Joyt edgar dale's cone of experience

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  • 1. Years ago an educator named Edgar Dale (Educational Media, 1960), often cited as the father of modern media in education, developed from his experience in teaching and his observations of learners the "cone of experience”. The cone's utility in selecting instructional resources and activities is as practical today as when Dale created it.
  • 2. •10% of what they read • 20% of what they hear • 30% of what they see • 50% of what they hear and see - video • 70% of what they say or write • 90% of what they say as they do something
  • 3.  The cone is based on the relationships of various educational experiences to reality (real life).  The bottom level of the cone, "direct purposeful experiences," represents reality or the closest things to real, everyday life.
  • 4.  The opportunity for a learner to use a variety or several senses (sight, smell, hearing, touching, movement) is considered in the cone.  Direct experience allows us to use all senses. As you move up the cone, fewer senses are involved at each level.
  • 5.  The more sensory channels possible in interacting with a resource, the better the chance that many students can learn from it.  Each level of the cone above its base moves a learner a step further away from real- life experiences, so experiences focusing only on the use of verbal symbols are the furthest removed from real life.
  • 6.  Motion pictures (also television) is where it is on the cone because it is an observational experience with little or no opportunity to participate or use senses other than seeing and hearing.  The experiences below this one provide opportunity for the learner to enter into the experience in more ways, using more senses.
  • 7.  Contrived experiences are ones that are highly participatory and simulate real life situations or activities.  Dramatized experiences are defined as experiences in which the learner acts out a role or activity.
  • 8.  When Dale formulated the cone of experience, computers were not a part of educational or home settings, so they aren't part of the original cone.
  • 9. The importance of Dale's cone of experience is the tool it provides to help a teacher make decisions about resources or activities. Using your knowledge of the cone, you can ask yourself several questions about the potential value of a resource to student learning.
  • 10.  principal medium of communication  bear no physical resemblance to the objects or ideas for which they stand  may be a word for concretion, idea, scientific principle, formula or philosophic aphorism  Disadvantage: highly abstract
  • 11.  chalkboard/whiteboard, flat maps, diagrams, charts  fits the tempo of presentation of idea, topic or situation  very easy to procure and prepare  Limitations: lack of ability to use the media size of visuals simplification of visual materials leads to misconceptions
  • 12.  attention – getting, particularly projected views  concretized verbal abstraction  Limitations: size of pictures or illustrations expensiveness of projected materials and equipment timing difficulties between radio shows and classroom lessons
  • 13.  a solution to time and space constraints  provides “windows to the world”  effective for presenting movement, continuity of ideas or events  substitute for dangerous direct learning experiences  Limitations: Expensive viewing problems timing with classroom lessons  misconceptions about time, size, and ideas
  • 14.  present objects or processes otherwise impossible inside the classroom  exposure to new ideas, discoveries, inventions  problems that may be encountered: too little space time – consuming maintenance
  • 15.  visualized explanation of an important fact or idea or process  may require nothing more than observation or students may be asked to do what has just been shown how to do  Disadvantages: ideas or processes might not be interpreted or conceived very well visibility to all learners
  • 16.  undertaken primarily for the purpose of experiencing something that cannot be encountered within the classroom  a rich experience in learning about objects, systems, and situations  Disadvantages: time-consuming expensive high exposure to danger /accidents inadequacy of the community’s resources
  • 17.  help get closer to certain realities that are no longer available at first hand  stirring and attention getting  participant learns to understand intimately the character he portrays  teaches cooperative work  Disadvantages: time consuming without commensurate results participation is limited to few individuals
  • 18.  an “editing” of reality  substitutes for confusing or unmanageable first – hand experiences  easier to handle, manipulate or operate  Disadvantages: simplification leads to misconceptions, distorted views, and incomplete pictures of reality no freedom to handle expensive or fragile models, mock – ups, specimens, etc.
  • 19. 11% 83% 1.5%3.5% 1.5% Sight Sound Smell Touch Taste
  • 20.  Learning is an active process. Retention level practically increases as students are actively involve in various learning activities.  Researchers found out that the most effective approaches – resulting in 75% and 90% retention rates, respectively – are learning by doing and learning by teaching others
  • 21. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 R eading H earing S eeing H earing & S eeing Saying H earing, Saying & D oing
  • 22. Source: Kemp, J. & Smellie, D. (1994). Planning, producing, and using instructional technologies. 7th edition. NY: Harper Collins
  • 23.  Media used: films, charts, movies, specimens
  • 24.  Media used:  Mock-ups, models, diagrams, charts, pictures
  • 25.  Media used:  Telescope, microscope, lens, drawings, films, slides, models, pictures
  • 26.  Media used:  models, mock-ups, films, slides, diagrams
  • 27.  Media used:  simulators, films, slides, diagrams
  • 28.  Media used:  simulators, films, field trips, dramas, slides, pictures
  • 29. Source: Garo, C. (2007). Teaching educational technology. Manila: Rex Publishing.
  • 30.  What are you trying to accomplish?  What needs might specific instructional media address.
  • 31.  Library resource  Commercial producers  distributors
  • 32. Size Color Easy to Handle Durability Economy Relevance Novelty
  • 33.  How well do they like the materials?  How effectively do the materials help them learn?
  • 34.  Its effectiveness and appeal to students
  • 35.  Select the material that works best for your students/learning situation