FASHION APPAREL: A COMPREHENSIVESTUDYSubmitted ToMD. MASHIUR RAHMAN KHANASST. PROFESSOR AND HEADDEPARTMENT OF APPAREL MANUFACTURING ENGINEERINGBANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF TEXTILESDHAKAName Joy SarkarID. No. 2013-2-4-002Presented By
OBJECTVES:The main objectives of this study are:To know about FashionTo know about history of fashion clothingTo know about fashion capitals fashion accessoriesTo know about factors for creating new fashionsTo know about fashion cycleTo know about Evolution and Movement of fashion: FashionTheories, fashion leaders and followers, fashion forecastingTo know about Fashion Business: Fashion Merchandising, Stores,Brands, RetailingTo know about Bangladeshi fashion
WHAT IS FASHION?• The styles that are accepted and used by a particular group of people at a giventime.• It’s what designers create for a select population which later becomes a trend.• To be a Fashion, an item must possessStyle: Must be unique and different from the regulars.Change: Fashion must change over time.Acceptance: Must be accepted by a group of people at a given time.Fashion is a current trend. It refers to the styles in Clothes, Cosmetics, Foot Wear,Lifestyle, Behaviour.Fashion is like a train, It will come and go…..if you likeit, go with it…..otherwise wait for the next one!
History of Fashion ClothesThe Victorian Era (1837–1901)• Dresses were the social standard for women• Dresses had a conservative cut• Corsets were always worn• Crinolines were used• Dresses generally had many frills and ruffles• Dresses were always long
History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)The Twenties• Women liberated themselves by cutting their hairand no longer wearing Victorian clothing• Hemlines were shortened dramatically• Corsets and crinolines were abandoned• Dresses were flowing and comfortable• Black became a common color in clothing; it wasno longer used solely for mourning purposes• Social standards for clothing weren’t as tight• The Flapper (1920 American silent comedy film,Starring Olive Thomas), with her bobbed hair andshort skirts, became a 20s style icon
History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)1940’s and 1950’s• Because of rationing, women’sclothes had to have less fabricduring World War II• This led to short, skirts jackets• Sheath dresses replaced flowingones• Women rarely wore pants duringthese decades.
History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)The 1960’s• The shorter skirts from the 1940s and1950s stayed• Clothes came in brighter colors• In 1966, Mary Quant came up with the ideaof the miniskirt• Pants become commonplace for women• The mod and hippie subcultures emerged• Twiggy (Lesley Lawson) become a fashionicon• Hippie style – liberal fashion with influencefrom the east, using bright colors, peasantembroidery, cheesecloth, and safari jackets.
History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)The 1970’s• Influence of disco, punk, and feminist movementincluded: torn clothing, pant suits for women,and influence of white, neon and after-glow.
History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)The 1980’s• 1980s fashion tended to be rebellious,colorful, and crazy• People used fashion to expressthemselves• Clothes often did not match• No conservative fashion here!• Leggings, legwarmers, and anythingbrightly colored was in style• Lots of glitz!• Business casual with the power lookand health conscious. High price notlinked to high fashion and more use ofeasy to care synthetic fibers.
History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)The 1990’s• 1990s fashion was more subtle than 1980s fashion• It was more minimal (not as much glitz)• Oversized t-shirts and sweatshirts, overalls, wind pants,straight-leg jeans, and baggy jeans were popular• In US dress-down leads the way to informality, comfortand athletic look override business attire. Grunge – astyle started by youth culture. Messy, uncombed, not toomuch effort.
History of Fashion Clothes (Cont…..)Modern Fashion• Uggs, layering, printed clothes, leggings, Bermudashorts, and ripped jeans are popular• It has components from many decades: leggings fromthe 1980s, Bermuda shorts from the 1960s, and printedclothes from the 1960s• “Green fashion” (clothes made from organic materials)has also seen an emergence• Free-spirited: Bohemian Chic and Hipster - mixeddifferent styles from punk, grunge, hippie, hipsters usinglarge sunglasses, flowing skirts, boots and loose jumpers.
HOW APPAREL FASHIONS ARE CREATED?Using SpecialFabricUsing SpecialTrimsUsing SpecialSewing ThreadBy Using SpecialMaterialsChangingpatternBy changingpositioning ofpartsBy changing theway of cuttingBy ModifyingConstructionUsing differentcolorUsing diverseprintingUsing stripe andcheck indifferent wayBy Modifying Color
Top Fashion Cities of World2012 Rank City 2011 Rank 2011 to 2012 Change1 London, England 1 02 New York, U.S. 2 03 Barcelona, Spain 7 +44 Paris, France 3 -15 Madrid, Spain 12 +76 Rome, Italy 13 +77 Sao Paulo, Brazil 25 188 Milan, Italy 4 -49 Los Angeles, U.S. 5 -410 Berlin, Germany 10 0
FASHION ACCESSORIESA fashion accessory is an item which is used to contribute, in a secondary manner, tothe wearers outfit. The term came into use in the 19th century. Accessories are oftenused to complete an outfit and are chosen to specifically complement the wearerslook.FashionAccessoriesCarriedpurses and handbags, handfans, umbrellas, canes, andceremonial swords, Smartphones, Portable music playeretc.Wornboots and shoes, ties, hats,belts, gloves, muffs, jewelry,watches, shawls, socks, andstockings etc.Live accessoriesFlowers, in bouquets and other forms, have long beenused as living fashion accessories. In addition, smallpets, including toy dogs, birds, lizards, snakes, andchirping crickets have been worn or carried as fashionaccessories. Talking parrots are widely recognized as partof a pirate outfit. In addition, beautiful womencompanions of rich and powerful men have often beencharacterized as "arm charms" or "arm candy", and smallchildren have been called the ultimate luxury fashionaccessory.
Fashion Cycle• A period of time or life span during which the fashion exists, movingthrough the five stages from introduction through obsolescence• All styles that come into fashion rotate through the fashion cycle.• Fashion acceptance can be illustrated using a bell-shaped curve
Fashion Cycle (Cont....)Introduction:• The first stage of the fashion cycle when new styles, colors,textures, and fabrics are introduced.• The new style may be accepted by a small number of people calledfashion leaders.• Promotional activities include fashion shows and advertising in highfashion magazines.• Fashions are produced in small quantities at high prices.• Retail buyers purchase limited numbers to see if the style will beaccepted.
Fashion Cycle (Cont....)Rise• The second stage of the fashion cycle when consumer interest growsand the fashion becomes more readily accepted by consumers.• Mass production brings down the price of the fashion, which resultsin more sales.• Styles are manufactured in less expensive materials and in lowerquality construction than the original style.• Promotional efforts are increased in high fashion magazines toheighten consumer awareness.• Retail buyers order items in quantity.
Fashion Cycle (Cont....)Peak (Culmination stage)• The third stage of the fashion cycle during which a style is at itsheight of popularity.• The fashion is demanded by almost everyone because it is nowwithin the price range of most consumers and is mass produced inmany variations.• Each retailer tries to persuade customers that its version of thestyle is the best.
Fashion Cycle (Cont....)Long-run fashions:• Styles that take a long time to complete the fashion cycle.• Classics, basics, and/or staple fashions• Slow introduction, long peak, slow declineShort-run fashions:• Styles that are popular for a brief period of time.• Fads, usually lasting only one season• Accepted and rejected quickly• Teenagers’ fashions change the fastest and have the most trends.• Styles are easy for the manufacturer to produce and are relativelyinexpensive to the consumer.
Fashion Cycle (Cont....)Decline• The fourth stage of the fashion cycle when the market issaturated and popularity decreases.• The fashion is overused and becomes dull and boring.• As the fashion decreases in popularity, retailers mark down theirprices.• Promotions center around major clearance or closeout sales ofthe fashion.
Fashion Cycle (Cont....)Obsolescence• The fifth stage of the fashion cycle when the style is rejected, isundesirable at any price, is no longer worn, and is no longerproduced.
Classic• Some styles never become complete obsolete, but interest remain more or lessaccepted for an extended period.• Jeans, A-line kurtha, polo shirt, loafers and sari is a very good example forclassic fashion.Fads• Short lived fashion is called fad.• They lack the design strength to hold consumers attention for a long time.Cycles within cycles• Design elements such as color, texture, silhouette may change even though thestyle itself remains popular.• Jeans is a good example (skin fit, boot cut, low waist, high waist, differentwashes, torn jeans)Fashion Cycle (Cont....)
Fashion Leaders and FollowersFashion leaders• Trendsetters who have the credibility and confidence to wear new fashionsand influence the acceptance of new trends.• The first to purchase new styles• Desire distinctiveness and uniqueness• May be innovators and/or influencers.• Royal families, first families, movie stars, television personalities, athletes,singers, musiciansFashion followers• Those who accept and wear a fashion only after it becomes acceptable tothe majority.
Fashion Theories (Cont....)Trickle-down theoryTrickle-up theoryTrickle-across theory
Tricle Down Theory• Trickle-down theory (Downward flow theory): The assumption that fashion trendsstart among the upper class or fashion leaders and move down to the masses orfashion followers.• It is based on the traditional process of copying and adapting trendsetting fashionfrom Paris, London, New York designers.• World’s oldest and most accepted fashion theory described by Veblen in 1899 andSimmel in1904• Asserts that fashions are accepted by people of lower socioeconomic income levelsonly after they have been worn by people of upper socioeconomic income levels• These styles are seen on high-fashion runways.• Jackie Kennedy’s pillbox hat, Barbara Bush’s pearls, Nancy Reagan’s red, HillaryClinton’s pantsuits in the office
Tricle Up Theory• Trickle-up theory (Upward flow theory)/ Bubble-up pattern: The assumption thatfashion trends start among the young or lower income groups and move upward toolder or higher income groups.• In this theory the innovation is initiated from street, so to speak and adopted fromlower income groups. The innovation eventually flows to upper income groups.• Style originates with the lower class and gains approval by upper class or the fashionelite.The popular examples of Trickle Up theory:• Following World War –II the young discovered Army/Navy surplus stores and began towear pea jackets and khaki pants.• Another category of clothing, the Tee Shirt initially worn by laborers as a functional andpractical undergarment has since been adopted universally as a casual outer garments.• Ripped jeans, leather jackets are also popular example of Trickle Up theory.
Tricke Across Theory• Members of each social group look at the leaders oftheir own group for fashion trends.• Described by Robinson in 1958, King in 1963 andBlumer in 1969• A leader within each class influences peers or a leaderof one group affects the other group members.• Example: Designer fashions are copied quickly formass production, providing similar styles at most priceranges. However, they don’t become popular until thefashion leaders of each group have accepted them.
Fashion Marketing• Fashions as we know it, developed in Europe during the renaissance period in the1500s. Textiles and clothing changed slowly until the industrial revolution, whichbegan in England in the 1700s• The industrial revolution caused a switch from handmade garments to mass-produced ready-to-wear clothes. Three factors contributed to this changeMechanized textile mills were able to make fabrics of better quality in less time.Sewing machines were inventedTechniques in mass distribution, advertising, and retail selling were developed andrefined.
Fashion Marketing• High fashion couture clothes are very fashionable and expensive. Couture designfirms serve the small but influential high-priced market.• High Fashions began in Paris, France. Paris has been the international culturalcenter for hundreds of years. Early designers from over the world went to Paris fortheir designs.• World War II stopped European exports to the United States, and that helped theU.S. Designers. After WWII America became recognized as a fashion center.Hollywood became a vehicle for spreading fashion ideas throughout the countryand world.• Courtiers have branched out to make more money• Several couturiers add to their income by selling patterns of some of their creationsto commercial pattern companiesDesigner patterns: can be seen in designer catalogs at fabric stores where thepatterns are sold.
Fashion Marketing• Successful couture designers and fashion houses createcollections which are all of their designs for a specificseason. Designers and fashion houses will show theircollections twice a year at two major showings. One in Julyfor fall+winter fashions. One in January for spring+summerfashions. The showings are glitzy runway extravaganzas.They show 50-100 outfits by each designer. At the end of theshow, the designer makes a traditional walk down therunway.• The audiences at a show is made up of wealthy privatecustomers, press representatives, and commercial buyers.• Couturiers create small shops at or near the fashion house,or in fashionable areas of other cities. They featureaccessories designed by the couturier, or a member of thestaff. It bears the designers label.
Fashion MarketingFranchises:Franchises are arrangements in which the firm such as a couturier, providesretailers with a famous name and merchandise. In return, the couturierreceives a certain amount of money. Franchise owners do not work for thecouturier directly, they have been granted the right to use the designers nameand trademark to market the goods.Licensing:Licensing is an arrangement whereby manufacturers are given exclusive rightsto produce and market goods that bear a famous name as a stamp ofapproval. In return, the person or firm whose name is used receives apercentage of wholesale sales. Licensing is usually where top designers makemoney.
Retailing systems for fashion apparel• Apparel outlets: Stores owned by apparel producers that sell seconds andover-runs to the public at low prices.• Factory outlets: Store owned by a manufacturer who sells company productsto the public at reduced prices.• Indirect Selling: Non-personal promotion aimed at a large general audience• Markup: Monetary amount added to the cost (billed price) of goods to createthe retail selling price.• Markdowns: Retail price reduction that is made in hopes of selling certainmerchandise, but which lowers profits• Loss Leaders: Item priced so low that the retail outlet makes little or no profiton it but uses it to attract shoppers into the store.
Retailing systems for fashion apparel• Department Stores: Retail establishments that offer large varieties of manytypes of merchandise placed in appropriate departments. Almost all clothingand household needs are sold in a wide variety of colors, sizes, and styles.• Branch Stores: When a well established department store opens a store inanother location, the new one is called a branch. It operates from the originalflagship store• Chain Stores: A chain is a group of stores owned, managed, and controlled bya central office. All of a company’s chain stores look alike. No store isconsidered to be the main store.
Retailing systems for fashion apparel• Discount Stores: Sell clothing and other merchandise in large, simplebuildings with low overhead. Large amounts of garments are sold on racksand shelves. Some items are well-known brands, others are private-labelbrands.• Specialty Stores: Might handle only apparel, or they might specialize evenfurther into a specific kind of apparel. Examples are maternity shops, Shoestores, bridal boutiques and children apparel stores. Specialty stores havefewer products, and therefore must charge a higher price than other stores.• Mail Order Houses: Sell to consumers through catalogs. They offer shoppingat home for customers who cannot, or prefer not to go out.
Promotion of fashion apparel• Advertising: Advertising is a paid promotional message by an identifiedsponsor. It appears in such media as newspapers, magazines, television,and radio. Locally, retail stores will use the newspaper, and perhaps theradio to advertise. Nationally, retailers will use more expensive magazineads, and national television• Publicity: Publicity is free promotion. It includes any non-paid messagesto the public about a company’s merchandise, activities, or services.Some businesses will hold press conferences to promote their productsor services• Visual Merchandising: Presenting goods in an attractive andunderstandable manner. Displays and exhibits are ways that clothingitems are visually promoted. High profile shopping bags are used bydepartment stores as promotional tools. Stores will have special events,and have models display merchandise.• Video Merchandising: Uses videos in retail stores to show new fashiontrends, promote merchandise, and build customer traffic. Videos are setup in retail store departments near the merchandise they are showing.They attract the attention of passing customers with sound andmovement. The video’s use soft-sell techniques like flashing a logo, orhaving the name of the manufacturer in the background.
• Fashion merchandising is where fashion and business meet. Fashionmerchandising involves marketing fashions to various retail stores, boutiquesand wholesalers.• The mission of a fashion merchandiser includes connecting different fashions toconsumers and anticipating what your clients will be interested in.Fashion Merchandising
Responsibilities of a Fashion MerchandiserSince the merchandise must appeal to people (or a specific target group), theirjob may include• Attending fashion shows and events around the world• Purchasing fashions• Negotiating with suppliers and retail outlets• Advertising and marketing the latest fashion finds and even creating storedisplays.• Doing whatever is necessary to get the goods out there for everyone to seeand, ideally, want to have.
Attributes of a Fashion Merchandiser• Must be able to foresee the fashion trend• Must have sound knowledge about fashionterms• Must be able to analyze the fashion market• Must have vast knowledge about fashionpromotion• Besides a fashion merchandiser shouldpossess all the attributes of a generalmerchandiser
Fashion Forecasting• Foreseeing fashion trends and predicting thosetrends early enough to allow time for productionto meet the consumer demand.• Because of the time required for textile designand development, the textile segment leads inrecognizing fashion directions.• Textile designers work at least 18 months aheadof the schedule for products to hit the market.
Who are involved in fashion forecasting?FashionForecastingFashionStaffsemployedby textileproducersHighlyskilledconsultantsworking forfashionservicesHighlyskilledconsultantsworking forcolorservicesFashionMerchandiserRetail storeowner/manager
Fashion Services• Resources for fashion reporting, forecasting, and consulting that are available for a fee or bysubscription.Provide market research, feasibility studies, collection reports, forecasting, consulting, slides,garments on loan, and/or original designs.Examples of some fashion services1. Doneger Creative ServicesWeb Address2. PromostylWeb Address3. ESP TrendlabWeb Address4. Carlin InternationalWeb Address
Color ServicesExamples of some color services1. Association Internationale de la CouleurWeb Address2. Pantone, Inc.Web Address3. International Color AuthorityWeb Address4. The Color Marketing GroupWeb Address5. HuepointWeb Address6. Color Portfolio, Inc.Web AddressFashion and Textile industry professionals who meet twice a year to pool their knowledge of color cycles andpreferences and to project color trend for the future. Yarn colors or swatches are sent to designers andmerchandisers to plan their color stories and purchase fabrics.
Activities in fashion forecasting1. Making and reporting predictions based on logic, market research, andinstinct2. Coordinating information gathered from fiber, yarn, and apparelcompanies, and textile shows worldwide3. Analyzing the fashion press, visiting the world’s fashion centers, andobserving fashion leaders4. Conducting marketing research• Consumer research• Market research• Sales research
Top Ten Fashion Brands of WorldEmporio Armani was formed in 1975 in Italy and is primarily known for itsclean and tailored menswear line. The Italian fashion empire has sincegrown to include even belts, bags, fragrances, knitwear, jackets and evensunglasses. Celebrities like Megan Fox, Rihanna and Cristiano Ronaldo allswear by the Armani brand and act as its endorsers.Annual turnover of the company amounts to $1.6 billion. Armani himselfhas a net worth of over $7 billion.Christian Dior established his fashion house way back in 1946, just afterthe Second World War had ended. Though it encountered controversy inthe beginning, Dior’s New Look eventually revolutionized women’sclothing and helped establish Paris as a fashion center. The French brandis well known for its accessories and fragrances. Hollywood actress MilaKunis is the endorser of Dior’s line of female perfume.
Top Ten Fashion Brands of WorldThe House of Gucci was built in 1921 by the Italian fashion designerGuccio Gucci. Known for its wide influence in the fashion world and itstrendsetting ways, Gucci is almost synonymous to leather goods andaccessories. It has earned billions of revenues over the years andoperates almost 300 stores worldwide..The Versace fashion company was only established in 1978, but theItalian grandeur that Gianni Versace showcased brought the brandinstant popularity. The brand has lines in luxury clothes, accessories,cosmetics and home furnishings. Its shops are spread all over the world,with focus on fashion centers like New York City and Milan. The appealof Versace transcends generations.
Top Ten Fashion Brands of WorldWhen one speaks of high fashion and ready to wear clothes,accessories and luxury goods, the brand of Chanel wouldimmediately come to mind. The House of Chanel was established in1909. Will always be remembered for its perfume No. 5, the classicChanel suit, and the versatile little black dress. With Karl Lagerfeldnow its chief designer, Chanel has managed to maintain its glory,earning almost $300 million a year.Who does not know Victoria’s Secret? Since being established in1977, women have loved the brand for its lingerie, sleep attire,swimming outfits and beauty products. Men, on the other hand,simply love the fashion show that the brand puts up every year.
Top Ten Fashion Brands of WorldA real American brand, Calvin Klein was founded in 1968 anddesigns everything from top-of-the-line clothing and sporty outfitsto denims and underwear. Calvin Klein is also known for its homecollection, like towels and beddings, and lifestyle items, likeperfumes, watches and jewelries. Dutch supermodel Lara Stoneserves as one of the faces of the fashion brand.Prada is one of the more popular brands in the fashion world.Established in 1913 by the Italian fashion designer MarioPrada, the brand is well known for its ready to wearclothes, leather accessories, shoes, luggage and even hats forboth men and women. Its brand name shot into the public’sconsciousness in 2006 when Hollywood released a movie entitledThe Devil Wears Prada. The movie was received well by the publicand even earned an Academy Award nomination for its leadstar, Meryl Streep. Known for its stylishly simple yet sophisticateddesigns, Prada last year recorded a revenue of over $2 billion.
Dolce & Gabbana was established in 1985 by Italian fashiondesigners Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana. They shot to famein the 1990s after both their women’s and men’s perfume wonawards for most feminine flavor of the year in 1996 and best maleperfume in 1996. The brand is well known for its clothing line,footwear, bags, eyewear and watches.Founded in 1924 by the German fashion designer Hugo Boss, thebrand has a presence in 110 countries spread over a thousandstores. Hugo Boss is known for its high fashion clothing,accessories and footwear. It has recorded revenues of over abillion dollars.
Top Ten Fashion Magazines of the WorldCosmopolitan Marie Claire Elle Vogue Harpers BAZAARInStyle Glamour Lucky Allure W
Basic Fashion Styles and Terms Basic Dress Styles• Sheath: Sheath Dresses have no waistline seam. They hang fromthe shoulders and have inward shaping at the waist• Shift or Chemise: Shift or Chemise dresses also have no waistlineseam. They are straight and loose fitting with no inward shapingat the waist.• A-Line: A-Line dresses are narrow (fitted) at the shoulders. Theyhave no waistline seam and become wider at the hemline. Theare named after the “A” shape of their silhouette.
Basic Dress Styles• Tent Dresses: Tent dresses are large and billowy. Theyhang loosely from the shoulders. They are often wornin hot weather because they do not hug the body.• Empire Dress: Empire (om-peer) dress has a highwaistline. Its opposite, the lowered waistline style hasa long torso. Its waistline seem is down below thewaist.
Other Dress Styles• Princess dresses: have seam lines going up and downtheir entire length.• Blouson dresses: has a blousy fullness above the waist.It is usually belted it most often has a fitted skirt.• Shirtwaist dresses: like a long, semi fitted, tailoredshirt, it is as long as a regular dress, and has a belt orsash at the waist
Other Dress Styles• Coatdress: is a heavy dress that usually closes down the frontlike a coat. However it is worn as the main garment ratherthan over another garment.• Asymmetrical dress: one side is different than the other. Ifdivided by a center line, the two halves are not the same.• Sundress: A sundress is worn in hot weather alone as a dress.
Neckline Styles• Décolleté: the French term for a low neckline. It isusually used with bare shoulders, such as anevening gown or sundress. Sometimes the garmentis strapless.• Jewel (round): Encircles the base of the neck. It isplain and rounded.• Boat or Bateau: Goes straight across fromshoulder to shoulder. It is high in the front, and iswide open on the sides
Neckline Styles• Scoop: lowered and round. It is usuallylower in front than in the back.• Sweetheart: With a high back and alow-cut front with two curved edgesresembling the conventionalized shapeof a heart.• V neck: these are formed by twodiagonal lines from the shoulders thatmeet on the chest creating a V shape
Neckline Styles• Surplice: these are similar to how a bathrobesneckline is formed by one side of the garmentoverlapping the other• Square: these are characterized by three linearedges, the bottom edge meeting the side edgesat right angles. The bottom edge cuts across thefigure horizontally and the side edges pass overthe shoulders.• Others: Horseshoe, cowl, keyhole etc.
Sleeve Styles• Set-in Sleeves: sleeves that are stitched to the garmentaround the regular armhole. They offer best fit for mostpeople. They can be tight (fitted), puffy, long or short. Inall cases, there is a seam in the front and back from theunderarm curving up to the shoulder. That seam followsthe natural body line that connects the arm to the body.• Kimono Sleeves: Are continuous extensions out fromthe armhole area with no seam lines connecting to thegarment bodice. Kimono sleeves can be long or short.Fitted or loose. Fitted kimono sleeves have a gusset. Agusset is a wedge-shaped piece of fabric added to theunderarm to give more ease of movement to the sleeve.
Sleeve Styles• Raglan Sleeves: have a shaped seam in the garmentoriginating from the underarm. Sometimes it goes directly tothe neckline. Other times it goes to the center front or into abodice princess seam.• Cap or French sleeves:Cap or French sleeves are very short.They are like a sleeveless armhole at the underarm and ashort kimono sleeve going out from the shoulder.• Dropped shoulder: have a horizontal seam around the upperpart of the arm. The lower sleeve can be any length.
Skirt Styles• Straight skirts: have no added fullness at the hem. Theygo straight down from the hipline for a very slimsilhouette. They are sometimes called fitted skirts• A-Line Skirts: have extra width at the hem on each side.When viewed from the front or back, the silhouetteresembles the letter “A”• Flared Skirts: have some fullness at the hem all around.There are soft ripples going upward from the skirtbottom toward the waist.• Circular skirts: are very full at the hem. When held out atthe sides during wearing, this style of skirt forms a halfcircle. When opened up and laid flat, it forms a circle.
Skirt Styles• Dirndl skirt: A slightly gathered skirt that is not very full• Gored skirt: have vertical seams all the way from thewaistline to the hem.
Skirt Styles• Umbrella skirt: have many narrow gores. The gores arepressed to have a narrow silhouette, but when thewearer walks or moves, the gores spread open andclosed like an umbrella• Wrap Skirts: wrap around the body and overlap at theside-back or side-front. They are most often fastenedwith a tie or buttonAll skirt styles have the option of any length
Coat and Jacket Styles• Coats: Coats are warm or waterproof garments that areworn over a persons regular clothing.• Capes: Capes are coat-like outer garments that hang fromthe neck and shoulders over the back, front, and arms.• Blazers: Blazers are classic jackets that are always infashion.
Coat and Jacket Styles• Single Breasted garments: Single Breasted garments areheld shut with one row of buttons in front• Double Breasted garments: Double Breasted garments havea wider overlap and two rows of buttons.• Poncho: similar to a blanket with a slit or hole in the middlefor the head
Miscellaneous Styles and Parts• Hood: a hood is a head covering that is attached at theneckline of a garment.• Tunic: a long blouse or skirt that extends down overthe pants or a skirt. It is a long upper garment thatgoes over a lower garment. Tunics are hip-length orlonger.• Caftans: Long flowing robe-like garments.
Miscellaneous Styles and Parts• Vests: sleeveless, close-fitting, jacket-like garments.They cover just the chest and back.• Halters: Brief garments worn on the upperbody, usually in hot weather.• Sweater: A knitted (or crocheted) covering for theupper body. It is usually worn for warmth.Sweaters are either Cardigans or Pullovers• Cardigans: Cardigans open in the front• Pullovers: Pullovers slip over the head when they areput on or taken off.
Bangladeshi Fashion Leaders: Bibi Russell• There are many local fashion promoters but internationallyrecognized fashion leader is only Bibi Russell• Bibi was born in Chittagong, Bangladesh, studied in KamrunnessaGovt. Girls High School. Later she earned a graduate degree infashion from London College of Fashion in 1975 In the next fiveyears, she worked as a model for different magazines includingVogue, Cosmopolitan and Harpers Bazaar. She also worked as afashion model in fashion shows until 1994, working with YvesSaint Laurent, Kenzo, Karl Lagerfeld and Giorgio Armani.Havingreturned to Bangladesh in 1994, Bibi opened Bibi Productions, afashion house, fusing indigenous Bengali cultural elements intoher line.• With assistance from UNESCO, Bibi organized her first Europeanfashion show in Paris in 1996. She also organized fashion show,The Colours of Bangladesh, in Spain in 1997.
Bangladeshi Fashion Leaders: Bibi Russell• Bibi was rewarded Cross of Officer of the Order of Queen Isabella by theKing of Spain.It was presented by Spanish Ambassador toBangladesh, Arturo Perez Martinez.• Bibi is also a Fellow of Bangla Academy• The Asiaweek magazine highlighted her as "One of the 20 people to watchin the Millennium".• She was awarded the Honorary Fellowship of the London Institute in 1999.• UNESCO awarded her the title Designer for Development in 1999.• She also got the title of Artist for Peace by the UNESCO in 2001• Peace Prize by the United Nations Associations of Spain in 2004.
Conclusion• Now a days everybody wants to be ‘fashionable’. Everyone wants to go withthe latest trends.• The appeal of fashion apparel will never end.• Bangladeshi Brands are trying to explore the local market and they aresuccessful. Now the target should be international market.• At first zonal market and then the international market can be captured.• Bangladesh has the potential to succeed in the fashion items as like theregular items.