Counseling the deaf (convention)

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Counseling the deaf (convention)

  1. 1. Counseling: Needs of the Deaf,Counseling: Needs of the Deaf, Challenges for CounselorsChallenges for Counselors Presenter:Presenter: Joy L. Cristal, M.A.,R.G.C.Joy L. Cristal, M.A.,R.G.C. joycristal@gmail.comjoycristal@gmail.com 7th Convention on Deaf Education May 19-21,2010 Teachers Camp, Baguio city
  2. 2. Introduction: A Deaf Child Growing in aIntroduction: A Deaf Child Growing in a Unique EnvironmentUnique Environment The Hearing Family The Hearing Community The Deaf Community DEAF CHILD
  3. 3. Deaf World The two worlds interact- the smaller world of deaf minority where visual communication plays a vital role & the world of speech & sounds of the dominant & larger hearing community. Hearing World A deaf child is caught between two worlds.
  4. 4. The Present Scenario in Providing Mental HealthThe Present Scenario in Providing Mental Health Services to Deaf PeopleServices to Deaf People More than 20 million Deaf & Hard of Hearing individuals Needing mental Health services, yet only 2 % of these Individuals Receive appropriate Treatment. (Murray,2009) Deaf children have higher rates of sexual abuse but treatment services are inadequate (National Child Traumatic Stress Network (2004). PHILIPPINES (? ) No solid data on Mental Health Services for the Deaf
  5. 5. Counseling Services in theCounseling Services in the PhilippinesPhilippines How many skilled Counselors (for the Deaf) do we have? How many skilled Deaf counselors Do we have? How many schools (public) Have counselors Competent to Help deaf clients? How many schools (private) have Competent Counselors To help deaf clients NO SOLID DATA (NO RESEARCH) BUT WE KNOW THERE ARE VERY FEW COUNSELORS AND EXISTING GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING SERVICES FOR THE DEAF.
  6. 6. Do deaf people need counselors andDo deaf people need counselors and guidance and counseling services?guidance and counseling services? YES Deaf people are people first and foremost with similar problems to Hearing people (Napier & Corner, 2004:208) Deaf children are at risk of eveloping mental health difficulties due to being deaf in a hearing-oriented society. (Hindley & Kitson, 2001)
  7. 7. Do deaf people need counselors andDo deaf people need counselors and guidance and counseling services?guidance and counseling services? YES Reports, experience and the felt need to expand the work of non-government Organizations providing Formation and free counseling Services to deaf people ANECDOTES/STORIES Experience of deaf people parents and teachers
  8. 8. Do deaf people need counselors andDo deaf people need counselors and guidance and counseling services?guidance and counseling services?  PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS (SIGNERS)PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS (SIGNERS)  Ages:Ages: 18-44 yrs. Old18-44 yrs. Old (64% 18-23 yrs. old)(64% 18-23 yrs. old)  Gender:Gender: Female = 64%Female = 64%  Male = 21%Male = 21%  Lesbian = 3 %Lesbian = 3 %  Gay = 11%Gay = 11%  Status:Status: Studying = 71.43 %Studying = 71.43 %  Working = 20%Working = 20%  Both = 7 %Both = 7 %  Idle = 1.43%Idle = 1.43% YES FROM THE (partial) RESULTS OF AN ON-GOING SURVEY ON GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING NEEDS of the FILIPINO DEAF (Cristal,2010)
  9. 9. Do deaf children in elementary schoolsDo deaf children in elementary schools need counseling services?need counseling services? RESPONSES of DEAF ADULTSRESPONSES of DEAF ADULTS YESYES 73%73% NONO 23%23%  No AnswerNo Answer 4%4%
  10. 10. Reasons Given by RespondentsReasons Given by Respondents  1. *1. * Communication problems with parentsCommunication problems with parents  2. Need to understand Deaf life and2. Need to understand Deaf life and cultureculture  3. Need to deal w/ initial problems3. Need to deal w/ initial problems  4. Development Needs: *4. Development Needs: *socio-emotionalsocio-emotional adjustmentadjustment, *, * self-confidenceself-confidence behaviorbehavior changechange  5. *5. *Abuse-related issuesAbuse-related issues: abuse: abuse experience, disclosing secrets aboutexperience, disclosing secrets about abuse; personal safety and self-protectionabuse; personal safety and self-protection * Issues most frequently encountered by Ms. Cristal in her professional practice
  11. 11. Do deaf high school students needDo deaf high school students need counseling services in school?counseling services in school? RESPONSES of DEAF ADULTSRESPONSES of DEAF ADULTS YESYES 94 %94 % NONO 3 %3 %  No AnswerNo Answer 3 %3 %
  12. 12. Reasons Given by RespondentsReasons Given by Respondents  1. Development issues:1. Development issues: **identity searchidentity search, self-awareness,, self-awareness, **self-confidenceself-confidence, right attitudes, sense of responsibility,, right attitudes, sense of responsibility, self-discipline, *self-discipline, *sexualitysexuality, *, *awareness aboutawareness about Deaf life andDeaf life and cultureculture, values education., values education.  2. Dealing with problems:2. Dealing with problems: interpersonal conflicts, *interpersonal conflicts, *familyfamily problems,problems, **communicationcommunication gap with parents,gap with parents, oppressiveoppressive situations, teenage pregnancy, fraternitysituations, teenage pregnancy, fraternity  3. Learning skills:3. Learning skills: problem-solving, decision-making,problem-solving, decision-making, independence/autonomyindependence/autonomy  4. Need for Information:4. Need for Information: college life, career opportunitiescollege life, career opportunities for the Deaf, knowing future challengesfor the Deaf, knowing future challenges * Issues most frequently encountered by Ms. Cristal in her professional practice.
  13. 13. Do deaf college students need counselingDo deaf college students need counseling services in school?services in school? RESPONSES of DEAF ADULTSRESPONSES of DEAF ADULTS YESYES 97 %97 % NONO 0 %0 %  No AnswerNo Answer 3 %3 %
  14. 14. ReasonsReasons  1. Development issues:1. Development issues: self-awareness, *self-awareness, * self-esteemself-esteem,, attitude change;attitude change;  2. Learning skills:2. Learning skills: **problem-solvingproblem-solving, leadership,, leadership, **assertivenessassertiveness, stress-management, goal-setting;, stress-management, goal-setting;  3. Career:3. Career: **opportunities for deaf peopleopportunities for deaf people, life challenges,, life challenges, learning about work, marriage, family;learning about work, marriage, family;  4. Academic:4. Academic: **improve motivation and achievementimprove motivation and achievement * Issues most frequently encountered by Ms. Cristal in her professional practice.
  15. 15. Reasons (FROM DEAF RESPONDENTS)Reasons (FROM DEAF RESPONDENTS) Why Deaf People Need Counselors &Why Deaf People Need Counselors & Guidance and Counseling ServicesGuidance and Counseling Services THREE MAJOR THEMES DEAF PEOPLE NEED T0 DEAL WITH PROBLEMS WITH HEARING FAMILIES. DEAF CHILDREN AND YOUTH NEED SUPPORT FOR THEIR DEVELOPMENT ISSUES. DEAF PEOPLE NEED TO LEARN CERTAIN SKILLS AND KNOW SOME INFORMATION. Lack of COMMUNICATION & Lack of AWARENESS about the uniqueness of the Deaf (culture) •IDENTITY SEARCH •POOR SELF- CONCEPT •-LACK SELF- CONFIDENCE •LOW SELF-ESTEEM PROBLEM-SOLVING
  16. 16. DiscussionDiscussion Highlights of the ResultsHighlights of the Results
  17. 17. Deafness has an impact on the family as wellDeafness has an impact on the family as well as on the deaf child.as on the deaf child. (Koester & Meadow-Orlans, 1990)(Koester & Meadow-Orlans, 1990) COMMUNICATION BARRIER 90 % of deaf children are born to hearing parents with no knowledge about deafness (Moores, 2001a Poor self-image Low self-esteem Isolated
  18. 18. Every family with a deafEvery family with a deaf child goes throughchild goes through emotional adjustmentemotional adjustment starting even at thestarting even at the moment of meremoment of mere suspicion of having asuspicion of having a deaf childdeaf child.. Hearing families of deaf children need support, information and awareness to deal with the consequences of deafness.
  19. 19. The adjustment process is often described inThe adjustment process is often described in terms akin to the stages of grief and dying thatterms akin to the stages of grief and dying that Kubler-Ross first identified in 1969.Kubler-Ross first identified in 1969. (Schirmer, 2001)(Schirmer, 2001) WHAT SHOULD I DO to HELP MY DEAF CHILD? Why is my child deaf? “Sayang… deaf sya…” EXPERIENCES OF HEARING PARENTS
  20. 20. The Typical Experience of a DevelopingThe Typical Experience of a Developing Deaf Child in a Hearing FamilyDeaf Child in a Hearing Family D E A F HEARING PARENTS & SIBLINGS PREDOMINANTLY HEARING-SPEAKING SOCIETY DEAF COMMUNITYMENTAL HEALTH DIFFICULTIES DUE to: 1) POOR SELF-IMAGE and IDENTITY as deaf; 2) Not being part of Deaf culture (Hindley & Kitson, 2001) MARGINALIZED Isolated & Misunderstood A Search for and A Long Journey Towards the Deaf Community
  21. 21. The Deaf & the Hearing CommunityThe Deaf & the Hearing Community DEAF HEARING FAMILY HEARING COMMUNITY The Hearing Person’s Bias -Hearing people’s definition & view of deafness & deaf people; -Hearing prescriptions on deaf people; -Maintain strong myths & misconceptions about deafness & deaf people; -Incidence of discrimination & abuse of deaf people;Stressed in a hearing environment; Handicapped by the environment designed for hearing people.
  22. 22. Establishing goodEstablishing good self-image, identityself-image, identity and links with deafand links with deaf culture are seen toculture are seen to protect againstprotect against poor mental health.poor mental health. (Yetman, 2002)(Yetman, 2002) HOW IMPORTANT IS SIGN LANGUAGE AND DEAF CULTURE TO THE MENTAL HEALTH OF DEAF PEOPLE?
  23. 23. Deaf culture is very real in the life of deaf people.Deaf culture is very real in the life of deaf people. Individuals who are Deaf, like members of other cultural minorities, compose a distinct cultural community that shares “ a common language (i.e. a natural sign language), history, arts, beliefs, mores, behavior patters, and social institutions. (Smith & Rush, 2007:232; cited by Whyte & Guifrida,2008)
  24. 24. Perspective on Counseling Deaf People asPerspective on Counseling Deaf People as CROSS-CULTURAL COUNSELINGCROSS-CULTURAL COUNSELING HEARING COUNSELOR DEAF CLIENT Interpersonal interaction & communication Hearing Culture Deaf Culture Need: Accurate/appropriate sending/receiving of verbal/ nonverbal messages … (Sue,1981) Understand the life experiences/context and worldviews of the Deaf and communicate in the language that deaf clients understand & most comfortable with
  25. 25. Only in learning about Deaf cultureOnly in learning about Deaf culture and community can mental healthand community can mental health professional appropriately serve theprofessional appropriately serve the deaf population. (Radler, 1999)deaf population. (Radler, 1999)
  26. 26. DEAF CLIENTCOUNSELOR 1.Consider the diversity of deaf people (including Deaf Culture; 2. BUT Careful not to generalize the deaf community as one culture; 3. Utilize techniques/approaches based on the realities of deaf life; 4. Respond to the communication needs of deaf clients. (Become a fluent signer .)
  27. 27. Look into the dynamics of DEAF-DEAF and DEAF-HEARING INTERACTIONS. The Deaf Community has had a long with- standing distrust Of hearing people because the majority group often views them as being sickly and in need of cure. (Radler, 1999) Throughou t a deaf person’s life they are being probed by individuals who have no sense of Deaf culture. (Radler, 1999)
  28. 28. Recommendations:Recommendations: 1.1.Make Guidance and Counseling aMake Guidance and Counseling a vital program in all schools.vital program in all schools. Curriculum (Instruction) Administration Research & Advocacy GUIDANCE & COUNSELING COUNSELING (CORE) Deaf Parents Families PSYCHO- EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES -Parents Classes -Formation seminars for the Deaf ABUSE PREVENTION We need to have COMPETENT,QUALIFIED COUNSELORS in schools for the Deaf or in schools where there are deaf children.
  29. 29. Guidance and Counseling…anGuidance and Counseling…an integral part of the educationalintegral part of the educational system…system… (Villar,2007:27)(Villar,2007:27)  Counseling… the heart of the GuidanceCounseling… the heart of the Guidance Program;Program;  Guidance Program …all the servicesGuidance Program …all the services activities intended to realize the goals ofactivities intended to realize the goals of counseling.counseling.
  30. 30. Counseling …major service for helpingCounseling …major service for helping individuals address the changing demandsindividuals address the changing demands of the different developmental stages,of the different developmental stages, understand themselves and theirunderstand themselves and their environment, resolve issues and problems,environment, resolve issues and problems, and develop their potentials optimally.and develop their potentials optimally. (Villar,2007:9)(Villar,2007:9) Republic Act 9258 (Guidance Act of 2004) stipulates a Master’s Degree in Guidance and Counseling as a prerequisite for practice. (Villar,2007:31)ui
  31. 31. To be effective theTo be effective the frameworks, approachesframeworks, approaches and strategies ofand strategies of counselors must becounselors must be grounded in the realitiesgrounded in the realities of deaf people.of deaf people.
  32. 32. Recommendation:Recommendation: 2. Incorporate DEAF STUDIES into2. Incorporate DEAF STUDIES into the training of hearing counselors.the training of hearing counselors. DEAF STUDIES Deaf Culture Natural Sign Language Deaf Identity Deaf community Study of the language & culture of deaf people (Lane1989;Kannapell, 1991) Emerged in 1990’s (Norman & Gillespie,1993)
  33. 33. RecommendationRecommendation 3. Invest time, money and hope to the3. Invest time, money and hope to the training of Deaf counselors that they maytraining of Deaf counselors that they may later on become professional licensedlater on become professional licensed counselor who can serve their communitycounselor who can serve their community and effectively respond to the counselingand effectively respond to the counseling needs of their own flock.needs of their own flock. Deaf counselors/facilitators/formators are indispensable (very much needed ) in any Guidance and Counseling Program for the Deaf.
  34. 34. Conclusion:Conclusion:  Deaf people need to avail and have a ready access to counselingDeaf people need to avail and have a ready access to counseling services in and out of the school setting. Generally, they experienceservices in and out of the school setting. Generally, they experience problems in relating to hearing family members due to communicationproblems in relating to hearing family members due to communication difficulties and lack of awareness about the uniqueness and culture ofdifficulties and lack of awareness about the uniqueness and culture of deaf people. The major development and adjustment issues that need todeaf people. The major development and adjustment issues that need to be addressed by counselors include low self-esteem, identity search,be addressed by counselors include low self-esteem, identity search, depression, isolation and experience of abuse. On top of the counselordepression, isolation and experience of abuse. On top of the counselor qualities that the profession require such as keeping confidentiality andqualities that the profession require such as keeping confidentiality and being trustworthy Deaf people put a premium on the counselor’s fluencybeing trustworthy Deaf people put a premium on the counselor’s fluency in sign language and depth of knowledge of the culture and life context ofin sign language and depth of knowledge of the culture and life context of deaf people. Thus, licensed Deaf counselor is more preferred than adeaf people. Thus, licensed Deaf counselor is more preferred than a licensed hearing counselor. Creation of Guidance and Counselinglicensed hearing counselor. Creation of Guidance and Counseling Programs in public and private schools for the Deaf is stronglyPrograms in public and private schools for the Deaf is strongly recommended. Likewise, Deaf Studies must be incorporated into therecommended. Likewise, Deaf Studies must be incorporated into the training of counselors. To be truly empowering and effective, counselorstraining of counselors. To be truly empowering and effective, counselors need to become fluent in sign language, specifically in natural signneed to become fluent in sign language, specifically in natural sign language, and to have an in-depth knowledge and understanding of thelanguage, and to have an in-depth knowledge and understanding of the uniqueness, needs and experiences of deaf people as a linguistic minority.uniqueness, needs and experiences of deaf people as a linguistic minority.
  35. 35. References:References: BooksBooks  Anderson, G.B. & Watson,D.(1985).eds.Counseling DeafAnderson, G.B. & Watson,D.(1985).eds.Counseling Deaf People: Research and Practice. University of Arkansas.People: Research and Practice. University of Arkansas.  Andrews,J.F.,Leigh,I.W.,Weiner,M.T. (2004). DeafAndrews,J.F.,Leigh,I.W.,Weiner,M.T. (2004). Deaf People:Evolving Perspectives from Psychology, Education, andPeople:Evolving Perspectives from Psychology, Education, and Sociology.Boston:Pearson Education, Inc.Sociology.Boston:Pearson Education, Inc.  Austen, S.,Crocker, Susan.(2004).eds.Deafness inAusten, S.,Crocker, Susan.(2004).eds.Deafness in Mind.London:Whurr Publishers.Mind.London:Whurr Publishers.  Schirmer,B.R.(2001).Psychological, Social, and EducationalSchirmer,B.R.(2001).Psychological, Social, and Educational Dimensions of Deafness. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Dimensions of Deafness. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.  Villar, I.V.G.(2007). Implementing a Comprehensive GuidanceVillar, I.V.G.(2007). Implementing a Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Program in the Philippines.Makati: Alignedand Counseling Program in the Philippines.Makati: Aligned Transformations Publications.Transformations Publications.
  36. 36. ReferencesReferences  Articles/PapersArticles/Papers  Cristal, J.L., (2009). Breaking the Silence of Deaf Survivors of Abuse: ACristal, J.L., (2009). Breaking the Silence of Deaf Survivors of Abuse: A Counselor’s Advocacy.Paper presented at the Philippine GuidanceCounselor’s Advocacy.Paper presented at the Philippine Guidance Counselors Association Convention, May 22,2009.Counselors Association Convention, May 22,2009.  Radler,C. Ethical Implications of Counseling the Deaf and Hearing-Radler,C. Ethical Implications of Counseling the Deaf and Hearing- Impaired. May 18, 1999.Impaired. May 18, 1999.  Whyte, A.K. & Guiffrida,D.A. (2008). Counseling Deaf College Students:Whyte, A.K. & Guiffrida,D.A. (2008). Counseling Deaf College Students: The Case of Shea.American Counseling Association.The Case of Shea.American Counseling Association.  LinksLinks  WWW NCTS Net.org.(2004) Facts on Trauma and Deaf childrenWWW NCTS Net.org.(2004) Facts on Trauma and Deaf children
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