POPULATION To sociologists, it is the number of persons occupying a certain geographic area, drawing substance from their habitat and interacting w/ one another. To demographers, it is a collective group of individuals occupying a particular place at a given time. 3 keywords are: (1) Group, (2) Place and (3) Time
Population Growth is a major factor consumption, housing shortages, inflation, food security, unemployment & environment degradaton. Demography
is the statistical analysis and description of population aggregates w/ reference to the distribution, vital statistics, sex and related factors
Demographers Demographers use statistical method in their analysis of demographic data PETERSEN defines demographers as people who gather about the size, distribution, composition and change in population in order to describe them
Demographic Data Provides as a basis for predicting future trends and making informed decisions. As PONOPIOstates, demographic data are important for the formulation, implementation, evaluation of plans, policies and programs for education, housing, health, employment, transportation, recreational needs and other forms of social services.
Sources of Demographic Data Population Census like Population count Vital registration, statistics system like birth, death, marriage and divorce Sample or Special Surveys like surveys of household; and Demographic data gathered and processed by government agencies.
Components of Population Change Fertility - Refers to the actual no. of children born to a woman or group of women. A simple way to measure fertility is to get the crude birth rate: the numbered of registered birth’s per 1,000 of the population in a given area at a specified time. CBR= Registered number births in a yr. X 1,000 Total mid year population
Mortality. - refers to the no. of deaths per 1,000 of the total mid-year population in a particular place at a specified time, and is measured by the crude death rate. CBR= Registered number of death a yr. X 1,000 Total mid-year population Life Expectancy – refers to the average number of years a person can expect to live at the time of birth.
Migration – another factor w/c affects population change. Push– refers to the unfavorable, unattractive condition which impel a person or group of persons to move at an area. Natural Disasters – such as famines, floods or volcanic eruption, political repressions; religious or racial discrimination or persecution; or internal disorders such as war and other forms of conflict.
Pull – refers to the favorable condition or attractions of a locality which lure a person or group of persons to move in to that area. Among these are favorable climate, employment opportunities, peace and order, political and religious freedoms, respect for human rights, better recreational & cultural facilities. Internal Migration – is the spatial movement of a person or groups of persons within a country or specified territory, more or less for permanent residency.
Two types of Migration Immigration – when one enters the country of destination. Emigration – when one leave’s one country in order to move into another.
Population Pyramid Refers to two dimensional graph used to display the age gender structure of a population Three patterns: births, deaths and migration.
Characteristics of Population Age structure – refers to the proportion of people at the different age levels Sex composition – refers to how the total population is composed in terms of being males or females Dependency ratio – refers to the proportion of 0 – 4 and 65 - over age levels per 100 pesos age 15 – 64. Population density – refers to the number of persons that can be equally and statistically distributed per square km in a given geographical area considering the population in the said area
World Population Growth Overall the world’s popular grew slowly until about 1850 – so slowly, in fact the several hundred thousand years were needed for the earth to reach one billion ( Wilford, 1981). The earth’s second billion were added by 1930 due to advances in medicine, farming transportation. Population is estimated to cross the 6 billion thresholds in October 1999.
Theories on Population Growth Malthusian Theory – the English scholar Thomas Maltus (1766 – 1834) whose theories appeared in 1798 in “An Essay on the Principle of Population”, theorized pessimistically that population was uncontrollable and that it would, at a future date, reach and then exceed a level at which the planet could sustain in incredible high population numbers.
Marxian Theory – Karl Marx took exception to the Malthusian doctrine. Marx believed that the problem was not primarily one of the population but one of the ownership of the means of production and the inequitable distribution of a society wealth. Marx depicted capitalism as creating a surplus population so as to drive down wages and maximize profits.
Demographic Transition Theory – the concept demographic transition refers to the three char. stages of the population dynamics for societies under going industrialization. In the first stage, which is character of preindustrial societies both the birth rate and the death rate are high and relatively stable. The second stage is a transitional one, the birth rate remains but the death rate declines as nutrition, health and sanitation improve. Stage three, both the birth rate and the death rate are low and in balance again.
Consequences of Rapid Population Growth Nearly half the world population are undernourished to the point law vitality and high vulnerability to starvation disease and death. Most people leave in poverty, the resources needed for capital development are used up, and it’s unemployment is high. Over crowding occurs public services are strained, and the environment is polluted.
Environmental destruction and degradation in order to produce food by any possible method, e.g. slash – and – burn agriculture. Many children are pushed to work for the sustenance of their everyday life through child labor & prostitution, and mendicancy. The high ratio of children to the adults of working age who must provide for their education and welfare not only places. A reserve strain on the national budget, but tends to temper improvements in the efficiency of education & health services to the nation’s children.
Criminality and illegal activities like drug trafficking, robbery, car napping, white slavery due to poverty. Migration urban centers has led the problems of congestion, slum and squatters, urban poor and other urban problems. Quality of education deter rates, as there are not enough class rooms, teachers, ect. Moral & spiritual degradation (sex, “flesh trade”, immoral acts, growing materialism, lack of spirituality)
Measures on Population Control - Population explosion refers to the remarkable increases in population brought by stubbornly high birth rate & declining death rate ( Hauser 1969 ). A no. of resolutions to come up w/ programs aimed at curbing population explosion have been adopted by United Nation Organization and its member counties in three previous conventions.
Adoption of planned parenthood or family planning as a national policy of many countries. Disseminating information on family planning through government agencies and even private institutions. Legalization of abortion as a means of deterring unwanted pregnancies in the U.S. and many European countries. Re – educating the people concerning their beliefs and practices w/c favor big family size.
Softening of the Roman Catholic Church on the use of contraceptives or artificial birth control. Encouragement of delayed marriage and control of births within marriage. In the Philippines, the population commission was created to serve as a policy making, coordinating and monitoring agency on matters pertaining to population. The United Nation Population Fund ( UNFPA ) provides fun for contraceptive research and production. It is also conducts information and educational activities in family planning.
Prepared by: Group #3 Jovin Allam Dominic Bautista Kelvin Baui Aiza Betay Jarine Pascua Jose Tores Jenny Ugaddan