Intro to principles of food production

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  • Intro to principles of food production

    1. 1. ..
    2. 2.   Quantity cookery has existed over a thousand of years as long as there have been large people to feed. Modern food service have begun shortly after the middle of the 18th century. At this time, food production in France was controlled by Guilds. Caterers, pastry makers, roasters and butchers held licenses to prepare specific items. An innkeeper had to buy the various menu items from the guilds in order to serve meals to their guests. The Food ServiceThe Food Service IndustryIndustry
    3. 3.  Monsieur BoulangerMonsieur Boulanger In the year 1765, a Parisian man, began advertising in his shop sign that he served soups called “restaurants” or “restoratives”. This word literally means “fortifying”. He served “sheep’s feet in a cream sauce”. The guild of stew makers challenged him in the French court, but Boulanger won by claiming that he didn’t stew the sheep’s feet in the sauce, but served it with the sauce.
    4. 4.   The French Revolution had a particularly significant effect on restaurant proliferation. Professional chefs who previously have worked for the monarchy and nobility either fled from France to escape the guillotine or went into business for themselves.  At the start of the French Revolution, there were about 50 restaurants in Paris. Ten years later, there were about 500. The Role of the French Revolution to theThe Role of the French Revolution to the Food ServiceFood Service
    5. 5.  • Over the next several hundred years, FrenchOver the next several hundred years, French cooking changed, incorporating newcooking changed, incorporating new ingredients, seasonings, procedures, and stylesingredients, seasonings, procedures, and styles of presentation.of presentation. •• The result of these changes was grandeThe result of these changes was grande cuisine, an elaborate cuisine consisting of manycuisine, an elaborate cuisine consisting of many courses and following strict cooking rules.courses and following strict cooking rules. The Birth of Grande Cuisine
    6. 6.  The Grande Cuisine of Marie AntoineThe Grande Cuisine of Marie Antoine Careme (1784-1833) detailed numerous dishesCareme (1784-1833) detailed numerous dishes and sauces. Careme emphasized procedureand sauces. Careme emphasized procedure and order. His goal was to create moreand order. His goal was to create more lightness and simplicity.lightness and simplicity. Beginning with Careme, a style ofBeginning with Careme, a style of cooking developed that can truly be calledcooking developed that can truly be called international, because the same principles areinternational, because the same principles are still used by professional cooks around thestill used by professional cooks around the world.world. The Birth of Grande Cuisine
    7. 7. Georges Auguste Escoffier (18471935)Georges Auguste Escoffier (18471935) – a renowned chef and teacher. He was the author of Le Guide Culinaire, a major work codifying classic cuisine’s that is still widely used by professional chefs. – His other significant contributions include simplifying the classic menu in accordance with the principles advocated by Careme, and initiating the brigade system. – Escoffier’s major achievement is he reorganization of the kitchen which resulted in a streamlined workplace better suited to turning out the simplified dishes and menus he instituted. Caterina de Medici (1519-1589) – An Italian princess from the famous Florentine family, married the Duc d’Orleans, later Henri II of France . – She introduced a more refined style of dining, including the use of the fork and the napkin. Marie Antoine Careme (1784-1833) – known as the founder of the grande cuisine and was responsible for systematizing culinary techniques. – He had a profound influence on the later writing of Escoffier, and was known as the “chef of kings, king of chefs”. Notable Figures in Culinary History
    8. 8. Fernand Point (1897-1955) * The most influential chef in the middle of the twentieth century. •Worked in his restaurant, La Pyramide in Vienne, France. Point simplified and lightened classical cuisine. •Ferran Adria • A Spanish chef which owns El Bulli. Adria expolores new possibilities in gels, foams, powders, infusions, extracts and other unexpected ways of presenting flavors, textures and aromas. •This approach to cooking is called “Molecular Gastronomy”, a name coined by the French chemist Herve This. •Molecular gastronomy has been taken up by noted chefs Heston Blumenthal, Wylie Dufresne, Grant Achatz and Homaro Cantu. Notable Figures in Culinary History
    9. 9.   Domestic KitchenDomestic Kitchen - The kitchen at home. This kitchen is for personalThe kitchen at home. This kitchen is for personal use. It contains necessary equipment for cookinguse. It contains necessary equipment for cooking small portions.small portions.  Commercial KitchenCommercial Kitchen - Is a large kitchen for preparing a large portion orIs a large kitchen for preparing a large portion or many portions of food. The commercial kitchen canmany portions of food. The commercial kitchen can be the kitchen in a restaurant, hotel, school, andbe the kitchen in a restaurant, hotel, school, and hospital. It requires a lot of space and equipment. Ahospital. It requires a lot of space and equipment. A good floor plan is very important for a good servicegood floor plan is very important for a good service flow.flow. - The commercial Kitchen can be separated intoThe commercial Kitchen can be separated into different sectiondifferent section TYPES OF KITCHEN
    10. 10. Commercial kitchens are organized into work stations and work sections. Organizing the kitchen in this way streamlines the work flow and helps reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare and serve food. Work stations-Work stations- contains all the tools and equipment needed to prepare a certain dish or type of food. For example, if a restaurant offers onion rings on the menu, they are prepared at the fry station. The fry station contains a deep fryer, tongs, and fry baskets. It may also contain a holding station with heat lamps to keep foods hot. Each work station also contains storage and a power source. The menu and the size of the establishment impact the size of each work station. Work sectionsWork sections Related work stations are organized into work sections that may share equipment or perform similar tasks. A hot foods section, for example, might contain a fry station and a sauté station, along with other stations that prepare hot foods. Grouping work stations into work sections allows a foodservice operation to assign staff to cover more than one station if neither station requires the full-time services of one person or if the kitchen is short-staffed. Work Stations and WorkWork Stations and Work SectionsSections
    11. 11.  Executive ChefExecutive Chef – Head chef, In-charge of the kitchen, is a professional cook who supervises cooking and food presentation. Also responsible for the menu planning, purchasing, costing and planning work schedules. Sous ChefSous Chef – is the second in command. He or she would assist the chef and can fill the position of cook when needed. He also replace the head chef when he is off duty. Chef de PartieChef de Partie – Station chef, responsible for a particular cooking station. Kitchen Brigade System
    12. 12. KITCHEN BRIGADEKITCHEN BRIGADE
    13. 13. Historically, large hotels have used a brigade system, which divides responsibilities into special tasks assigned to each member of the staff. Today, however, most establishments use a variation of the classical brigade system. Pantry Chef, (Garde Manger)Pantry Chef, (Garde Manger) is responsible for cold food items (salads, dressings, cold meat and cheese platters, cold meats and sauces) Sauce chef, (Saucier)Sauce chef, (Saucier) prepares sautéed foods and their sauces Fish chef, (Poissonier)Fish chef, (Poissonier) is responsible for all types of fish and their sauces Roast chef, (Rotisseur)Roast chef, (Rotisseur) roasts, braises, and stews foods and produces their sauces Fry chef, (Friturier)Fry chef, (Friturier) Cooks fried foods Kitchen Brigade System
    14. 14. Vegetable chef, EntremetierVegetable chef, Entremetier Cooks hot appetizers, soups, egg dishes, pasta, and vegetables Pastry chef, PatissierPastry chef, Patissier Produces all baked goods, desserts, and pastries Confiseur – candies and petit four Boulangere – bread and rolls Glacier – frozen and cold desserts Decorateur – cake decorations and special desserts Tournant, swing chefTournant, swing chef works every station in absence of the regular chef Butcher, BoucherButcher, Boucher butchers all meats and poultry Communard, Staff chefCommunard, Staff chef prepares the staff ’s food Expediter /announcer, AboyeurExpediter /announcer, Aboyeur takes the order and gives it to the correct chef CommisCommis Works as an apprentice under a particular station chef Assistant, CookAssistant, Cook work at each station under the station chef Kitchen Brigade System
    15. 15.  SkillsSkills ExperienceExperience AttitudeAttitude StaminaStamina Quality SeekerQuality Seeker Interpersonal skillInterpersonal skill Attributes for the Job
    16. 16.  HotelsHotels - must provide a variety of services for their guests, from budget-minded tourists to business people on expense accounts, from quick breakfast and sandwich counters to elegant dining rooms and banquet halls. Hospitals - must satisfy the dietary needs of the patients. Schools - must consider the ages of the students and their tastes and nutritional needs. Employee food services - need menus that offer substantial but quickly served reasonably priced food for working customers. Catering and banquet operations - depend on menus that are easily prepared for large numbers but that are lavish enough for parties and special occasions. Fast-food and take-out quick-service operations - require limited menus featuring inexpensive, easily prepared, easily served foods for people in a hurry. Full-service restaurants - range from simple neighborhood diners to expensive, elegant restaurants. Menus, of course, must be planned according to the customers’ needs. Trying to institute a menu of high-priced, luxurious foods in a café situated in a working-class neighborhood will probably not succeed. Type of Institution
    17. 17.  BreakfastBreakfast LunchLunch : Speed, Simplicity, Variety DinnerDinner : Offer more selections and more courses. Usually in more relax and leisurely manner. Kind of meal
    18. 18.  1. Cold hors d’oeuvre1. Cold hors d’oeuvre small,savory appetizers 2. Soup2. Soup clear soup, thick soup, or broth 3. Hot hors d’oeuvre3. Hot hors d’oeuvre small,hot appetizers 4. Fish4. Fish any seafood item 5. Main course or pièce de resistance5. Main course or pièce de resistance a large cut of roasted or braised meat, usually beef, lamb, or venison, with elaborate vegetable garnishes 6. Hot entrée6. Hot entrée individual portions of meat or poultry, broiled, braised, or panfried, etc. 7. Cold entrée7. Cold entrée cold meats, poultry, fish, pâté, and so on 8. Sorbet8. Sorbet a light ice or sherbet, sometimes made of wine, to refresh the appetite before the next course 9. Roast9. Roast usually roasted poultry, accompanied by or followed by a salad 10. Vegetable10. Vegetable usually a special vegetable preparation, such as artichokes or asparagus, or a more unusual vegetable such as cardoons 11. Sweet11. Sweet what we call dessert—cakes and tarts, pudding, soufflés, etc. 12. Dessert12. Dessert fruit and cheese and, sometimes, small cookies or petits fours Classical MenuClassical Menu
    19. 19.  Appetizer; hot or cold Salad Soup Fish Sorbet Entrée Dessert Modern MenuModern Menu
    20. 20.  FACTORS TO BE CONSIDEREDFACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN PLANNING A MENU:WHEN PLANNING A MENU: EquipmentEquipment PersonnelPersonnel Availability of productsAvailability of products Menu Planning
    21. 21.  MenuMenu - is a list of dishes served or available to be served at a meal. CourseCourse -is a food or group of foods served at one time or intended to be eaten at the same time.
    22. 22.  RecipeRecipe - is the record of ingredients and preparation method for cooking the dish. Standardized recipeStandardized recipe - is a set of instructions describing the way a particular establishment prepares a particular dish. Recipe
    23. 23.  The structure of a standardized recipe.The structure of a standardized recipe. Recipe formats differ from operation to operation, but nearly all of them try to include as much precise information as possible. • Name of the recipe. • Yield, Including total yield, number of portions, and portion size. • Ingredients and exact amounts, listed in order of use. • Equipment needed, including measuring equipment, pan sizes, portioning equipment, and so on. • Directions for preparing the dish. Directions are kept as simple as possible. • Preparation and cooking times. • Directions for portioning, plating, and garnishing. • Directions for breaking down the station, cleaning up, and storing leftovers. Recipe
    24. 24. Chicken Breasts ParmesanChicken Breasts Parmesan Portion size:Portion size: 1 chicken breast,4 oz Total yield:Total yield: 12 portions Quantity Ingredients EquipmentQuantity Ingredients Equipment 4 oz Flour 2 half-size hotel pans 11⁄4 tsp Salt one 2-qt stainless-steel bowl 1⁄2 tsp Ground white pepper 1 wire whip 5 Whole eggs, size large 1 meat mallet 31⁄2 oz Grated parmesan cheese four 12-in.sauté pans 11⁄2 oz Whole milk 1-oz ladle 12 Boneless, skinless chicken breasts,4 oz each tongs 4 oz Clarified butter plastic wrap instant-read thermometer, sanitized P r o c e d u r eP r o c e d u r e Advance Prep:Advance Prep: CCPCCP 1. Collect and measure all ingredients. Refrigerate eggs, cheese, milk, and chicken at 40°F or lower until needed. 2. Collect all equipment. 3. Place the flour in the hotel pan. Season with the salt and white pepper. 4. Break the eggs into the stainless-steel bowl and discard the shells. Beat with the wire whip until foamy. Add the grated cheese and milk. Mix in with the whip. CCPCCP 5. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and refrigerate at below 40°F until needed. 6. Flatten the chicken breasts lightly with the meat mallet until 1⁄2 in. thick. Place the breasts in a hotel pan. CCPCCP Cover with plastic wrap. Refrigerate at below 40°F until ready to cook. CCPCCP 7. Clean and sanitize the mallet and the work surface. Wash hands thoroughly. Cooking:Cooking: 8. Place one of the sauté pans over moderate heat. Allow to heat 2 minutes. 9. Measure 1 oz clarified butter into the pan. CCPCCP 10. One at a time, dip 3 chicken breasts in the seasoned flour until completely coated on both sides. Shake off excess. Dip in the egg mixture. Coat both sides completely. Return remaining chicken and egg mixture to refrigerator. CCPCCP 11. Place the 3 breasts in the sauté pan. Wash hands after handling the raw chicken and before handling cooked food. CCPCCP 12. Cook the chicken over moderate heat until golden brown on the bottom. Using the tongs, turn over and continue to cook until the chicken reaches an internal temperature of 165°–170°F. Test internal temperature with sanitized instant-read thermometer. CCPCCP 13. Repeat with the remaining chicken breasts, using clean sauté pans. If your work is interrupted before completion, cover and refrigerate chicken and egg mixture. CCPCCP 14. If the chicken is not served immediately, hold in a heated holding cabinet to maintain internal temperature of 145°F. CCPCCP 15. Discard leftover egg mixture and seasoned flour. Do not use for any other products. Clean and sanitize all equipment.
    25. 25. Basic Units In the metric system, there is one basic unit for each type of measurement: The gram is the basic unit of weight. The liter is the basic unit of volume. The degree Celsius is the basic unit of temperature. Measurement
    26. 26. Units of Measure— U.S. SystemUnits of Measure— U.S. System Weight :Weight : 1 pound =16 ounces Volume :Volume : 1 gallon = 4 quarts 1 quart1 quart = 2 pints ` or 4 cups or 32 (fluid) ounces 1 pint1 pint = 2 cups or 16 (fluid) ounces 1 cup1 cup = 8 (fluid) ounces 1 (fluid) ounce1 (fluid) ounce = 2 tablespoons 1 tablespoon1 tablespoon = 3 teaspoons Measurement
    27. 27.  Phases of Production in the kitchen:Phases of Production in the kitchen:  Game Plan / Action Plan  Mis en Place  Cooking  Serving How to be Successful in the Kitchen
    28. 28.  OrganizationOrganization  What are you going to make?What are you going to make?  How much food will you need?How much food will you need?  How much time will you need?How much time will you need?  How many people will you need forHow many people will you need for production?production? Game plan / Action Plan
    29. 29.   Means puttingMeans putting “everything in its place”,“everything in its place”, priorprior to preparation and cooking.to preparation and cooking. Gathering of all equipment needed.Gathering of all equipment needed.  Gathering of all ingredients needed.Gathering of all ingredients needed.  Station Set-upStation Set-up Mise en Place
    30. 30.  Station set-up
    31. 31.  Station Set-up
    32. 32.   Pre-preparation:Pre-preparation:  Washing / cleaning of ingredients  Cutting / slicing, trimming, portioning  Trussing, Seasoning  Preparation:Preparation:  Start item with longest cooking time  Clean as you work / Clean as you go  Finish production as close to service time as possible. Double check everything. Cooking
    33. 33.   Set up lines for service:Set up lines for service:  Hot plates, for hot items, cold plates for cold items.  Serving spoons, forks, etc.  Actual service:Actual service:  Plates neat and clean  Food Arrange properly on the plate  Maintain proper temperature of food items Serving
    34. 34.  FlavourFlavour TextureTexture AppearanceAppearance NutrientsNutrients Variety & Balance
    35. 35.  ProteinProtein StarchStarch VegetablesVegetables SauceSauce Meal Components
    36. 36.  B.U.F.F.B.U.F.F. Balance:Balance:  Selection of food  Colour  Cooking Methods  Shape  Textures  Seasonings and flavourings Presentation
    37. 37. Unity:Unity: The food in the presentation should work in harmony and unity.The food in the presentation should work in harmony and unity. This means the food will taste as good as it looks.This means the food will taste as good as it looks. Focal Point:Focal Point:  The platter or plate should have a focal point to which the eyeThe platter or plate should have a focal point to which the eye is automatically drawn. The existence and location of this focalis automatically drawn. The existence and location of this focal point is largely dependent on the placement and relationshippoint is largely dependent on the placement and relationship of the various food components.of the various food components. Flow:Flow:  Through proper handling of balance, unity and focal point, it isThrough proper handling of balance, unity and focal point, it is possible to develop a sense of movement or flow.possible to develop a sense of movement or flow.  Flow gives the presentation life and a sense of Freshness.Flow gives the presentation life and a sense of Freshness. Presentation
    38. 38. Thank you!Thank you!
    39. 39.  Don’t forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity

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