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Basic Networking Network
 

Basic Networking Network

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Basic Networking Network, Types of network, network interconnection/internet

Basic Networking Network, Types of network, network interconnection/internet

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    Basic Networking Network Basic Networking Network Presentation Transcript

    • 1Basic Networking Concepts1. Introduction2. Protocols3. Protocol Layers4. Network Interconnection/Internet
    • 21. Introduction-A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devicesconnected in some ways so as to be able to exchange data.-Each of the devices on the network can be thought of as a node; eachnode has a unique address.-Addresses are numeric quantities that are easy for computers to workwith, but not for humans to remember.Example: 204.160.241.98-Some networks also provide names that humans can more easilyremember than numbers.Example: www.javasoft.com, corresponding to the above numericaddress.NIC addr1 NIC addrNNIC addr2…
    • 3AddressingInternet addressConsists of 4 bytes separated by periodsExample: 136.102.233.49-The R first bytes (R= 1,2,3) correspond to the network address;-The remaining H bytes (H = 3,2,1) are used for the host machine.-InterNIC Register: organization in charge of the allocation of theaddress ranges corresponding to networks.-Criteria considered:→ Geographical area (country)→ Organization, enterprise→ Department→ HostDomain Name System (DNS)-Mnemonic textual addresses are provided to facilitate the manipulationof internet addresses.-DNS servers are responsible for translating mnemonic textual Internetaddresses into hard numeric Internet addresses.
    • 4Ports-An IP address identifies a host machine on the Internet.-An IP port will identify a specific application running on an Internet hostmachine.-A port is identified by a number, the port number.-The number of ports is not functionally limited, in contrast to serialcommunications where only 4 ports are allowed.-There are some port numbers which are dedicated for specificapplications.79Finger23Telnet110POP3 (e-mail)25SMTP (e-mail)70Gopher20 and 21FTP80HTTPPort numbersApplications
    • 5Data Transmission-In modern networks, data are transferred using packet switching.-Messages are broken into units called packets, and sent from onecomputer to the other.-At the destination, data are extracted from one or more packets andused to reconstruct the original message.-Each packet has a maximum size, and consists of a header and a dataarea.-The header contains the addresses of the source and destinationcomputers and sequencing information necessary to reassemblethe message at the destination.1001….101 00010000111…000000110001100packetheader data
    • 6Types of NetworksThere are two principle kinds of networks: Wide Area Networks(WANs) and Local Area Networks (LANs).WANs-Cover cities, countries, and continents.-Based on packet switching technology-Examples of WAN technology: Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM),Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)LANs-Cover buildings or a set of closely related buildings.-Examples of LAN technology: Ethernet, Token Ring, and FibberDistributed Data Interconnect (FDDI).Ethernet LANs: based on a bus topology and broadcast communicationToken ring LANs: based on ring topologyFDDI LANs: use optical fibbers and an improved token ring mechanismbased on two rings flowing in opposite directions.
    • 7Sharedbus(a) Ethernet LANRing(b) Token Ring LANDual ring(c) FDDI LAN
    • 8Network connectivity type Speed Transmission timefor 10 Mbytes(Telephone) dial-up modem 14.4 Kbps 90 minISDN modem 56/128 Kbps 45/12minT1 connection 1.54 Mbps 50sEthernet 10 Mbps 9sToken ring 4/16 MbpsFast Ethernet 100 MbpsFDDI 100 MbpsGigabit Ethernet 1 GbpsATM 25Mbps/2.4Gbs
    • 9Interconnection-Networks of low capacity may be connected together via a backbonenetwork which is a network of high capacity such as a FDDI network, aWAN network etc.-LANs and WANs can be interconnected via T1 or T3 digital leasedlines-According to the protocols involved, networks interconnection isachieved using one or several of the following devices:→Bridge: a computer or device that links two similar LANs based onthe same protocol.→ Router: a communication computer that connects different types ofnetworks using different protocols.→ B-router or Bridge/Router: a single device that combines both thefunctions of bridge and router.→ Gateway: a network device that connects two different systems, usingdirect and systematic translation between protocols.
    • 10Toronto branchEthernet LAN RouterVancouver branchToken Ring LANGatewayFrameRelayATMT1 lineNY headquatersBridge/RouteToken Ring LANRouterBridgeBridge/RouterEthernet
    • 11Network Topology DiagramThe specification of the network topology diagram requires thedefinition of the characteristics and entities underlying the network:-Geographical locations of the different components or subnetsinvolved in the network.-Description of the LAN topology-Description of the WAN topology-Description of the network connectors such as routers, bridges,repeaters, and gateways.
    • 122. Protocols-Define the rules that govern the communications between twocomputers connected to the network.-Roles: addressing and routing of messages, error detection andrecovery, sequence and flow controls etc.-A protocol specification consists of the syntax, which defines the kindsand formats of the messages exchanged, and the semantic, whichspecifies the action taken by each entity when specific events occur.Example: HTTP protocol for communication between web browsersand servers.
    • 13S: MAIL FROM: Paul@Alpha.ARPAR: 250 OKS: RCPT TO: Jack@Beta.ARPAR: 250 OKS: DATAR: 354 Beginning of mail; ending by <CRLF>.<CRLF>S: Blah blah blahS: …etc.S: <CRLF>.<CRLF>R: 250 OKRequest For Comments (RFC): specifications of the protocols involvedin Internet Communications.-Example: sample of RFC 821 describing communications betweenSMTP server and client.
    • 14nth layer(n-1)th layer…nth layer(n-1)th layer…Network-Protocols are designed based on a layered architecture such as the OSIreference model.-Each entity at a layer n communicates only with entities at layer n-1.-The data exchanged, known as Protocol Data Unit (PDU), goes backand forth through the layers, each layer adds or removes its own headerand vice-versa. Therefore a layer n PDU may become a layer n-1 data.
    • 153. Protocol LayersThe OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Data Model-ISO standard for computer networks design and functioning.-Involves at least 7 layers, each playing a specific role whenapplications are communicating over the net.-During the sending process, each layer (from top to down) will adda specific header to the raw data.-At the reception, headers are eliminated conversely until the dataarrived to the receiving application.
    • 16OSI LayersPhysical layer(defines the physical characteristics of the network)Data-link layer(provides safe communication of data over the physical network)Network layer(handles connection to the network by the higher layers)Transport layer(provides end-to-end errors detection and correction)Session layer(manages sessions among applications)Presentation layer(provides standard data representations for applications)Application layer(applications connected to the network)
    • 17Physical layer: ensures a safe and efficient travel of data; consists ofelectronic circuits for data transmission etc.Data link layer: in charge of data encapsulation under the form ofpackets and their interpretation at the physical layer.Network layer: in charge of packets transmission from a source A to adestination B.Transport layer: in charge of the delivery of packets from a source Ato a destination BSession layer: in charge of the management of network access.Presentation layer: determines the format of the data transmitted toapplications, data compressing/decompressing, encrypting etc.Application layer: contains the applications which are used by theend-user, such as Java, Word etc.
    • 18The TCP/IP Model-Consists of only 4 layers: application, transport, internet and network.LayersApplication layer(applications and processes running on the network)Transport layer(provides end-to-end data delivery services)Internet layer(makes datagrams and handles data routing)Network layer(provides routines allowing access to the physical network)
    • 19Network layer-Provides the same functionality as the physical, the data link andnetwork layers in the OSI model.-Mapping between IP addresses and network physical addresses.-Encapsulation of IP datagrams, e.g packets, in format understandableby the network.Internet layer-Lies at the heart of TCP/IP.-Based on the Internet Protocol (IP), which provides the frame fortransmitting data from place A to place B.Transport layer-Based on two main protocols: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)and UDP (User Datagram protocol)Application layer-Combines the functions of the OSI application, presentation, andsession layers.-Protocols involved in this layer: HTTP, FTP, SMTP etc.
    • 204. Networks Interconnection/InternetConcept of Network Interconnection-First implemented in the Defense Advanced Research Project AgencyNetwork (Arpanet), in 1966 in USA.-Consists of connecting several computer networks based on differentprotocols-Requires the definition of a common interconnection protocol on topthe local protocols.-The Internet Protocol (IP) plays this role, by defining unique addressesfor a network and a host machine.FTP Telnet SNMPSMTPTCP/UDPIPEthernet Arpanet Token ring
    • 21P2P1P3P4IP
    • 22Internet Protocol (IP)Overview-The IP protocol provides two main functionality:→Decomposition of the initial information flow into packets ofstandardized size, and reassembling at the destination.→Routing of a packet through successive networks, from the sourcemachine to the destination identified by its IP address.-Transmitted packets are not guaranteed to be delivered (datagramprotocol).-The IP protocol does not request for connection (connectionless)before sending data and does not make any error detection.Functions-Decompose the initial data (to be sent) into datagrams.-Each datagram will have a header including, the IP address and theport number of the destination.-Datagrams are then sent to selected gateways, e.g IP routers, connectedat the same time to the local network and to an IP service providernetwork.
    • 23SenderReceiverpacket1packet2Routers-Datagrams are transferred from gateways to gateways until they arrivedat their final destination.
    • 24Structure of an IP packet-The fields at the beginning of the packet, called the frame header,define the IP protocol’s functionality and limitations.-32 bits are allocated for encoding source and destination addresses (32bits for each of these address fields).-The remainder of the header (16 bits) encodes various information suchas the total packet length in bytes.-Hence an IP packet can be a maximum of 64Kb long.0 10 12 16 20 24HeaderChecksumSource addressDestination addressOptionsData
    • 25Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)Overview-TCP provides by using IP packets a basic service that does guaranteesafe delivery:→error detection→safe data transmission→assurance that data are received in the correct order-Before sending data, TCP requires that the computers communicatingestablish a connection (connection-oriented protocol).ClientServerTCPSYNSYN_ACKACKDATADATAACKDATAFINFINACK
    • 26-TCP provides support for sending and receiving arbitrary amounts ofdata as one big stream of byte data (IP is limited to 64Kb).-TCP does so by breaking up the data stream into separate IP packets.-Packets are numbered, and reassembled on arrival, using sequence andsequence acknowledge numbers.-TCP also improves the capability of IP by specifying port numbers.→ There are 65,536 different TCP ports (sockets) through which everyTCP/IP machine can talk.Structure of a TCP packet0 2 4 8 12 20Source portDestination portSequence No.Sequence Ack. No.Misc. headerData
    • 27User Datagram Protocol (UDP)Overview-Datagram protocol also built on top of IP.-Has the same packet-size limit (64Kb) as IP, but allows for portnumber specification.-Provides also 65,536 different ports.-Hence, every machine has two sets of 65,536 ports: one for TCP and theother for UDP.-Connectionless protocol, without any error detection facility.-Provides only support for data transmission from one end to the other,without any further verification.-The main interest of UDP is that since it does not make furtherverification, it is very fast.-Useful for sending small size data in a repetitive way such as timeinformation.
    • 284.5 Internet Application ProtocolsOn top of TCP/IP, several services have been developed in order tohomogenize applications of same nature:-FTP (File Transfer Protocol) allows the transfer of collection of filesbetween two machines connected to the Internet.-Telnet (Terminal Protocol) allows a user to connect to a remote host interminal mode.-NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) allows the constitution ofcommunication groups (newsgroups) organized around specific topics.-SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) defines a basic service forelectronic mails.-SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) allows themanagement of the network.FTP Telnet SNMPSMTPTCP/UDPIPEthernet Arpanet Token ring