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Powerpoint presentation of "Egg Basic" in Principles of food production (. …

Powerpoint presentation of "Egg Basic" in Principles of food production (.

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  • 1. EGGSEGGS  COMPOSITIONCOMPOSITION::  A whole egg consists primarily of a yolk, aA whole egg consists primarily of a yolk, a white, and a shell. In addition, it contains awhite, and a shell. In addition, it contains a  membrane that lines the shell and formsmembrane that lines the shell and forms an air cell at the large end, and two whitean air cell at the large end, and two white  strands calledstrands called chalazae that hold the yolkchalazae that hold the yolk centeredcentered
  • 2. EGGSEGGS  1.1. YYolkolk - is high in both fat and protein, and it contains- is high in both fat and protein, and it contains iron and several vitamins. Its color ranges from light toiron and several vitamins. Its color ranges from light to dark yellow, depending on the diet of the chicken.dark yellow, depending on the diet of the chicken.  2.2. WWhitehite - is primarily albumin protein, which is clear- is primarily albumin protein, which is clear and soluble when raw but white and firm whenand soluble when raw but white and firm when coagulated. The white also contains sulfur.coagulated. The white also contains sulfur.  The white has two parts: a thick portion that surroundsThe white has two parts: a thick portion that surrounds the yolk, and a thinner, more liquid portion outside ofthe yolk, and a thinner, more liquid portion outside of this.this.  3.3. Shell -Shell - is not the perfect package ,in spite of what youis not the perfect package ,in spite of what you may have heard. Not only is it fragile but it is alsomay have heard. Not only is it fragile but it is also porous, allowing odors and flavors to be absorbed byporous, allowing odors and flavors to be absorbed by the egg and allowing the egg to lose moisture even ifthe egg and allowing the egg to lose moisture even if unbroken.unbroken.
  • 3. EGGSEGGS
  • 4. EGGSEGGS  Egg Grades & Quality: USDAEgg Grades & Quality: USDA:: Grades eggs to designate quality.Grades eggs to designate quality.  Grades:Grades: Grade AA, Grade A, andGrade AA, Grade A, and Grade BGrade B  Size:Size: Determined by weight perDetermined by weight per dozen; Jumbo, extra large, large,dozen; Jumbo, extra large, large, medium, small, and peewee.medium, small, and peewee.
  • 5. EGGSEGGS Eggs are also graded by sizeEggs are also graded by size
  • 6. GRADES & QUALITYGRADES & QUALITY
  • 7. Grades and UseGrades and Use  Grade AAGrade AA is the best to use for fried or poachedis the best to use for fried or poached egg. Lower grades spread out too much toegg. Lower grades spread out too much to produce a high-quality product.produce a high-quality product.  Grade A eggs or Grade AAGrade A eggs or Grade AA that have been held athat have been held a few days in the refrigerator, for hard-cookedfew days in the refrigerator, for hard-cooked egg. Very fresh eggs are difficult to peel whenegg. Very fresh eggs are difficult to peel when cooked in the shell.cooked in the shell.  Grade BGrade B eggs are suitable for use in baking. Ifeggs are suitable for use in baking. If you are certain they have developed no strongyou are certain they have developed no strong flavors, they may be used for scrambled eggs,flavors, they may be used for scrambled eggs, where the firmness of the whole egg is lesswhere the firmness of the whole egg is less important.important.
  • 8. STORING OF EGGSSTORING OF EGGS Maintaining QualityMaintaining Quality  Proper storage is essential forProper storage is essential for maintaining quality. Eggs keep formaintaining quality. Eggs keep for weeks if held at 36°F (2°C) but loseweeks if held at 36°F (2°C) but lose quality quickly if held at roomquality quickly if held at room temperature. In fact, they can lose a fulltemperature. In fact, they can lose a full grade in one day at warm kitchengrade in one day at warm kitchen temperatures.temperatures.  Store eggs away from foods that mightStore eggs away from foods that might pass on undesirable flavors or odors.pass on undesirable flavors or odors.
  • 9. MARKET FORMSMARKET FORMS  1.1. Fresh eggs or shell eggsFresh eggs or shell eggs - These are most- These are most often used for breakfast cookery.often used for breakfast cookery.  2.2. Frozen eggsFrozen eggs - Whole eggs, Whites, Yolks,- Whole eggs, Whites, Yolks, Whole eggs with extra yolks.Whole eggs with extra yolks.  Frozen eggs are usually made from high-qualityFrozen eggs are usually made from high-quality fresh eggs and are excellent for use infresh eggs and are excellent for use in scrambled eggs, omelets, French toast, and inscrambled eggs, omelets, French toast, and in baking.baking.  They are pasteurized and are usually purchasedThey are pasteurized and are usually purchased in 30-pound (13.6-kg) cans. These take at leastin 30-pound (13.6-kg) cans. These take at least two days to thaw at refrigerator temperatures.two days to thaw at refrigerator temperatures.
  • 10. MARKET FORMSMARKET FORMS  3.3. Dried eggsDried eggs -- Whole eggs, Yolks,Whole eggs, Yolks, Whites, Dried eggs are used primarilyWhites, Dried eggs are used primarily for baking. They are not suggested forfor baking. They are not suggested for use in breakfast cookery.use in breakfast cookery.  Unlike most dehydrated products, driedUnlike most dehydrated products, dried eggs are not shelf-stable and must beeggs are not shelf-stable and must be kept refrigerated or frozen, tightlykept refrigerated or frozen, tightly sealed.sealed.
  • 11. HANDLING EGGSHANDLING EGGS Handling EggsHandling Eggs  If fresh eggs are cracked and thenIf fresh eggs are cracked and then prepared and served immediately, theyprepared and served immediately, they should be cooked so that all parts ofshould be cooked so that all parts of the food are heated to a temperature ofthe food are heated to a temperature of 145°F (63°C) or above for 15 seconds.145°F (63°C) or above for 15 seconds.  Foods made with raw fresh eggs thatFoods made with raw fresh eggs that are not cracked and then prepared andare not cracked and then prepared and served immediately should be cookedserved immediately should be cooked to heat all parts to 155°F (68°C) orto heat all parts to 155°F (68°C) or above for 15 seconds.above for 15 seconds.
  • 12. HANDLING EGGSHANDLING EGGS Crack the egg in half, andCrack the egg in half, and allow the white to fall into aallow the white to fall into a bowl.bowl. Transfer the egg yolk backTransfer the egg yolk back and forth between shellsand forth between shells until all of the egg whiteuntil all of the egg white has been collected in thehas been collected in the bowl.bowl.
  • 13. HANDLING EGGSHANDLING EGGS Alternatively, eggsAlternatively, eggs may be separatedmay be separated by cracking theby cracking the eggs in half andeggs in half and allowing the yolk toallowing the yolk to remain cradledremain cradled within your fingerswithin your fingers as the white dropsas the white drops into a bowl below.into a bowl below.
  • 14. HANDLING EGGSHANDLING EGGS  After separating the eggs, beat the egg whites in a clean metal bowl and use them immediately. Beat the egg whites slowly forBeat the egg whites slowly for about 30 seconds toabout 30 seconds to introduce air into the Whites.introduce air into the Whites. Using your wrist or elbow, beat moreUsing your wrist or elbow, beat more vigorously until the egg whites increasevigorously until the egg whites increase about four to five times in volume. Atabout four to five times in volume. At this point, the egg whites most likelythis point, the egg whites most likely will be at the soft peak stage.will be at the soft peak stage.
  • 15. HANDLING EGGSHANDLING EGGS Soft peaks are formed whenSoft peaks are formed when the whisk is lifted and thethe whisk is lifted and the peaks of the beaten eggpeaks of the beaten egg whites barely hold their shapewhites barely hold their shape and bend easily.and bend easily. Stiff peaks are formed when theStiff peaks are formed when the whisk is lifted and the peaks of thewhisk is lifted and the peaks of the beaten egg whites hold their shapebeaten egg whites hold their shape with just a slight bend. At this stage,with just a slight bend. At this stage, egg whites may increase by up toegg whites may increase by up to seven times their original volume.seven times their original volume.
  • 16. HANDLING EGGSHANDLING EGGS  Folding is the process of gently adding light, airy ingredients such as egg whites to heavier ingredients by using a smooth, circular movement. Mix about one fourth of theMix about one fourth of the foam mixture into the heavierfoam mixture into the heavier mixture.mixture. Put all the remaining foam mixturePut all the remaining foam mixture on top, and use a spatula to cuton top, and use a spatula to cut through the center of the mixture.through the center of the mixture.
  • 17. HANDLING EGGSHANDLING EGGS Lift half of the heavy mixtureLift half of the heavy mixture from the center of the bowl overfrom the center of the bowl over the foam mixture, scraping alongthe foam mixture, scraping along the sides of the bowl whilethe sides of the bowl while folding.folding. Continue until the foam mixtureContinue until the foam mixture is completely combined.is completely combined.
  • 18. HANDLING EGGSHANDLING EGGS  Tempering is the process of equalizing the temperatures of two liquids before combining them. Slowly heat the egg yolks bySlowly heat the egg yolks by gradually adding a small amount ofgradually adding a small amount of hot liquid to the egg yolks, stirringhot liquid to the egg yolks, stirring constantly.constantly. Continue adding hot liquid in a slowContinue adding hot liquid in a slow steady stream until the temperaturesteady stream until the temperature of the yolk mixture is close to theof the yolk mixture is close to the temperature of the hot liquid.temperature of the hot liquid.
  • 19. HANDLING EGGSHANDLING EGGS Blend the yolkBlend the yolk mixture into themixture into the hot liquid, stirringhot liquid, stirring constantly.constantly. Do not allow theDo not allow the combined mixture tocombined mixture to boil.boil.
  • 20. GENERAL COOKING PRINCIPLESGENERAL COOKING PRINCIPLES  The most important rule of egg cookery isThe most important rule of egg cookery is simple: Avoid high temperatures and longsimple: Avoid high temperatures and long cooking times. do not overcook. This shouldcooking times. do not overcook. This should be a familiar rule by now.be a familiar rule by now.  Overcooking produces tough eggs, causesOvercooking produces tough eggs, causes discoloration, and affects flavor.discoloration, and affects flavor.  CoagulationCoagulation -- Eggs are largely protein, soEggs are largely protein, so the principle of coagulation is important tothe principle of coagulation is important to consider.consider.
  • 21. GENERAL COOKINGGENERAL COOKING PRINCIPLESPRINCIPLES  Eggs coagulate at the followingEggs coagulate at the following temperatures:temperatures:  Whole eggs, beaten about 156°F (69°C)Whole eggs, beaten about 156°F (69°C)  Whites 140° to 149°F (60° to 65°C)Whites 140° to 149°F (60° to 65°C)  Yolks 144° to 158°F (62° to 70°C)Yolks 144° to 158°F (62° to 70°C)  Custard (whole eggs plus liquid) 175°Custard (whole eggs plus liquid) 175° to 185°F (79° to 85°C)to 185°F (79° to 85°C)
  • 22. COOKING EGGSCOOKING EGGS SIMMERING IN THE SHELLSIMMERING IN THE SHELL Method 1Method 1  1. Collect equipment and food1. Collect equipment and food items.items.  2. Bring eggs to room2. Bring eggs to room temperature by (a) removingtemperature by (a) removing them from cooler 1 hour beforethem from cooler 1 hour before cooking, or (b) placing them incooking, or (b) placing them in warm water for 5 minutes andwarm water for 5 minutes and draining. Cold eggs are moredraining. Cold eggs are more likely to crack when placed inlikely to crack when placed in boiling water.boiling water.  3. Place eggs in boiling water and3. Place eggs in boiling water and return the water to a simmer.return the water to a simmer.
  • 23. COOKING EGGSCOOKING EGGS  4. Simmer, do not boil, for the required4. Simmer, do not boil, for the required time:time:  Soft-cooked 3 to 4 minutesSoft-cooked 3 to 4 minutes  Medium-cooked 5 to 7 minutesMedium-cooked 5 to 7 minutes  Hard-cooked 12 to 15 minutesHard-cooked 12 to 15 minutes  Exact cooking time depends onExact cooking time depends on temperature of eggs, size of eggs, andtemperature of eggs, size of eggs, and amount of water used.amount of water used.
  • 24. COOKING EGGSCOOKING EGGS 5. Drain immediately and cool under cold5. Drain immediately and cool under cold running water to stop the cooking. Cool just arunning water to stop the cooking. Cool just a few seconds if eggs are to be served hot. Coolfew seconds if eggs are to be served hot. Cool further if they are to be held for later use.further if they are to be held for later use. 6. To peel, crack the shell and pull it away,6. To peel, crack the shell and pull it away, starting at the large end (where the air sac isstarting at the large end (where the air sac is located). For easier peeling, peel while stilllocated). For easier peeling, peel while still warm,warm, and hold under running water to help loosenand hold under running water to help loosen shell. Very fresh eggs are hard to peel. Eggs forshell. Very fresh eggs are hard to peel. Eggs for cooking in the shell should be several days old.cooking in the shell should be several days old.
  • 25. COOKING EGGSCOOKING EGGS Method 2Method 2  1. Collect equipment and food items.1. Collect equipment and food items.  2. Place eggs in saucepan and cover with cold water.2. Place eggs in saucepan and cover with cold water.  3. Bring water to a boil.3. Bring water to a boil.  4. Reduce heat and simmer for the required time:4. Reduce heat and simmer for the required time:  Soft-cooked 1 minuteSoft-cooked 1 minute  Medium-cooked 3 to 5 minutesMedium-cooked 3 to 5 minutes  Hard-cooked 9 to 10 minutesHard-cooked 9 to 10 minutes MethoMethod 3d 3 for Hard-Cooked Eggs Onlyfor Hard-Cooked Eggs Only  Proceed as in Method 2, but remove pan from heatProceed as in Method 2, but remove pan from heat and cover as soon as it comes to a boil. Let stand offand cover as soon as it comes to a boil. Let stand off heat for 20 minutes.heat for 20 minutes.
  • 26. COOKING EGGSCOOKING EGGS  POACHINGPOACHING  Poached eggs cook with moist heat. The best poachedPoached eggs cook with moist heat. The best poached eggs are well-rounded and free of ragged edges, with aeggs are well-rounded and free of ragged edges, with a firm but tender white and a warm, runny yolk. Use veryfirm but tender white and a warm, runny yolk. Use very fresh, cold eggs to create perfectly poachedfresh, cold eggs to create perfectly poached  eggs. Adding about 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) ofeggs. Adding about 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) of vinegar for every quart (liter) of cooking water causesvinegar for every quart (liter) of cooking water causes the protein to coagulate more quickly, which helps holdthe protein to coagulate more quickly, which helps hold the egg white together.the egg white together.  Eggs can be poached in advance and held in ice waterEggs can be poached in advance and held in ice water under refrigeration for up to one day. Just beforeunder refrigeration for up to one day. Just before serving, reheat the eggs to 165°F (74°C) in simmeringserving, reheat the eggs to 165°F (74°C) in simmering water.water.
  • 27. COOKING EGGSCOOKING EGGS Standards of Quality for PoachedStandards of Quality for Poached EggsEggs  1. Bright, shiny appearance.1. Bright, shiny appearance.  2. Compact, round shape, not spread or2. Compact, round shape, not spread or flattened.flattened.  3. Firm but tender whites; warm, liquid3. Firm but tender whites; warm, liquid yolks.yolks.
  • 28. Procedure for PoachingProcedure for Poaching heat a pot with a few inches of water in it. Put a splash of vinegar in the waterheat a pot with a few inches of water in it. Put a splash of vinegar in the water Once its boiling, turn the temperature down a bit so it doesn’t bubbleOnce its boiling, turn the temperature down a bit so it doesn’t bubble.. Make a whirlpool with your spoon, spatulaMake a whirlpool with your spoon, spatulaBreak an egg into a small dish 11 22 33 44
  • 29. Procedure for PoachingProcedure for Poaching 1 22 33 44
  • 30. COOKING EGGSCOOKING EGGS  FRYING - Fried eggs are an especiallyFRYING - Fried eggs are an especially popular breakfast preparation. They shouldpopular breakfast preparation. They should always be cooked to order and servedalways be cooked to order and served immediately.immediately.  Sunny side upSunny side up  Over easyOver easy  Omelette – french, americanOmelette – french, american  ScrambleScramble  FrittataFrittata  Shirred or bakedShirred or baked
  • 31. FRYINGFRYING
  • 32. FRYINGFRYING
  • 33. SCRAMBLED EGGSSCRAMBLED EGGS  Scrambled Eggs, usually madeScrambled Eggs, usually made with whole eggs, scrambled eggswith whole eggs, scrambled eggs are fluffy and moist. Adding aare fluffy and moist. Adding a small amount of milk or creamsmall amount of milk or cream makes scrambled eggs puffier andmakes scrambled eggs puffier and enriches the flavor.enriches the flavor.
  • 34. PROCEDURE FOR SCRAMBLEDPROCEDURE FOR SCRAMBLED EGGSEGGS
  • 35. AMERICAN OMELLETEAMERICAN OMELLETE
  • 36. FRENCH OMELLETTEFRENCH OMELLETTE
  • 37. FRITTATA & FLAT OMELLETEFRITTATA & FLAT OMELLETE Frittata is a flat omelet thatFrittata is a flat omelet that originated in Italy.originated in Italy.  Flat omelets are made byFlat omelets are made by mixing beaten eggs with amixing beaten eggs with a variety of ingredients, suchvariety of ingredients, such as vegetables, meats, oras vegetables, meats, or cheese, and cooking thecheese, and cooking the mixture over low heat withoutmixture over low heat without stirring.stirring.  To finish, it is either flippedTo finish, it is either flipped over or run under the broilerover or run under the broiler or into the oven until the topor into the oven until the top is set.is set.
  • 38. CUSTARDSCUSTARDS CUSTARDSCUSTARDS is a liquid that is thickened or set by theis a liquid that is thickened or set by the coagulation of egg protein.coagulation of egg protein.  Baked or ShirredBaked or Shirred -- bake in individual ramekins or casserolebake in individual ramekins or casserole dishes. is often lined with ham, bread, or vegetables and thedishes. is often lined with ham, bread, or vegetables and the egg topped with cheese, cream, or herbs.egg topped with cheese, cream, or herbs.  Quiche -Quiche - is an open tart filled with a baked egg custard tois an open tart filled with a baked egg custard to which other fillings have been added.which other fillings have been added.  The filling may contain one or more types of cheese, alongThe filling may contain one or more types of cheese, along with complementary meat, seafood, and/or vegetables. Usewith complementary meat, seafood, and/or vegetables. Use either puff pastry or pie dough for the quiche shell.either puff pastry or pie dough for the quiche shell.  As a quiche bakes, egg proteins in the custard coagulate,As a quiche bakes, egg proteins in the custard coagulate, causing the filling to thicken.causing the filling to thicken.  Overbaking causes the egg proteins to curdle, resulting inOverbaking causes the egg proteins to curdle, resulting in watery quiche.watery quiche.
  • 39. SHIRRED OR BAKEDSHIRRED OR BAKED To prepare shirred eggs: 1. Coat the ramekins with butter. 2. Line the ramekins, if desired, with flavoring ingredients. A small amount of cream may be added, if desired. 3. Crack one or more eggs into a cup, taking care to avoid breaking the yolk. Slide the eggs into the ramekins. 4. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. 5. Place the ramekins in a bain marie. Bake at 350°F (175°C) for 10–15 minutes or until the eggs fully set.
  • 40. SOUFFLÉSSOUFFLÉS SoufflésSoufflés are not normallyare not normally featured on breakfast menus.featured on breakfast menus. However, they are importantHowever, they are important basic egg preparations withbasic egg preparations with which you should be familiar.which you should be familiar. Soufflé consists of three elements:Soufflé consists of three elements:  1. Base—usually a heavy1. Base—usually a heavy béchamel sauce.béchamel sauce.  2. Flavor ingredient—cheese,2. Flavor ingredient—cheese, vegetables, seafood, etc.vegetables, seafood, etc.  3. Egg whites, beaten3. Egg whites, beaten
  • 41. The End!The End!  Disclaimer: I do not own the rights norDisclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation.property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.All rights reserved to the owner.  Don't forget to follow me on twitterDon't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity@joviinthecity  Thank You!Thank You!