Butchery

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Butchery

  1. 1. Meat BasicsMeat Basics BEEF, LAMB, PORK, VEALBEEF, LAMB, PORK, VEAL
  2. 2. Nutritional MakeupNutritional Makeup  Muscle CompositionMuscle Composition  The three main components of muscle areThe three main components of muscle are water, protein, and fat. These nutrientswater, protein, and fat. These nutrients appear in the following proportions in mostappear in the following proportions in most meats:meats:  •• 75% water75% water  •• 20% protein20% protein  •• 5% fat5% fat  Muscle also contains vitamins, minerals, andMuscle also contains vitamins, minerals, and trace amounts of carbohydrates.trace amounts of carbohydrates.
  3. 3.  Water  most meats are about three-quarters water, themost meats are about three-quarters water, the actual amount of water in meats variesactual amount of water in meats varies depending on shrinkage.depending on shrinkage.  ShrinkageShrinkage,,  or moisture loss, is the result of oxidation,or moisture loss, is the result of oxidation,  occurs during storage or agingoccurs during storage or aging  as a result of high temperatures and longas a result of high temperatures and long cooking times.cooking times.  OxidationOxidation causes meat to lose both water andcauses meat to lose both water and weight.weight. CompositionComposition
  4. 4. CompositionComposition  ProteinProtein  Protein is an essential nutrient that promotesProtein is an essential nutrient that promotes growth, builds tissue, regulates body functions,growth, builds tissue, regulates body functions, serves as an alternative to fats andserves as an alternative to fats and carbohydrates as a source of energy.carbohydrates as a source of energy.  Most solid matter in meat is protein.Most solid matter in meat is protein.  When heat is applied to meat, the proteinWhen heat is applied to meat, the protein coagulates, or becomes firm.coagulates, or becomes firm.  The degree of coagulation is one gauge forThe degree of coagulation is one gauge for doneness.doneness.  High heat can cause protein to lose moistureHigh heat can cause protein to lose moisture and become too firm, making the meat tough.and become too firm, making the meat tough.
  5. 5. CompositionComposition  FatFat  MarblingMarbling -- is fat deposited within the muscleis fat deposited within the muscle tissue.tissue.  Fat capFat cap -- fat surrounds the muscle tissue.fat surrounds the muscle tissue.  The fat cap may be left on a piece of meatThe fat cap may be left on a piece of meat during cooking to keep the meat moistduring cooking to keep the meat moist  Marbling also contributes to the juiciness ofMarbling also contributes to the juiciness of meat and makes it more tender and flavorful.meat and makes it more tender and flavorful.  BardingBarding is adding surface fat where are theyis adding surface fat where are they lacking.lacking.  LardingLarding is the same as barding, isis the same as barding, is accomplished by insertingaccomplished by inserting a hollowa hollow needle w/ fat, into a cut of meat.needle w/ fat, into a cut of meat.
  6. 6. CompositionComposition  Vitamins and mineralsVitamins and minerals  Meat is an important source of Vitamins AMeat is an important source of Vitamins A and K as well as several B vitamins, includingand K as well as several B vitamins, including thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), B6,thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), B6, and B12.and B12.  Meat also adds minerals such as iron andMeat also adds minerals such as iron and phosphorus to the diet.phosphorus to the diet.  CarbohydratesCarbohydrates  Although present only in small amounts,Although present only in small amounts, carbohydrates contribute to the appearancecarbohydrates contribute to the appearance and flavor of meat that is prepared with a dryand flavor of meat that is prepared with a dry technique such as roasting, sautéing, ortechnique such as roasting, sautéing, or broiling.broiling.
  7. 7. The Structure of MeatThe Structure of Meat  Meat products consist of:Meat products consist of:  Bones,Bones,  Muscle Fibers,Muscle Fibers,  Connective tissue.Connective tissue.
  8. 8. BonesBones  Bone color is an indication of anBone color is an indication of an animal’s age.animal’s age.  The redder the bone, the younger theThe redder the bone, the younger the animal. Older animals have whiteanimal. Older animals have white bones.bones.  Becoming familiar with the boneBecoming familiar with the bone structure of an animal helps whenstructure of an animal helps when learning the different cuts of meatlearning the different cuts of meat and how to debone them.and how to debone them.
  9. 9. Beef Skeletal Structure
  10. 10. Muscle FibersMuscle Fibers  Muscle fibers,or cells bundledMuscle fibers,or cells bundled together,make up the meat.together,make up the meat.  The thickness of the fibers determinesThe thickness of the fibers determines the texture or grain of the meat.the texture or grain of the meat.  Thick, tough fibers bound in largeThick, tough fibers bound in large bundles make up coarsely texturedbundles make up coarsely textured meats, such as bottom round or brisket.meats, such as bottom round or brisket.  Thinner, tender fibers in small bundlesThinner, tender fibers in small bundles form finely grained meat, such asform finely grained meat, such as tenderloin.tenderloin.
  11. 11. Connective tissueConnective tissue  A web of proteins that performs severalA web of proteins that performs several functions:functions:  it covers individual muscle fibers, bundles themit covers individual muscle fibers, bundles them together,together,  Attaches them to bones.Attaches them to bones.  Connective tissue helps determine the texture ofConnective tissue helps determine the texture of meat and is tough in general.meat and is tough in general.  Some meats are higher in connective tissue thanSome meats are higher in connective tissue than others.others.  Frequently used muscles such as those in the legFrequently used muscles such as those in the leg or shoulder have more connective tissue andor shoulder have more connective tissue and thus are tougher than those in the back (or loin).thus are tougher than those in the back (or loin).  Meat from older animals is also tougher becauseMeat from older animals is also tougher because as an animal ages, the connective tissueas an animal ages, the connective tissue becomes more resistant to breaking down.becomes more resistant to breaking down.
  12. 12. Two kinds of Connective TissueTwo kinds of Connective Tissue  Elastin and collagen differ in their ability toElastin and collagen differ in their ability to break down during the cooking process.break down during the cooking process.  ElastinElastin  hard, yellow connective tissue prevalent in olderhard, yellow connective tissue prevalent in older animals.animals.  it will not break down during cookingit will not break down during cooking  must be cut away from the meat or physicallymust be cut away from the meat or physically tenderized to reduce its effects.tenderized to reduce its effects.  CollagenCollagen  the soft, white connective tissue,the soft, white connective tissue,  readily breaks down into water and gelatin withreadily breaks down into water and gelatin with slow, moist cooking.slow, moist cooking.  Collagen also responds well to tenderizing.Collagen also responds well to tenderizing.
  13. 13. INSPECTION AND GRADINGINSPECTION AND GRADING INSPECTIONINSPECTION  A guarantee of wholesomenessA guarantee of wholesomeness  Indicated by a round stampIndicated by a round stamp  Required by lawRequired by law GRADINGGRADING  Based on qualityBased on quality  Indicated by a shield stamp and letter gradeIndicated by a shield stamp and letter grade  Not required by lawNot required by law ** Quality grading is based on the texture, firmness, andQuality grading is based on the texture, firmness, and color of the lean meat, the age or maturity of the animalcolor of the lean meat, the age or maturity of the animal and the marbling.and the marbling.
  14. 14. Purchasing MeatsPurchasing Meats Factors to be consider before purchasing meat of anyFactors to be consider before purchasing meat of any kind: •kind: •  MenuMenu—What meats do you need for dishes on the menu?—What meats do you need for dishes on the menu? Which m eats lend themselves to the cooking techniques thatWhich m eats lend themselves to the cooking techniques that will be used?will be used?  PricePrice— Are the most expensive cuts necessary in dishes you— Are the most expensive cuts necessary in dishes you plan to prepare? What can customers afford? What are youplan to prepare? What can customers afford? What are you willing to pay for top-quality meats?willing to pay for top-quality meats?  QualityQuality—What are your general quality standards? What—What are your general quality standards? What standards have you developed for specific dishes? Alwaysstandards have you developed for specific dishes? Always purchase beef and other meats only from USDA-approvedpurchase beef and other meats only from USDA-approved processing plants.processing plants.  provide the product name, its IMPS/NAMP number theprovide the product name, its IMPS/NAMP number the grade, the fat thickness, the weight range, and the formgrade, the fat thickness, the weight range, and the form of delivery (chilled or frozen).of delivery (chilled or frozen).  The purpose of the specifications is to ensure clarityThe purpose of the specifications is to ensure clarity and consistency in meat production and in purchasing.and consistency in meat production and in purchasing.
  15. 15. BASIC MEAT CUTSBASIC MEAT CUTS **Meats cuts are based on 2 FactorsMeats cuts are based on 2 Factors::  Muscle and Bone structure of the meat.Muscle and Bone structure of the meat.  Uses and appropriate cooking methods of various parts of theUses and appropriate cooking methods of various parts of the animal.animal. CARCASSES:CARCASSES: whole animal, minus entrails, head, feet and hide. (pork:whole animal, minus entrails, head, feet and hide. (pork: has only the head and entrails removed).has only the head and entrails removed). STEPS IN BREAKING DOWN CARCASSES (PRIMAL CUTS)STEPS IN BREAKING DOWN CARCASSES (PRIMAL CUTS) Forequarter and Hindquarter: (beef)Forequarter and Hindquarter: (beef) – is split through the back bone– is split through the back bone into sides. Sides are divided between the 12into sides. Sides are divided between the 12thth and 13and 13thth ribs, intoribs, into forequarter and hindquarter.forequarter and hindquarter. Foresaddle and hindsaddle: (veal and lamb)Foresaddle and hindsaddle: (veal and lamb) – are not split into sides– are not split into sides but are divided between ribs 12 and 13, into foresaddle andbut are divided between ribs 12 and 13, into foresaddle and hindsaddle.hindsaddle. Pork carcasses are not divided on this way they are cut directly intoPork carcasses are not divided on this way they are cut directly into primal cuts.primal cuts.
  16. 16. BEEFBEEF
  17. 17. CattleCattle general term for domesticated bovine animals raised ongeneral term for domesticated bovine animals raised on a farm or ranch for their meat, milk, or hides or for usea farm or ranch for their meat, milk, or hides or for use as draft animals. Cattle are categorized by sex and age.as draft animals. Cattle are categorized by sex and age.  CalvesCalves  young cattle of either sex.young cattle of either sex.  A male calf is known as a bull calf, and a female calf is called a heiferA male calf is known as a bull calf, and a female calf is called a heifer calf.calf.  BullsBulls  mature, uncastrated male cattle used for breeding.mature, uncastrated male cattle used for breeding.  SteersSteers  male cattle that have been castrated before reaching sexual maturitymale cattle that have been castrated before reaching sexual maturity  Most beef that Americans eat comes from steers.Most beef that Americans eat comes from steers.  StagsStags  male cattle that have undergone castration after they have matured.male cattle that have undergone castration after they have matured.  HeifersHeifers  calves grow into heifers and eventually become cows.calves grow into heifers and eventually become cows.  CowsCows  mature female cattle, and are usually used as a source of milk.mature female cattle, and are usually used as a source of milk.
  18. 18. USDA MEAT GRADESUSDA MEAT GRADES Beef, Veal, LambBeef, Veal, Lamb  PRIMEPRIME:: highest quality, highest priced, limited supplyhighest quality, highest priced, limited supply  CHOICE:CHOICE: high in quality, generally tender and juicy,high in quality, generally tender and juicy, abundant supply, widely used in food service as well asabundant supply, widely used in food service as well as retail.retail.  SELECT:SELECT: lean meat, not as fine and tender, economical.lean meat, not as fine and tender, economical. can be tender and flavorful if cooked carefully used in manycan be tender and flavorful if cooked carefully used in many institutional food service operations.institutional food service operations.  STANDARD:STANDARD: usually used for canners and processors.usually used for canners and processors.  UTILITY and CUTTER:UTILITY and CUTTER: seldom use in fodd serviceseldom use in fodd service or in institution.or in institution.
  19. 19. Receiving BeefReceiving Beef  When receiving beef from a supplier, check it carefully toWhen receiving beef from a supplier, check it carefully to make sure that it is sanitary and matches the order placed.make sure that it is sanitary and matches the order placed.  Look for inspection and grade stamps on the meat or itsLook for inspection and grade stamps on the meat or its packaging.packaging.  Closely examine the packaging for tears, leakage, andClosely examine the packaging for tears, leakage, and foreign objects. Beef in damaged or dirty packaging risksforeign objects. Beef in damaged or dirty packaging risks contamination.contamination.  Also note the meat’s temperature, color, odor, and texture.Also note the meat’s temperature, color, odor, and texture.  Beef, like other meats, should be delivered at 41°F (5°C) orBeef, like other meats, should be delivered at 41°F (5°C) or lower.lower.  It should have a bright red color and no odor.It should have a bright red color and no odor.  Its texture should not be sticky or dry.Its texture should not be sticky or dry.  Meat also should exhibit the fat thickness and degree ofMeat also should exhibit the fat thickness and degree of marbling requested.marbling requested.  Do not accept beef that does not meet safety standards orDo not accept beef that does not meet safety standards or specifications.specifications.
  20. 20. Handling Beef SafelyHandling Beef Safely  Care in receiving and storing meat notCare in receiving and storing meat not only protects the health of customersonly protects the health of customers but also reduces waste, thusbut also reduces waste, thus conserving cost.conserving cost.  The latter is an important considerationThe latter is an important consideration in recognizing how perishable andin recognizing how perishable and relatively costly meat is.relatively costly meat is.
  21. 21. Storing BeefStoring Beef  Store beef immediately after delivery.Store beef immediately after delivery.  Wrapping for cuts of fresh beef should beWrapping for cuts of fresh beef should be airtight. Exposure to air will cause the meatairtight. Exposure to air will cause the meat to turn brown.to turn brown.  Use special care in handling and wrappingUse special care in handling and wrapping ground beef, as it is highly susceptible toground beef, as it is highly susceptible to contamination.contamination.  Leave vacuum-packed beef in its packagingLeave vacuum-packed beef in its packaging until ready for use.until ready for use.  To prevent cross-contamination, keep meatTo prevent cross-contamination, keep meat away from other foods.away from other foods.
  22. 22. Storing BeefStoring Beef  Always store meat on the lowest shelf ofAlways store meat on the lowest shelf of the refrigerator, below other foods.the refrigerator, below other foods.  Place meat on trays so that juices do notPlace meat on trays so that juices do not contaminate other foods or drip onto thecontaminate other foods or drip onto the storage unit floor.storage unit floor.  The ideal temperature for storage of freshThe ideal temperature for storage of fresh meats is 41°F (5°C) or lower.meats is 41°F (5°C) or lower.  Use refrigerated fresh beef within two orUse refrigerated fresh beef within two or three days of delivery for best results.three days of delivery for best results.  Use ground beef within one to two days.Use ground beef within one to two days.
  23. 23. Storing BeefStoring Beef  Sealed vacuum-packed meat remains fresh underSealed vacuum-packed meat remains fresh under refrigeration for three to four weeks.refrigeration for three to four weeks.  Choose airtight and moisture-proof wrap for frozenChoose airtight and moisture-proof wrap for frozen meat to guard against freezer burn.meat to guard against freezer burn.  Keep frozen meat at 0°F to 10°F(–18°C to –12°C).Keep frozen meat at 0°F to 10°F(–18°C to –12°C).  Rotation of stock is important. Label packages withRotation of stock is important. Label packages with the date stored, and use the FIFO method.the date stored, and use the FIFO method.  The recommended shelf life of frozen meat is fourThe recommended shelf life of frozen meat is four to six months.to six months.  Defrost frozen meat carefully. Allow time to defrostDefrost frozen meat carefully. Allow time to defrost beef in the refrigerator. It is not recommended tobeef in the refrigerator. It is not recommended to defrost frozen meat in the microwave or underdefrost frozen meat in the microwave or under warm water, and frozen meat should never bewarm water, and frozen meat should never be defrosted at room temperature.defrosted at room temperature.
  24. 24. Spoilage IndicatorsSpoilage Indicators  The surface of beef will show the firstThe surface of beef will show the first signs of spoilage.signs of spoilage.  Beef that has started to spoil may be dullBeef that has started to spoil may be dull red; green or brown meat is alreadyred; green or brown meat is already spoiled and should be discarded.spoiled and should be discarded.  A sour odor and slimy texture are otherA sour odor and slimy texture are other signs that beef has deteriorated.signs that beef has deteriorated.  Damaged packaging can indicateDamaged packaging can indicate contaminationcontamination
  25. 25. AgingAging holding meats in controlled temperatures for an extendedholding meats in controlled temperatures for an extended period of time in order to maximize the flavor and tendernessperiod of time in order to maximize the flavor and tenderness of the meat, due to natural tenderizing or natural enzymaticof the meat, due to natural tenderizing or natural enzymatic process.process. ENZYMESENZYMES:: are naturally present in meats. They breakare naturally present in meats. They break down some connective tissue and other proteins asdown some connective tissue and other proteins as meat ages.meat ages. Enzymes action continues in muscle tissue even afterEnzymes action continues in muscle tissue even after meat is no longer green. This tenderizes the fleshmeat is no longer green. This tenderizes the flesh even more and develops more flavor.even more and develops more flavor. RIGOR MORTISRIGOR MORTIS:: stiffen of animal muscles due tostiffen of animal muscles due to chemical changes in the flesh, soon after slaughter.chemical changes in the flesh, soon after slaughter.
  26. 26. AgingAging  The process by which naturallyThe process by which naturally occurring enzymes (lactic acid)occurring enzymes (lactic acid) tenderize meat.tenderize meat.  As rigor mortis disappears, the meatAs rigor mortis disappears, the meat softens, or ripens, as a result ofsoftens, or ripens, as a result of enzymatic action. This process takesenzymatic action. This process takes up to several days for beef and mustup to several days for beef and must occur in a controlled, refrigeratedoccur in a controlled, refrigerated environment so that the meat does notenvironment so that the meat does not spoil.spoil.
  27. 27. METHODS OF AGING Dry AgingDry Aging  process involves hanging large, unpackagedprocess involves hanging large, unpackaged cuts of meat in a controlled environment for sixcuts of meat in a controlled environment for six weeks.weeks.  Temperature, humidity, and air flow must beTemperature, humidity, and air flow must be carefully monitored to prevent spoilage.carefully monitored to prevent spoilage.  Although costly, dry aging produces extremelyAlthough costly, dry aging produces extremely flavorful meat with a highly desirable texture.flavorful meat with a highly desirable texture.  shrinkage is a major drawback of this method,shrinkage is a major drawback of this method, with some cuts of meat losing as much as 20%with some cuts of meat losing as much as 20% of their weight through loss of moisture.of their weight through loss of moisture.  Meat aged by this method also can developMeat aged by this method also can develop mold, which requires trimming—a furthermold, which requires trimming—a further reduction in weight.reduction in weight.
  28. 28. METHODS OF AGING Vacuum-packed agingVacuum-packed aging  Also known as Cryovac® aging,Also known as Cryovac® aging,  this process stores smaller cuts of meat for sixthis process stores smaller cuts of meat for six weeks in air and moisture-proof plastic vacuumweeks in air and moisture-proof plastic vacuum packs that prevent the development of moldpacks that prevent the development of mold and bacteria.and bacteria.  microorganisms and natural enzymes tenderizemicroorganisms and natural enzymes tenderize the meat.the meat.  This aging method does not result in weightThis aging method does not result in weight loss, but the meats tend to lose more weightloss, but the meats tend to lose more weight than do dry-aged meats during cooking.than do dry-aged meats during cooking.
  29. 29. METHODS OF AGING  Fast AgingFast Aging  method uses higher temperaturesmethod uses higher temperatures to reduce the time required forto reduce the time required for aging.aging.  Ultraviolet light is used to controlUltraviolet light is used to control bacteria.bacteria.
  30. 30. FabricationFabrication  Beef and other meats are available for purchase in variousBeef and other meats are available for purchase in various forms: carcasses; partial carcasses; and primal, subprimal,forms: carcasses; partial carcasses; and primal, subprimal, and fabricated cuts.and fabricated cuts.  Labor, equipment, facilities, and menu uses determine theLabor, equipment, facilities, and menu uses determine the form purchased.form purchased.  The carcass is the whole animal after slaughter, withoutThe carcass is the whole animal after slaughter, without head, feet, hide, and entrails.head, feet, hide, and entrails.  It is typical to split a beef carcass into halves and then to cutIt is typical to split a beef carcass into halves and then to cut each half into a front portion, or forequarter, and a reareach half into a front portion, or forequarter, and a rear portion, or hindquarter.portion, or hindquarter.  A side or a quarter of beef represents a partial carcass.A side or a quarter of beef represents a partial carcass.  Carcasses and partial carcasses are market forms whoseCarcasses and partial carcasses are market forms whose use is not feasible in most foodservice operations.use is not feasible in most foodservice operations.  Only the largest operations are able to store and processOnly the largest operations are able to store and process these forms, reducing them to the preferred primal,these forms, reducing them to the preferred primal, subprimal, and fabricated cuts.subprimal, and fabricated cuts.
  31. 31.  Primal cutPrimal cut is a large, primary pieceis a large, primary piece of meat, sometimes called aof meat, sometimes called a wholesale cut.wholesale cut.  Subprimal cutSubprimal cut is a basic cut madeis a basic cut made from a primal cut.from a primal cut.  Fabricated cutFabricated cut is the smaller portionis the smaller portion taken from a subprimal cut, such astaken from a subprimal cut, such as a roast, steak, and ground.a roast, steak, and ground. FabricationFabrication
  32. 32. FabricationFabrication
  33. 33. FabricationFabrication
  34. 34. PRIMAL CUTSPRIMAL CUTS
  35. 35. Primal CutsPrimal Cuts
  36. 36. FABRICATED CUTSFABRICATED CUTS
  37. 37. Beef ForequarterBeef Forequarter  Primal cuts make up a forequarter ofPrimal cuts make up a forequarter of beef:beef:  chuck,chuck,  primal rib,primal rib,  brisket,brisket,  short plate,short plate,  foreshankforeshank A by-product of the forequarter isA by-product of the forequarter is the foreshank.the foreshank.
  38. 38. ChuckChuck  chuck comes from the animal’s shoulder.chuck comes from the animal’s shoulder.  includes part of the back bone and the first five rib bones asincludes part of the back bone and the first five rib bones as well as portions of arm bones and blade bones.well as portions of arm bones and blade bones.  chuck makes up nearly 30% of the weight of the beefchuck makes up nearly 30% of the weight of the beef carcass.carcass.  A fairly large proportion of the chuck is connective tissueA fairly large proportion of the chuck is connective tissue  Chuck has a great deal of flavor when prepared properly.Chuck has a great deal of flavor when prepared properly.  A moist technique or a combination method such asA moist technique or a combination method such as stewing or braising is appropriate for this cut.stewing or braising is appropriate for this cut.  Primal chuck yields various fabricated cuts: shoulder clod,Primal chuck yields various fabricated cuts: shoulder clod, chuck eye roll, chuck tender, triangle, chuck short ribs,chuck eye roll, chuck tender, triangle, chuck short ribs, cubed or tenderized steaks, stew meat, and ground chuck.cubed or tenderized steaks, stew meat, and ground chuck.
  39. 39. Primal RibPrimal Rib  This primal cut comprises about 10% of the carcass weight.This primal cut comprises about 10% of the carcass weight.  It includes ribs 6 through 12 and some of the back bone.It includes ribs 6 through 12 and some of the back bone.  it is not well-exercised muscle, it is tender, owing its richit is not well-exercised muscle, it is tender, owing its rich flavor to extensive marbling.flavor to extensive marbling.  Primal rib cuts benefit from dry cooking methods such asPrimal rib cuts benefit from dry cooking methods such as roasting, broiling, and grilling.roasting, broiling, and grilling.  Moist heat is the preferred method for short ribs.Moist heat is the preferred method for short ribs.  Fabricated cuts taken from the primal rib include rib roast,Fabricated cuts taken from the primal rib include rib roast, boneless rib eye, short ribs, and rib eye steaks.boneless rib eye, short ribs, and rib eye steaks.  Rib roast, better known as prime rib, is an extremely popularRib roast, better known as prime rib, is an extremely popular meat dish.meat dish.
  40. 40. BrisketBrisket  Located below the chuck, the brisket constitutesLocated below the chuck, the brisket constitutes a single primal cut.a single primal cut.  This cut consists of the breast (brisket) of theThis cut consists of the breast (brisket) of the animal, including the rib bones and cartilage, andanimal, including the rib bones and cartilage, and the breast bone.the breast bone.  A combination technique such as braising is anA combination technique such as braising is an excellent choice for beef brisket, which is veryexcellent choice for beef brisket, which is very tough.tough.  Curing, another method of preparation forCuring, another method of preparation for brisket, is the method used to produce cornedbrisket, is the method used to produce corned beef.beef.  Fabricated cuts from this primal cut includeFabricated cuts from this primal cut include boneless brisket and ground meat.boneless brisket and ground meat.
  41. 41. Short PlateShort Plate  Short plate is the cut below primal rib on a sideShort plate is the cut below primal rib on a side of beef.of beef.  It contains rib bones and cartilage and the tip ofIt contains rib bones and cartilage and the tip of the breast bone.the breast bone.  Fabricated cuts from the short plate includeFabricated cuts from the short plate include ground beef, skirt steak, and short ribs.ground beef, skirt steak, and short ribs.  Moist cooking is appropriate for short ribs, whichMoist cooking is appropriate for short ribs, which are quite meaty but also contain a large amountare quite meaty but also contain a large amount of connective tissue.of connective tissue.  Marination and grilling are excellent methods forMarination and grilling are excellent methods for skirt steak, which is sliced for fajitas.skirt steak, which is sliced for fajitas.
  42. 42. ForeshankForeshank  foreshank is considered a by-product of theforeshank is considered a by-product of the beef forequarter and may be attached to thebeef forequarter and may be attached to the chuck when purchased.chuck when purchased.  The rich flavor of the foreshank and itsThe rich flavor of the foreshank and its abundant collagen, which turns to gelatin withabundant collagen, which turns to gelatin with moist heat,make it a choice ingredient inmoist heat,make it a choice ingredient in stocks and soups.stocks and soups.  Fabricated cuts include stew meat and groundFabricated cuts include stew meat and ground beef.beef.
  43. 43. Beef HindquarterBeef Hindquarter  A beef hindquarter also yields fourA beef hindquarter also yields four primal cuts:primal cuts:  short loin,short loin,  sirloin,sirloin,  round,round,  flank.flank.
  44. 44. Short LoinShort Loin  The short loin is the first primal cut of theThe short loin is the first primal cut of the hindquarter, forming the front portion of thehindquarter, forming the front portion of the beef loin. It includes one rib and part of thebeef loin. It includes one rib and part of the back bone.back bone.  The yield of this primal cut is substantial andThe yield of this primal cut is substantial and represents the most palatable and popular, asrepresents the most palatable and popular, as well as the most expensive, cuts of beef.well as the most expensive, cuts of beef.  Among these is the tenderloin, the most tenderAmong these is the tenderloin, the most tender piece of beef.piece of beef.  Fabricated cuts from the short loin include clubFabricated cuts from the short loin include club steaks, T-bone steaks, porterhouse steaks, stripsteaks, T-bone steaks, porterhouse steaks, strip loin, strip loin steaks, and short tenderloin.loin, strip loin steaks, and short tenderloin.  These cuts are best cooked using dry methods.These cuts are best cooked using dry methods.
  45. 45. SirloinSirloin  Located next to the short loin, the sirloinLocated next to the short loin, the sirloin contains a portion of both the back bone andcontains a portion of both the back bone and the hip bone.the hip bone.  The subprimal and fabricated cuts taken fromThe subprimal and fabricated cuts taken from the sirloin have good flavor and are quitethe sirloin have good flavor and are quite tender, though not as tender as the short lointender, though not as tender as the short loin cuts.cuts.  Fabricated cuts from the sirloin include topFabricated cuts from the sirloin include top sirloin roasts and steaks and top and bottomsirloin roasts and steaks and top and bottom sirloin butt roasts and steaks.sirloin butt roasts and steaks.  The dry techniques of broiling, roasting, andThe dry techniques of broiling, roasting, and grilling are best for these cuts.grilling are best for these cuts.
  46. 46. RoundRound  The round is the hind leg of the animal,The round is the hind leg of the animal, including the round, aitch, shank, and tail bones.including the round, aitch, shank, and tail bones.  It is an extremely large cut, constitutingIt is an extremely large cut, constituting approximately 24% of the carcass weight.approximately 24% of the carcass weight.  Very flavorful and fairly tender, the round yieldsVery flavorful and fairly tender, the round yields various subprimal and fabricated cuts, includingvarious subprimal and fabricated cuts, including top round, bottom round (eye of round andtop round, bottom round (eye of round and outside round), knuckle, heel, and shank.outside round), knuckle, heel, and shank.  Dry cooking such as roasting is appropriate forDry cooking such as roasting is appropriate for top round, which is relatively tender.top round, which is relatively tender.  The tougher bottom round benefits fromThe tougher bottom round benefits from combination cooking such as stewing orcombination cooking such as stewing or braising.braising.
  47. 47. FlankFlank  Beneath the loin and behind the shortBeneath the loin and behind the short plate is the flank.plate is the flank.  The flank contains a good amount ofThe flank contains a good amount of fat and connective tissue, which makesfat and connective tissue, which makes it tough.it tough.  The flank yields flank steak.The flank yields flank steak.  Moist cooking techniques are best forMoist cooking techniques are best for flank cuts except when flank steak isflank cuts except when flank steak is prepared as London broil and cut thinlyprepared as London broil and cut thinly across the grain.across the grain.
  48. 48. VARIETY OF MEATSVARIETY OF MEATS  VARIETY MEATS-VARIETY MEATS- also called offals,also called offals, includes various organs, glands, and otherincludes various organs, glands, and other meats that don’t form a part of a dressedmeats that don’t form a part of a dressed carcass of the animals.carcass of the animals.  Glandular meatsGlandular meats – liver, kidneys,– liver, kidneys, sweetbreads, brains.sweetbreads, brains.  Muscle meatsMuscle meats – heart, tripe tongue,– heart, tripe tongue, oxtails.oxtails.
  49. 49. GLANDULAR MEATSGLANDULAR MEATS  LiverLiver – calf or veal liver is the most prized. Because it is tender and– calf or veal liver is the most prized. Because it is tender and delicate in flavor.delicate in flavor. Pale, pinkish color.Pale, pinkish color. Served – sauteed, fried, broiled.Served – sauteed, fried, broiled. beef liver is darker in color, tougher, and has a strong flavor than vealbeef liver is darker in color, tougher, and has a strong flavor than veal liver.liver. Served – pan fried, broiled, braised.Served – pan fried, broiled, braised.  KidneyKidney – veal and lamb kidneys are most popular in elegant restaurants.– veal and lamb kidneys are most popular in elegant restaurants. Served – sauteed, broiled.Served – sauteed, broiled. Beef kidneys – stronger flavor tougher, and darker color. Served –Beef kidneys – stronger flavor tougher, and darker color. Served – braisedbraised  SweetbreadsSweetbreads – thymus glands of calves or young animals, considered– thymus glands of calves or young animals, considered delicacy and expensive. Very mild in flavor, and delicate in texture.delicacy and expensive. Very mild in flavor, and delicate in texture. Served – braised, breaded and fried or sauteed in butter.Served – braised, breaded and fried or sauteed in butter.  BrainsBrains – not popular item but very delicate in flavor and texture. Very– not popular item but very delicate in flavor and texture. Very perishable and cooked as soon as possible.perishable and cooked as soon as possible. Served - pan fried in brown butter, breaded and fried serve with tomatoServed - pan fried in brown butter, breaded and fried serve with tomato sauce.sauce.
  50. 50. Muscular MeatsMuscular Meats HeartHeart – usually from veal or beef, very tough– usually from veal or beef, very tough and lean. It can be braised or simmer, orand lean. It can be braised or simmer, or ground and added to other chopped meatsground and added to other chopped meats for casserole dishes.for casserole dishes. Beef tongueBeef tongue – very tough, but softens in moist– very tough, but softens in moist heat. Can be served cold, smoked, braised orheat. Can be served cold, smoked, braised or cured.cured. OxtailsOxtails – very flavorful and a rich gelatin– very flavorful and a rich gelatin content. It can be served in soups or braised.content. It can be served in soups or braised. TripeTripe – muscular stomach lining, of beef, lamb,– muscular stomach lining, of beef, lamb, and pork. Honeycomb tripe is the mostand pork. Honeycomb tripe is the most popular.popular. It can be served in soups or braised.It can be served in soups or braised.
  51. 51. FabricationFabrication  Meats can be purchased in numerous ways.Meats can be purchased in numerous ways.  This decision depends on a variety of factors;This decision depends on a variety of factors;  butchering skillsbutchering skills  available storage spaceavailable storage space  use of meat, bones, and trimmings on theuse of meat, bones, and trimmings on the menumenu  and cost per portion, including labor.and cost per portion, including labor.  Primal cuts can be fabricated into smaller cutsPrimal cuts can be fabricated into smaller cuts such as chops, roasts, steaks, stew beef ,andsuch as chops, roasts, steaks, stew beef ,and ground beef.ground beef.
  52. 52. PORKPORK
  53. 53. Quality Characteristics, Inspection, and Grading  Pork comes from young pigs between six months and one year of age. It is therefore naturally tender, making aging unnecessary. Quality pork should have firm flesh, tender texture, and an even covering of fat.  Inspection of pork by the USDA/FSIS is mandatory, as it is for other meats.  The USDA does not issue a quality grade for pork because quality at the foodservice level is generally consistent. Pork yield grades, which range from 1 to 4, apply to carcasses only.  A carcass with an appropriate proportion of fat to edible meat earns Yield Grade 1.  Most pork is sold already cut and trimmed and does not carry a yield grade.
  54. 54. Receiving PorkReceiving Pork  Check pork upon receiving to ensure that it is clean andCheck pork upon receiving to ensure that it is clean and meets specifications.meets specifications.  Verify that inspection has taken place. Examine theVerify that inspection has taken place. Examine the packaging to make sure that it is intact. Torn orpackaging to make sure that it is intact. Torn or otherwise damaged packaging can be a sign ofotherwise damaged packaging can be a sign of contamination. Leakage is another danger sign.contamination. Leakage is another danger sign.  Check the meat’s temperature, color, odor, and texture.Check the meat’s temperature, color, odor, and texture. At delivery, the temperature of pork, like that of otherAt delivery, the temperature of pork, like that of other meats, should be 41°F (5°C) or lower.meats, should be 41°F (5°C) or lower.  The meat should have a light pink to reddish color, andThe meat should have a light pink to reddish color, and the fat should appear white. There should be nothe fat should appear white. There should be no perceptible odor.perceptible odor.  Meat texture should be firm, neither dry nor slick. RejectMeat texture should be firm, neither dry nor slick. Reject pork that fails to meet these quality and safetypork that fails to meet these quality and safety standards or specifications.standards or specifications.
  55. 55. Storing PorkStoring Pork  Store pork immediately upon delivery, holdingStore pork immediately upon delivery, holding fresh meat at 41°F (5°C) or lower and frozen meat atfresh meat at 41°F (5°C) or lower and frozen meat at a temperature that will keep it frozen, usuallya temperature that will keep it frozen, usually between 0°F–10°F (-18°C–-12°C). Use airtightbetween 0°F–10°F (-18°C–-12°C). Use airtight wrapping for both fresh and frozen pork.wrapping for both fresh and frozen pork.  Packaging for frozen pork should also be moisture-Packaging for frozen pork should also be moisture- proof to prevent freezer burn.proof to prevent freezer burn.  Store raw pork away from other foods, in trays andStore raw pork away from other foods, in trays and on the bottom shelves of the storage unit to avoidon the bottom shelves of the storage unit to avoid cross-contamination from drippings.cross-contamination from drippings.  Use fresh pork sausage within one to two days ofUse fresh pork sausage within one to two days of receiving and fresh pork roasts and chops withinreceiving and fresh pork roasts and chops within two to five days.two to five days.  Frozen pork has a shelf life of three months. ThawFrozen pork has a shelf life of three months. Thaw frozen pork in the refrigerator at 41°F (5°C) or lowerfrozen pork in the refrigerator at 41°F (5°C) or lower
  56. 56. Spoilage IndicatorsSpoilage Indicators  Spoiled pork may have a darkSpoiled pork may have a dark color, appearing brown, green, orcolor, appearing brown, green, or purple or displaying black, green,purple or displaying black, green, or white spots. The fat may beor white spots. The fat may be sticky or slimy, and the pork maysticky or slimy, and the pork may have a sour odor.have a sour odor.  Damaged packaging may point toDamaged packaging may point to spoilage. Discard spoiled porkspoilage. Discard spoiled pork immediately.immediately.
  57. 57. Foodborne Illness AssociatedFoodborne Illness Associated with Porkwith Pork  Improperly handled or prepared pork can transmit variousImproperly handled or prepared pork can transmit various bacterial, viral, and parasitic illnesses.bacterial, viral, and parasitic illnesses.  Bacteria in pork can cause salmonellosis, listeriosis,Bacteria in pork can cause salmonellosis, listeriosis, enteritis, and gastroenteritis. As a result of poor hygieneenteritis, and gastroenteritis. As a result of poor hygiene of workers or lack of refrigeration, ham can become theof workers or lack of refrigeration, ham can become the prime breeding ground for staphylococcal food poisoningprime breeding ground for staphylococcal food poisoning (enterotoxicosis), another illness caused by bacteria.(enterotoxicosis), another illness caused by bacteria.  Pork is also frequently the source of the bacteriaPork is also frequently the source of the bacteria responsible for yersiniosis.responsible for yersiniosis.  Poor personal hygiene can contaminate cold cutsPoor personal hygiene can contaminate cold cuts containing pork and cause the virus hepatitis A.containing pork and cause the virus hepatitis A.  Undercooked pork, including pork sausage, can harborUndercooked pork, including pork sausage, can harbor the parasite roundworm, the ingestion of which causes anthe parasite roundworm, the ingestion of which causes an infection calledinfection called trichinosistrichinosis.. Also linked with undercookedAlso linked with undercooked pork ispork is toxoplasmosistoxoplasmosis,, an illness caused by protozoanan illness caused by protozoan parasites.parasites.
  58. 58. Processing PorkProcessing Pork  Although fresh pork is popular, it actuallyAlthough fresh pork is popular, it actually accounts for only a small amount of theaccounts for only a small amount of the pork consumed in the United States.pork consumed in the United States.  Processed pork products are moreProcessed pork products are more common. About 70% of a pork carcasscommon. About 70% of a pork carcass undergoes some kind of processing.undergoes some kind of processing.  ProcessingProcessing is the act of changing food byis the act of changing food by artificial means.artificial means.  Curing and smokingCuring and smoking are commonare common processing methods for pork, producingprocessing methods for pork, producing bacon, ham, and other food items.bacon, ham, and other food items.
  59. 59. CuringCuring  Curing uses salt, sugar, spices, flavoring, and nitrites to preserve pork.  Cured pork holds its flavor longer than fresh pork and resists spoilage better.  The curing process also changes the color and  flavor of pork. Cured ham, for instance, acquires an appealing pink color from nitrites. Methods of Curing:Methods of Curing:  Dry Curing  Pickle Curing  Injection Curing  Sugar Curing
  60. 60. METHODS OF CURINGMETHODS OF CURING  Dry curingDry curing, involves rubbing, involves rubbing seasonings such as salt on the pork,seasonings such as salt on the pork, covering the meat’s entire surface, andcovering the meat’s entire surface, and storing the meat under refrigerationstoring the meat under refrigeration until it absorbs the seasonings.until it absorbs the seasonings.  Pickle curingPickle curing, involves submerging, involves submerging pork inpork in brine -brine - a mixture of water, salt,a mixture of water, salt, and other seasonings until the mixand other seasonings until the mix completely penetrates the meat.completely penetrates the meat.
  61. 61. METHODS OF CURINGMETHODS OF CURING  Injection curingInjection curing In this method brine isIn this method brine is injected directly into the pork toinjected directly into the pork to distributedistribute  it quickly and evenly.it quickly and evenly.  Sugar curingSugar curing Sugar curing involvesSugar curing involves covering pork with brine sweetenedcovering pork with brine sweetened with brown sugarwith brown sugar  or molasses.or molasses.
  62. 62. SmokingSmoking SmokingSmoking, exposes pork to the smoke of fragrant hardwoods, such as hickory, to enhance its flavor and sometimes to cook it.  It is common to smoke ham and bacon after curing them.  The application of salt or brine helps the smoke enter and spread through the meat.
  63. 63. IrradiationIrradiation  Because microorganisms that cause illness oftenBecause microorganisms that cause illness often remain on meat during processing, changes haveremain on meat during processing, changes have been made in the methods of processing meat.been made in the methods of processing meat.  The FDA has approved the use of irradiation toThe FDA has approved the use of irradiation to eliminate potentially harmful microorganisms ineliminate potentially harmful microorganisms in pork.pork.  Irradiation exposes pork to moderate levels ofIrradiation exposes pork to moderate levels of radiation, destroying the cells that can causeradiation, destroying the cells that can cause spoilage.spoilage.  Radiation does not cook pork, nor does it have anRadiation does not cook pork, nor does it have an adverse effect on its appearance, taste, or nutritionaladverse effect on its appearance, taste, or nutritional value.value.  As effective as it is in enhancing food safety,As effective as it is in enhancing food safety, irradiation is not, however, a substitute for properirradiation is not, however, a substitute for proper handling and storage of meat.handling and storage of meat.
  64. 64. SkeletalSkeletal StructureStructure of a Pigof a Pig
  65. 65. PORK PRIMAL CUTSPORK PRIMAL CUTS
  66. 66. Primal Cuts of PorkPrimal Cuts of Pork Boston buttBoston butt Picnic shoulderPicnic shoulder LoinLoin BellyBelly Ham.Ham. LoinLoin
  67. 67.  Boston Butt Just above the shoulder isBoston Butt Just above the shoulder is the square cut known as the Boston butt.the square cut known as the Boston butt.  This primal cut is high in fat and containsThis primal cut is high in fat and contains only a small piece of the blade bone.only a small piece of the blade bone.  Boston butt is served smoked and bonedBoston butt is served smoked and boned as a cottage ham and used in sausages,as a cottage ham and used in sausages, ground pork, and cold cuts.ground pork, and cold cuts. Pork shoulderPork shoulder Boston buttBoston butt
  68. 68.  picnic shoulder, also known as the picnic ham, forms the lowerpicnic shoulder, also known as the picnic ham, forms the lower part of the foreleg.part of the foreleg.  It contains the arm and shank bones and makes up about 20% ofIt contains the arm and shank bones and makes up about 20% of the carcass weight.the carcass weight.  As a fairly frequently exercised muscle, the picnic shoulder isAs a fairly frequently exercised muscle, the picnic shoulder is one of the toughest cuts of pork and is suited to various cookingone of the toughest cuts of pork and is suited to various cooking methods.methods.  The high fat content of shoulder makes it excellent for roasting.The high fat content of shoulder makes it excellent for roasting. Fabrication and further processing produce fresh and smokedFabrication and further processing produce fresh and smoked picnic hams from this primal cut.picnic hams from this primal cut.  Boned and cut into smaller pieces, shoulder meat also benefitsBoned and cut into smaller pieces, shoulder meat also benefits from sautéing, braising, or stewing.from sautéing, braising, or stewing.  The foreshank, or shoulder hock, adds rich flavor to soups andThe foreshank, or shoulder hock, adds rich flavor to soups and stews when simmered or braised.stews when simmered or braised. Pork PicnicPork Picnic shouldershoulder
  69. 69.  LoinLoin includes the entire rib section as well asincludes the entire rib section as well as the loin and partthe loin and part  of the sirloin.of the sirloin.  Containing all the ribs, most of the backbone,Containing all the ribs, most of the backbone, and parts of the hipbone and blade bone, theand parts of the hipbone and blade bone, the loin makes up about 20% of the carcass weight.loin makes up about 20% of the carcass weight.  Many popular fabricated cuts come from theMany popular fabricated cuts come from the loin, including loin roasts, loin chops, backribs,loin, including loin roasts, loin chops, backribs, and the most tender cut of all, pork tenderloin.and the most tender cut of all, pork tenderloin.  Loin cuts lend themselves to a variety ofLoin cuts lend themselves to a variety of cooking techniques.cooking techniques.  Dry cooking methods, such as roasting andDry cooking methods, such as roasting and sautéing, are ideal for pork loin.sautéing, are ideal for pork loin. LoinLoin
  70. 70. Loin chops are extremely popular, the bestLoin chops are extremely popular, the best being the center-cut chops.being the center-cut chops. Loin chops are also sometimes cured andLoin chops are also sometimes cured and smoked.smoked. LOINLOIN
  71. 71. Tenderloin is often served grilledTenderloin is often served grilled or roasted, or it is cut intoor roasted, or it is cut into medallions for sautéing.medallions for sautéing. LOINLOIN
  72. 72. LOINLOIN Boneless pork loin is smoked to makeBoneless pork loin is smoked to make Canadian bacon.Canadian bacon. Pork loinPork loin Canadian baconCanadian bacon
  73. 73. LOINLOIN Barbecuing is the preferred techniqueBarbecuing is the preferred technique for pork backribs.for pork backribs.
  74. 74. BELLY  Belly is also a large primal cut, accounting for 16% of the carcass weight. It is very fatty and contains little lean meat.  The belly and brisket spareribs are fabricated from the belly.  The remaining meat is used for bacon, the market forms of which include slab, layout, shingle, and bulk.  Spareribs are available fresh or smoked.  The usual method of preparation is simmering followed by baking or grilling.  Long, slow cooking in commercial smoking ovens or barbecue pits creates particularly succulent spareribs.  Bacon generally undergoes curing and smoking. Pan- frying, Griddling, and baking are the customary techniques for cooking bacon.
  75. 75. BELLYBELLY Bacon slabBacon slab Pork spareribsPork spareribs Pork spareribs St. LouisPork spareribs St. Louis
  76. 76. HamHam  HamHam is a portion of the pig’s hind leg. As part of the leg, it includes large muscles with scant connective tissue. Also containing the aitch, the leg, and the hind shank bones, the ham makes up approximately 24% of the carcass weight.
  77. 77. HamHam  Fresh hams can be purchased with the bone in, boneless, or with the shank removed and prepared either by roasting or baking.  Braising, stewing, or simmering is appropriate for the shank, or ham hock.
  78. 78. HamHam Cured hams, such as prosciutto, and smoked hams, such as Westphalian and Smithfield hams, are popular varieties, and fresh ham makes an excellent roast.
  79. 79. Trimming andTrimming and Boning a Pork LoinBoning a Pork Loin Using a boning knife, cut along the hip bone and backbone to loosen the tenderloin. Cut downward along the backbone to free the tenderloin.
  80. 80. Trimming andTrimming and Boning a Pork LoinBoning a Pork Loin Remove the tenderloin.Remove the tenderloin. Starting at the chuck end of theStarting at the chuck end of the tenderloin, separate the meattenderloin, separate the meat from the ribs, cutting as closefrom the ribs, cutting as close to the bones as possible.to the bones as possible.
  81. 81. Trimming andTrimming and Boning a Pork LoinBoning a Pork Loin Cut under the muscle toCut under the muscle to release it from the featherrelease it from the feather bones.bones. Continue cutting alongContinue cutting along the loin, removing thethe loin, removing the meat from the backbone.meat from the backbone.
  82. 82. Trimming andTrimming and Boning a Pork LoinBoning a Pork Loin Cut along the hip bone toCut along the hip bone to release the sirloin end.release the sirloin end. A fully boned tenderloinA fully boned tenderloin should look like the oneshould look like the one shown here.shown here.
  83. 83. LAMBLAMB
  84. 84. LAMBLAMB  A lamb is a young animal belonging to theA lamb is a young animal belonging to the genusgenus OvisOvis, which includes both, which includes both domesticated and wild sheep.domesticated and wild sheep.  There are several terms for the meat of ovineThere are several terms for the meat of ovine animals. Each indicates a specific level ofanimals. Each indicates a specific level of muscle and bone development.muscle and bone development.  LambLamb is meat from sheep under one year ofis meat from sheep under one year of age.age.  MuttonMutton is meat from mature sheep. Sheepis meat from mature sheep. Sheep reach maturity at one year.reach maturity at one year.  YearlingYearling is a sheep between 12 and 20is a sheep between 12 and 20 months old. It produces yearling mutton.months old. It produces yearling mutton.
  85. 85. Types of LambTypes of Lamb  Age at the time of slaughter and period ofAge at the time of slaughter and period of production determine various types of lamb.production determine various types of lamb.  Baby lambBaby lamb refers to meat from lamb sent torefers to meat from lamb sent to market before weaning, usually between 6 andmarket before weaning, usually between 6 and 10 weeks old. Another term for baby lamb is10 weeks old. Another term for baby lamb is hothouse lamb.hothouse lamb.  Genuine lambGenuine lamb is meat from a sheep less thanis meat from a sheep less than one year old.one year old.  Spring lambSpring lamb is 3 to 5 months old and isis 3 to 5 months old and is produced between March and October. Springproduced between March and October. Spring lamb is milk-fed.lamb is milk-fed.
  86. 86. Quality Characteristics,Quality Characteristics, Inspection, and GradingInspection, and Grading  Lamb is tender but has a firm, fine texture. Its color rangesLamb is tender but has a firm, fine texture. Its color ranges from light to darker, and it should exhibit good marbling.from light to darker, and it should exhibit good marbling.  Like beef, lamb can be aged for additional tenderizing. AgingLike beef, lamb can be aged for additional tenderizing. Aging also helps develop the flavor of lamb.also helps develop the flavor of lamb.  The USDA/FSIS requires inspection of lamb, as for otherThe USDA/FSIS requires inspection of lamb, as for other meats.meats.  USDA quality grades for lamb are :USDA quality grades for lamb are :  Prime, Choice, Good, Utility, and Cull.Prime, Choice, Good, Utility, and Cull.  With more marbling and external fat than the other grades,With more marbling and external fat than the other grades, Prime lamb is more tender and flavorful.Prime lamb is more tender and flavorful.  Ground or processed lamb usually carries a USDA Utility orGround or processed lamb usually carries a USDA Utility or Cull grade.Cull grade.  Yield grades for lamb range from Yield Grade 1 to YieldYield grades for lamb range from Yield Grade 1 to Yield Grade 5.Grade 5.  Like beef, lamb may receive only a quality grade, only a yieldLike beef, lamb may receive only a quality grade, only a yield grade, or both.grade, or both.
  87. 87. Handling LambHandling Lamb  Although foodservice establishmentsAlthough foodservice establishments rely on USDA inspection standardsrely on USDA inspection standards as a guarantee of lamb’s fitness foras a guarantee of lamb’s fitness for consumption after slaughter, it isconsumption after slaughter, it is important to observe quality andimportant to observe quality and safety standards for meat purchasedsafety standards for meat purchased and handled.and handled.
  88. 88. Receiving LambReceiving Lamb  On receiving, inspect lamb carefully to make sure itOn receiving, inspect lamb carefully to make sure it is safe and to the quality specified.is safe and to the quality specified.  Verify that the meat has passed governmentVerify that the meat has passed government inspection.inspection.  Packaging should be intact, without tears or otherPackaging should be intact, without tears or other damage that could cause contamination.damage that could cause contamination.  Check the meat’s temperature, color, odor, andCheck the meat’s temperature, color, odor, and  texture. Lamb, like other meats, should be 41°Ftexture. Lamb, like other meats, should be 41°F (5°C) or lower at delivery.(5°C) or lower at delivery.  The meat should have a light red color, and the fatThe meat should have a light red color, and the fat should be white.should be white.  There should not be an unpleasant odor.There should not be an unpleasant odor.  The meat should not feel slimy or dry but shouldThe meat should not feel slimy or dry but should have a firm texture.have a firm texture.
  89. 89. Storing LambStoring Lamb  Follow the usual meat storage guidelines, but be aware thatFollow the usual meat storage guidelines, but be aware that fresh lamb spoils quickly even when kept chilled. Immediatelyfresh lamb spoils quickly even when kept chilled. Immediately after delivery, store fresh lamb at 41°F (5°C) or lower.after delivery, store fresh lamb at 41°F (5°C) or lower.  Freeze or keep lamb frozen between 0°F–10°F (-18°C–-12°C)Freeze or keep lamb frozen between 0°F–10°F (-18°C–-12°C) or lower.or lower.  Use airtight wrapping for fresh lamb and both airtight andUse airtight wrapping for fresh lamb and both airtight and moisture-proof packaging for frozen lamb to prevent freezermoisture-proof packaging for frozen lamb to prevent freezer burn.burn.  Always store raw lamb apart from other foods, using traysAlways store raw lamb apart from other foods, using trays and the bottom shelves of storage units to prevent cross-and the bottom shelves of storage units to prevent cross- contamination.contamination.  Use fresh lamb within three to five days, unless purchased inUse fresh lamb within three to five days, unless purchased in vacuum packaging, which allows lamb to be stored for longervacuum packaging, which allows lamb to be stored for longer periods of time.periods of time.  Keep frozen lamb no longer than six to nine months for bestKeep frozen lamb no longer than six to nine months for best quality.quality.  Thaw frozen lamb in the refrigerator at 41°F (5°C) or lower.Thaw frozen lamb in the refrigerator at 41°F (5°C) or lower.
  90. 90. Spoilage IndicatorsSpoilage Indicators  Spoiled lamb may look brown instead of pink or light red.  The surface of the lean meat may appear white.  The fat may be soft and yellow in color, and the meat may be dry or slimy to the touch.  The odor of the meat may seem off.  Damaged packaging is often a sign of spoilage.
  91. 91. SkeletalSkeletal structurestructure of lambof lamb
  92. 92. FABRICATIONFABRICATION lamb carcass is divided between the ribs into the foresaddle and the hindsaddle. Foresaddle yields three primal cuts, Hindsaddle produces two. Each primal cut contains both halves, or sides, of the arcass.
  93. 93.  The End!The End!  Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor propertyDisclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rightsof this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.reserved to the owner.  Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecityDon't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity  Thank You!Thank You!

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