Joyce T. Duhaylungsod
Educational Technology II
BSEd - English III Prof.
Some of the missing links of the Developments of Educational Technology
1960 Programmed Instruction
It typically consists of self-teaching with the aid of a specialized
textbook or teaching machine that presents material structured in a logical and
empirically developed sequence or sequences. Programmed instruction may be
presented by a teacher to as well and it has been argued that the principles of
Programmed Instruction can improve classic lectures and textbooks.
Programmed instruction allows students to progress through a unit of study at
their own rate, checking their own answers and advancing only after answering
correctly. In one simplified form of PI, after each step, they are presented with
a question to test their comprehension, then are immediately shown the
correct answer or given additional information. However the objective of the
instructional programming is to present the material in very small increments.
 The more sophisticated forms of programmed instruction may have the
questions or tasks programmed well enough that the presentation and test
model--an extropolation from traditional and classical instruction is not
1970 Systematic Instructional Design
Instructional Design (also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD)) is the
practice of maximizing the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction
and other learning experiences. The process consists broadly of determining
the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction,
and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. Ideally the process
is informed by pedagogically and andragogically (adult learning) tested theories
of learning and may take place in student-only, teacher-led or community-
based settings. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and
scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. There are many
instructional design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with the
phases analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. As a
field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive
and behavioral psychology.
Computer- Assisted Language Learning originates from CAI (Computer-
Accelerated Instruction), a term that was first viewed as an aid for teachers.
The philosophy of CALL puts a strong emphasis on student-centered lessons
that allow the learners to learn on their own using structured and/or
unstructured interactive lessons. These lessons carry 2 important features:
bidirectional (interactive) learning and individualized learning. CALL is not a
method. It is a tool that helps teachers to facilitate language learning process.
CALL can be used to reinforce what has been learned in the classrooms. It can
also be used as remedial to help learners with limited language proficiency
1990 The Internet
An online learning community is a common place on the Internet that
addresses the learning needs of its members through proactive and
collaborative partnerships. Through social networking and computer-mediated
communication, people work as a community to achieve a shared learning
objective. Learning objectives may be proposed by an instructor or may arise
out of discussions between participants that reflect personal interests. In an
online community, people communicate via textual discussion (synchronous or
asynchronous), audio, video, or other Internet-supported devices. Blogs blend
personal journaling with social networking to create environments with
opportunities for reflection.
Much literature promotes online learning communities as environments
conducive to communities of practice as described by Etienne Wenger.
eTwinning is a European online community operated by European schoolnet
comprising more than 50,000 registered teachers.
2000 Social Network and Web 2.0