• can be described as a theory that deals with the way
people create meaning of the world through a series of
• It signifies that teaching involves giving opportunities
for learners to explore and discover. Learners construct
their own meaning and generate insights.(textbook)
TWO VIEWS ON CONSTRUCTIVISM
• * also called cognitive constructivism
• * indirect instruction
• * largely based on Piaget’s Theory
• * child-centered and discovery learning
• *based on Vygotsky’s theory
• *conditions of knowledge is shared by two or more people
• *social and interaction context
1. INDIVIDUAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
2. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM
• Learners construct Understanding. They see
learners who interpret new information based
on what they already know.
• New learning depends on current
understanding. Background Information is very
According to Eggen and Kauchak, there are four characteristics of
• Learning is facilitated by social interaction.
Learning communities help learners take
responsibility for their own leaning. Teachers
play as a facilitator rather than an expert one.
• Meaningful learning occurs within authentic
learning tasks. Involves learning activity that
involves constructing knowledge and
understanding needed when applied in the real
• A way of grouping or categorizing objects or events in
our mind. Includes:
model, discuss, illustrate, explain, assist
Concepts as Feature List
Involves learning specific features that
characterize positive instance of the concept.
A. Defining Feature – characteristic present in ALL
• For example: Because ALL triangles should have three
sides. If doesn’t, then it is not a triangle.
B. Correlation Feature – present in many positive
instances but not essential for concept
• For example: a mother is loving, being loving is a feature
commonly present in the concept of mother. But a
mother may not be loving.
Concepts as Prototypes
• Prototype is an idea or a visual image of a typical
example. It is usually formed based on the positive
instances that learners encounter most often.
• Example: close your eyes now and for a moment think of a
• Exemplars represent a variety of examples. It allows
learners to know that an example under a concept
may have variability.
• Example: A learner’s concept of vegetable may include a
wide variety of different examples like
cauliflower, kangkong, cabbage, squash and so on.
Concepts as Exemplars
Make Concept-learning Effective
• Provide a clear definition of the concept
• Make the defining features very concrete and prominent
• Give a variety of positive instances
• Give negative instances
• Give a “best example” or prototype
• Provide opportunity for learners to identify positive and
• Ask learners to think of their own example of the concept
• Point out how concepts can be related to each other
Schema is an organized body of knowledge about
something. It is like a file of information you hold in
your mind about something. Like a schema of what a
Script is a schema that includes a series of predictable
events of a specific activity.
• Examples: knowing the series of steps done when we
visit a doctor
Applying Constructivism in Facilitating Learning
• Aim to make learners understand a few key ideas in an in-depth
manner, rather than taking up so many topics superficially.
• Give varied examples.
• Provide opportunities for experimentation.
• Provide lots of opportunities for quality interaction.
• Have lots on hands-on activities.
• Relate your topic to real life situations
• Do not depend on the explanation method all the time.
Group yourselves according to your major. Think of a topic
related to your field of specialization. Indicate how you can
apply Constructivism for your students to construct their
own understanding of the topic.
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