certainly imported into Egypt, and appeared also in Bulgaria, and the West. The state strictly controlled both the internal and the international trade, and retained the monopoly of issuing coinage. The government exercised formal control over interest rates, and set the parameters for the activity of the guilds and corporations, in which it had a special interest.
    61. 61. The PersisTence ofByzanTine culTure
    62. 62. Byzantine and Russia• Sense of Stability due to Russian Orthodox (and Greek Orthodox) churches – Russian emissaries brought back Byzantine style of art – Impact of services in Hagia Sophia and the building itself – Russian Onion-dome churches - Byzantine influence – Schools of icon painting in Russia
    63. 63. Byzantine and Italy• Most dominant influence in Ravenna under Justinian• Byzantine artists active in Italy after iconoclastic controversy• Influences create own movement known as Italo-Byzantine by the end of the 13th century
    64. 64. Stability in Art• Art connected to theological doctrine and liturgical practice – Infuse work with spirituality• Icon painting considered a holy occupation – New Orthodox church • Commission monk or icon painter• Greece – Movement to purge icon painting of Western Influence
    65. 65. Carry on Greek tradition• During Middle Ages (next unit) Greek learning becomes “lost”• Greek learning gained through Arabic sources – Aristotle (12th and 13th centuries) – Greek language not readily known 15th century• Greek scholars move westward after fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453
    66. 66. Thank you Presented By – Joyita Dey Batch 2 ( FP)