0
Predictable Irrationality
If you build what they ask for, they will
NOT come



Joyce Hostyn

jhostyn@opentext.com
twitter...
I like a dark,
 rich, hearty
 roast
  majority of respondents




20-25%
   actually do prefer rich hearty roast
         ...
What is the number one retirement
strategy for Americans?




                                    win the lottery!
It has been said that man is a rational
animal.

All my life I have been searching
for evidence which could support
this.
...
Traditional economic theory portrays people as highly rational.
                                                          ...
But reasoning, decision-making, and behavior is more like a messy game of
snakes and ladders. No clear path. Highly emotio...
Theory of economic man is collapsing (slowly). We aren’t rational, profit-
maximizing homo economicus after all.
Irrational human traits are ingrained in our
brains

    anchor effect   collecting social validation reciprocity confabul...
what brain science
     tells us
 unconscious mind controls up to 95% of behavior
danger! danger! lizard brain has no time
  for facts
          I’m going to
        get in trouble.




                  ...
emotion. memory. habit. mammal brain
  drives behavior and decision making




Where intuition (tacit knowledge) resides a...
abstract thought. logic.
  human brain reasons and
  rationalizes




But it doesn’t really make the decisions. So… backwa...
reason         requests, needs,     conscious
                   wishes




emotion    desires, frustrations,
            ...
which brain always wins?
… key guideline was a simple
               message: "A Record Turnout
                Is Expected." That's because
      ...
what does this have to do
       with ECM?
       and the challenge of adoption?
Most important factor for realizing value?
                                                          effective user adopti...
What is the biggest hurdle behind the
ECM adoption challenge?
the adoption
    hurdle is here


The problem isn’t getting people using ECM software. The problem is to change
people’s m...
Most implementations fail to take into
consideration business context…
implementation teams know who their
users are, but ...
Even minor decisions are influenced by
emotional factors and by the
cultural context in which they are to
be taken.


    ...
The problem is on both sides




   people tend to                                     business tends
   overvalue what th...
not
           much

                    easy sells smash hits
behavior
 change


                          sure
         ...
what do we need to do?
deploy ECM to fit the way
      people work
anticipate and manage
       resistance
brace for slow adoption
to do this, we need to
deeply understand people
 and the context in which
        they work
We've learned from many enterprises with successful ECM initiatives that
focusing on business context helps. How? It allow...
tools for emotional insight
shift your perspective
Probe for insight                      active
                    expressed data   listening




                    tacit...
Six techniques to probe deeply

   1   Interviews

   2   Peeling the onion

   3   5 whys

   4   Stories

   5   Apprent...
Asking “what do you want” WON’T give
you what you need




           Source: How to understand your users with personas, ...
Most of the time people have no idea
why they’re doing what they’re doing. So they’re going to
            try to make up ...
Instead, ask about how they work




                 John Gourville, “Eager Sellers and Stony Buyers”, HBR
Then listen deeply


                     have NO expectations
                        about their responses


           ...
1 - dig deep with interviews




“You’re going to tell me a little story, like I was a 5 year old from another planet.”
Cl...
1 - dig deep with interviews
                               For understanding people
                               •   Te...
1 - dig deep with interviews
                               For understanding process
                               •   W...
1 - dig deep with interviews
                                   For understanding content
                               •...
1 - dig deep with interviews
2 – peel the onion for deep understanding
         1 what they say
         Why? What’s behind what
         they’re sayin...
2 – peel the onion for deep understanding
3 – use the 5 whys to get the ‘so what’
                              If you’re not going to finish
                      ...
3 – use the 5 whys to get the ‘so what’
                              I don’t want to change the
                         ...
3 – use the 5 whys to get the ‘so what’
                              A patient got the wrong
                            ...
3 – use the 5 whys to get the ‘so what’
3 – use the 5 whys to get the ‘so what’




                             Perry Belcher, Peeling-the-onion
4 – elicit stories using pictures
     What is the best     3
 1   thing about living
     in Kpendua?”



 2   What is al...
4 – elicit stories using pictures




                                    Perfect Pitch, Jon Steel
4 – elicit stories using words
             frustrated elated angry exhausted awed timid disappointed kindness
           ...
4 – elicit stories




                     http://www.visualexplorer.org/downloads/index.html
5 – go native and be an apprentice

                 interview
       (get overview & establish trust)


      switch to m...
5 – go native and be an apprentice
6 – build empathy using personas
                                       What do they

                            THINK & ...
Sally
                 Accounts Payable
                 Processor
                                                    “An...
6 – build empathy using personas
Grant              Karl
Global Services    Account Exec




Ben                Jim
Customer Support   Developer
take aways
the adoption
hurdle is here
people are
influenced by their
      environment,
          emotions,
 shortsightedness,
and other forms of
        irrati...
this means…
STOP talking
 users. technology. requirements.
START observing
people. mental models. emotions. cultural context. stories.
seek to
 UNDERSTAND
predictable irrationality of people. what people are trying to
                         achieve. why.
then DEPLOY
with predictable irrationality in mind. anticipate and manage
            resistance. brace for slow adoption.
Predictable Irrationality If You Build What They Ask For, They Will Not Come
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Predictable Irrationality If You Build What They Ask For, They Will Not Come

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Traditional approaches to defining and deploying enterprise software fail to account for that fact that people are influenced by their environment, emotions, shortsightedness, and other forms of irrationality. How do we get past the predictable irrationality of people to redefine the problem and create experiences that people will embrace?

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Transcript of "Predictable Irrationality If You Build What They Ask For, They Will Not Come"

  1. 1. Predictable Irrationality If you build what they ask for, they will NOT come Joyce Hostyn jhostyn@opentext.com twitter @joyce_hostyn Slide 1 Copyright © 2008 Open Text Corporation. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. I like a dark, rich, hearty roast majority of respondents 20-25% actually do prefer rich hearty roast Slide 2 Copyright © 2008 Open Text Corporation. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. What is the number one retirement strategy for Americans? win the lottery!
  4. 4. It has been said that man is a rational animal. All my life I have been searching for evidence which could support this. Bertrand Russell
  5. 5. Traditional economic theory portrays people as highly rational. Slide 5 Copyright © 2008 Open Text Corporation. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. But reasoning, decision-making, and behavior is more like a messy game of snakes and ladders. No clear path. Highly emotional. Predictably irrational. Slide 6 Vickuick -http://www.flickr.com/photos/vickuik/2285220997/ Copyright © 2008 Open Text Corporation. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Theory of economic man is collapsing (slowly). We aren’t rational, profit- maximizing homo economicus after all.
  8. 8. Irrational human traits are ingrained in our brains anchor effect collecting social validation reciprocity confabulation commitment placebo effect discovery fear of loss concession scarcity endowment effect choice Hawthorne effect clustering illusion keeping doors open availability cascade authority bias procrastination reciprocity competition zero-risk bias
  9. 9. what brain science tells us unconscious mind controls up to 95% of behavior
  10. 10. danger! danger! lizard brain has no time for facts I’m going to get in trouble. They’re going to laugh at me. Focused on survival. Fight, flight or freeze. Sex. Food. Events may trigger memories of emotional events and our deepest fears.
  11. 11. emotion. memory. habit. mammal brain drives behavior and decision making Where intuition (tacit knowledge) resides and decisions really happen.
  12. 12. abstract thought. logic. human brain reasons and rationalizes But it doesn’t really make the decisions. So… backwards rationalization. Adopts a theory and seeks to support and defend it. Slows down decision-making.
  13. 13. reason requests, needs, conscious wishes emotion desires, frustrations, intuition unconscious instinct fears, danger, survival
  14. 14. which brain always wins?
  15. 15. … key guideline was a simple message: "A Record Turnout Is Expected." That's because studies by psychologist Robert Cialdini and other group members had found that the most powerful motivator for hotel guests to reuse towels, national-park visitors to stay on marked trails and citizens to vote is the suggestion that everyone is doing it. "People want to do what they think others will do… The Obama campaign really got that.” How Obama Is Using the Science of Change, Michael Grunwald
  16. 16. what does this have to do with ECM? and the challenge of adoption?
  17. 17. Most important factor for realizing value? effective user adoption 13% software functionality organizational change process alignment 16% 1% 70% Source: Defining Enterprise Software “Success,” Sandhill.com and Neochange 2008
  18. 18. What is the biggest hurdle behind the ECM adoption challenge?
  19. 19. the adoption hurdle is here The problem isn’t getting people using ECM software. The problem is to change people’s minds about ECM software.
  20. 20. Most implementations fail to take into consideration business context… implementation teams know who their users are, but they know very little about the people that will use the technology. Thoughts On Recession...And ECM Adoption Kyle McNabb, Forrester
  21. 21. Even minor decisions are influenced by emotional factors and by the cultural context in which they are to be taken. Dan Ariely, Predictably Irrational
  22. 22. The problem is on both sides people tend to business tends overvalue what they 3x 3x to overvalue what currently use by they’re selling by a about a factor of 3 factor of 3 9x John Gourville, “Eager Sellers and Stony Buyers: Understanding the Psychology of New-Product Adoption”, HBR
  23. 23. not much easy sells smash hits behavior change sure long hauls failures a lot low high payoff John Gourville, “Eager Sellers and Stony Buyers”, HBR
  24. 24. what do we need to do?
  25. 25. deploy ECM to fit the way people work
  26. 26. anticipate and manage resistance
  27. 27. brace for slow adoption
  28. 28. to do this, we need to deeply understand people and the context in which they work
  29. 29. We've learned from many enterprises with successful ECM initiatives that focusing on business context helps. How? It allows them to build up profiles on their people, not as users, but as people that just happen to use ECM technology to get their daily work. They've basically adopted, to a degree, the marketing practice of customer segmentation and persona design and applied it to their employees.... As a result, they've been able to fit ECM technologies into how their people work, complementing they way their people work instead of materially changing what they do. Thoughts On Recession...And ECM Adoption Kyle McNabb, Forrester
  30. 30. tools for emotional insight
  31. 31. shift your perspective
  32. 32. Probe for insight active expressed data listening tacit data fertile data probing
  33. 33. Six techniques to probe deeply 1 Interviews 2 Peeling the onion 3 5 whys 4 Stories 5 Apprentice 6 Personas
  34. 34. Asking “what do you want” WON’T give you what you need Source: How to understand your users with personas, Brad Colbow
  35. 35. Most of the time people have no idea why they’re doing what they’re doing. So they’re going to try to make up something that makes sense. Clotaire Rapaille, Reptilian Marketing
  36. 36. Instead, ask about how they work John Gourville, “Eager Sellers and Stony Buyers”, HBR
  37. 37. Then listen deeply have NO expectations about their responses it’s about understanding how THEY see the world
  38. 38. 1 - dig deep with interviews “You’re going to tell me a little story, like I was a 5 year old from another planet.” Clotaire Rapaille
  39. 39. 1 - dig deep with interviews For understanding people • Tell me about… • Describe the worst/best experience you’ve had with… • What did you think when…? • How did you feel when…? • What were high and low points in…? • Describe a great day. Bad day. • What do you like about your job? Dislike? • What really stood out for you in … (good or bad)? • If you could change one thing what would it be? • It you had a magic wand, what would you wish for? • 5 whys
  40. 40. 1 - dig deep with interviews For understanding process • Would you walk me through the process of…? • From whom did you get…. ? To whom… will it go next? • What information did you need to…? Where did you get it? What happens if the information isn’t available when you need it? • What parts of the process were essential? Unnecessary? • Where did things get held up or take too long? • Do you ever have to do the same thing more than once? • Did you ever feel you were going backwards? • How do you measure success? • If you had a magic wand and could change the process any way you wanted, what would you wish for? image closedzero
  41. 41. 1 - dig deep with interviews For understanding content • What types of content do you work with? (contracts, specs, invoices, collateral, deals…) • Tell me a bit about… • Tell me about the last time you… • How do you use it to: Make decisions? Influence? Execute? Share ideas? • Where is it stored? How do you receive or locate it? How do you know it’s correct or up-to-date? • What type of content do you create? Tell me about the tools you use. • Where do you store it? • How do you share it?
  42. 42. 1 - dig deep with interviews
  43. 43. 2 – peel the onion for deep understanding 1 what they say Why? What’s behind what they’re saying? 2 how they say it Words, tone, body 5 emotions driving them language Loves, hates, passion points 3 what they do Why? What’s behind their actions? 4 how they feel Trust? Complacency? Irritation? Fear? Why?
  44. 44. 2 – peel the onion for deep understanding
  45. 45. 3 – use the 5 whys to get the ‘so what’ If you’re not going to finish your toast, throw it out. … Why? So it won’t go bad. … Why? Toast goes bad if you don’t eat it. … Why? It gets mouldy. … What’s mouldy? Guck that grows on your toast if you don’t throw it out. … Why? Because I said so. Indi Young, Mental Models
  46. 46. 3 – use the 5 whys to get the ‘so what’ I don’t want to change the system … Why not? What we currently have works fine … How can you tell? People are happy. … How do you know? No one’s complaining or yelling at me. … What happened last time you changed the system? A partner lost his work after an all nighter. I almost got fired.
  47. 47. 3 – use the 5 whys to get the ‘so what’ A patient got the wrong medicine … Why? Prescription was incorrect … Why? Doctor made the wrong decision … Why? Patient’s record didn’t contain all information the doctor needed … Why? The doctor’s assistant hadn’t entered the patient’s latest test results … Why? Lab tech phoned in the results through to receptionist who forgot to tell the assistant
  48. 48. 3 – use the 5 whys to get the ‘so what’
  49. 49. 3 – use the 5 whys to get the ‘so what’ Perry Belcher, Peeling-the-onion
  50. 50. 4 – elicit stories using pictures What is the best 3 1 thing about living in Kpendua?” 2 What is already happening in Kpendua that makes you the happiest? What is successful? http://cclve.blogspot.com/
  51. 51. 4 – elicit stories using pictures Perfect Pitch, Jon Steel
  52. 52. 4 – elicit stories using words frustrated elated angry exhausted awed timid disappointed kindness honored stressed excited joyous confident nervous depressed fearful shocked Use friendship hopeful relaxed torn proud change courageous accepted delighted emotional words success disgusted embarrassed amused happy jealous conviction pity remorse sad surprised worried proud unhappy strong stand respect appreciated distant 1. Start with an image building phrase: Think about… Imagine… If… Consider… Build the 2. Add a sentence or two to enhance the image question 3. Then use an open question with emotive words you felt really proud to be part of something you took a real risk and it paid off or didn’t pay off Ultimate Guide to Anecdote Circles, www.ancedote.com.au
  53. 53. 4 – elicit stories http://www.visualexplorer.org/downloads/index.html
  54. 54. 5 – go native and be an apprentice interview (get overview & establish trust) switch to master-apprentice (learn by watching) observe (master runs the show, apprentice asks occasional question) summarize (to validate & fill in gaps)
  55. 55. 5 – go native and be an apprentice
  56. 56. 6 – build empathy using personas What do they THINK & FEEL? what really counts major preoccupations What do they worries & What do they aspirations HEAR? SEE? boss environment colleagues friends influencers colleagues friends what work offers What do they SAY & DO? attitude in public appearance behavior towards others PAIN GAIN fears | frustrations | obstacles wants/needs | measures of success | obstacles Source: XPLANE and Business Model Generation by Alexander Osterwalder
  57. 57. Sally Accounts Payable Processor “Answer my question, for heaven’s sake!” Goals After the mailroom scans the invoice, Sally gets it and checks that the Post invoices ASAP invoice can be posted for payment. If the invoice references a Purchase Order (P.O.), Sally compares them. If the invoice doesn’t reference a P.O., Have as many invoices arrive she contacts whoever requested the goods to get the P.O. number. complete as possible Get fast answers She wishes it was as easy as it sounds. She spends 40-50% of her time No calls from angry vendors resolving exceptions or, as she calls it, “chasing rabbits.” To resolve an exception Sally has to get information from people outside Accounts Job security Payable. She often doesn’t know who to ask. When she does know, they’re not always responsive. She wishes there was a way to make people follow Needs up. Complete invoices Sally works frantically to post invoices before their due date. The Accounts Customer to respond in a timely Payable backlog keeps growing because people won’t respond and Sally manner won’t post an invoice for payment before she’s sure both the invoice and the P.O. are correct. Tasks Sally is sick of her boss, Susan, asking her for the status of the invoices Post invoices she’s working on. She thinks it’s a waste of time. Sally hates when vendors Get missing P.O.’s call to complain about a late payment. Sally has to calm them down before she can get the information she needs to track down the invoice. Report to AP Manager (Susan) on invoice status
  58. 58. 6 – build empathy using personas
  59. 59. Grant Karl Global Services Account Exec Ben Jim Customer Support Developer
  60. 60. take aways
  61. 61. the adoption hurdle is here
  62. 62. people are influenced by their environment, emotions, shortsightedness, and other forms of irrationality
  63. 63. this means…
  64. 64. STOP talking users. technology. requirements.
  65. 65. START observing people. mental models. emotions. cultural context. stories.
  66. 66. seek to UNDERSTAND predictable irrationality of people. what people are trying to achieve. why.
  67. 67. then DEPLOY with predictable irrationality in mind. anticipate and manage resistance. brace for slow adoption.
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