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  • 1. Joyce T. Duhaylungsod Educational Technology II BSEd - English III Prof. Leonardo Pongos Some of the missing links of the Developments of Educational Technology 1960 ProgrammedInstruction - method of presenting new subject matter to students in a graded sequence of controlled steps. Students work through the programmed material by themselves at their own speed and after each step test their comprehension by answering an examination question or filling in a diagram. They are then immediately shown the correct answer or given additional information. Computers and other types of teaching machines are often used to present the material, although books may also be used. Computer- assisted instruction, which both tests students' abilities and marks their progress, may supplement classroom activity or help studentsto develop ideas and skills independently. The first teaching machine was invented (1934) by Sydney L. Pressey, but it was not until the 1950s that practical methods of programming were developed. Programmed instruction was reintroduced (1954) by B. F. Skinner of Harvard, and much of the system is based on his theory of the nature of learning. As programming technology developed, so did the range of teaching machines and other programmed instruction materials. Programs have been devised for the teaching of spelling, reading, arithmetic, foreign languages, physics, psychology, and a number of other subjects. Some programs are linear in concept, allowing advancement only in a particular order as the correct answer is given. Others are branching, giving additional information at the appropriate level whether a correct or incorrect answer is given. Although there has been considerable controversy regarding the merits of programmedinstruction as the sole method of teaching, many educators agree that it can contribute to more efficient classroom procedure and supplement conventional teaching methods. Teaching machines enable students to work individually, calling for active participation of the learner. In industry and the armed services, programmedinstruction is often used to train personnel. 1970 Systematic Instructional Design Instructional Design (also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD)) is the practice of maximizing the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences. The processconsists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. Ideally the processis informed by pedagogically and andragogically (adult learning) tested theories of learning and may take place in student- only, teacher-led or community-based settings. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. There are many instructional design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with the phasesanalysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. As a field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology. 1980 Computers Computer- Assisted Language Learning originates from CAI (Computer- Accelerated Instruction), a term that was first viewed as an aid for teachers. The philosophy of CALL puts a strong emphasis on student- centered lessons that allow the learners to learn on their own using structured and/or unstructured interactive lessons. These lessons carry 2 important features: bidirectional (interactive) learning and individualized learning. CALL is not a method. It is a tool that helps teachers to facilitate language learning process. CALL can be used to reinforce what has been learned in the classrooms. It can also be used as remedial to help learners with limited languageproficiency
  • 2. 1990 The Internet An online learning community is a common place on the Internet that addresses the learning needs of its members through proactive and collaborative partnerships. Through social networking and computer- mediated communication, people work as a community to achieve a shared learning objective. Learning objectives may be proposed by an instructor or may arise out of discussions between participants that reflect personal interests. In an online community, people communicate via textual discussion (synchronous or asynchronous), audio, video, or other Internet- supported devices. Blogs blend personal journaling with social networking to create environments with opportunities for reflection. Much literature promotes online learning communities as environments conducive to communities of practice as described by Etienne Wenger. eTwinning is a European online community operatedby European schoolnet comprising more than 50,000 registeredteachers. 2000 Social Network and Web 2.0 Rourke, Anderson, Garrison & Archer (1999) define social presence as the ability of learners to project themselvessocially and affectively into an online community of inquiry. Three categories of responseare identified: Affective - the expression of emotion, feelings, and mood Interactive - thosethat show that someoneelse is attending to the poster Cohesive - thosethat draw the community together (sometimescalled weaving) They offer social presencedensity calculation as an important quantitative description of computer conferencing environments(Rourke, Anderson, Garrison, & Archer, 1999) [28]. Research has also shown that communication richnessmay be revealed by the application of critical social theory. [People communicating via electronic media] " perform social acts in action situations that are normatively regulated by, and already have meaning within the organisational context" (Ngwenyama& Lee, 1997) [29]. An example of this could the power relations that underpin a set of text messages between a group of young people where meaning could only be understood within that social context. A bullying text from a stranger would have a very different impact. References: http://www.slideshare.net/courosa/brief-history-of-educational-technology-253448 P. Callender, Programmed Learning (1969); L. Thomas, Self-Organized Learning (1985) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructional_design http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer- assisted_language_learning http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_learning_community http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_software_in_education