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lecture over solutions, solubility, and colligative properties

lecture over solutions, solubility, and colligative properties



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    Solutions Solutions Presentation Transcript

    • Solutions Test on Friday March 4
    • What is a solution ?
      • A homogeneous mixture
      • Composed of a solute dissolved in a solvent
      Solute Solvent
    • How is a solution formed?
      • Through the process of
      • Solute particles separate from each other and mix with the solvent
      • particles
      • Solvent particles
      • surround the solute
      • particles and pull
      • them away from other
      • solute particles
    • Solute and Solvent
      • Solvent
        • Does the dissolving
        • Greater quantity (usually)
      • Solute
        • What is dissolved
        • Lesser quantity (usually)
    • Like dissolves like
      • Baking soda will dissolve in water, but not in oil…..why?
      • “ Like dissolves like” refers to the bonding and polarity of the particles in the solute and solvent
      • Polar means a substance
      • has a positive and a
      • negative end
      • Ionic compounds
    • Ionic compounds in solution Cl - Na + Cl - Na + Na + Cl - Cl -
    • Solubility
      • Only a certain amount of solute can dissolve in a solvent under a certain set of conditions
      • When too much solute is added to a solution at that temperature, the excess solute will crystallize
      • and fall out of solution
      • Solubility is the maximum
      • amount of a solute that
      • dissolves in a solvent at
      • a given temperature
    • Saturation
      • A saturated solution
        • contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
        • for a given amount of solvent
        • at a specific temperature and pressure
    • Supersaturation
      • A supersaturated solution
        • contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution
        • at the same temperature.
    • Solubility Curves Shows how much solute will dissolve in 100 g of water at a certain temperature The line represents the saturated amount of solute Underneath the line represents an unsaturated amount Above the line represents a supersaturated amount
      • Which substance is most soluble at 40°C?
      • How many grams of NH 4 Cl will dissolve at 50°C?
      • What two substances have the same solubility at 24°C?
      • If you place 70 grams of KBr into 100g of water at 60°C, what
      type of solution have you made?
      • How many grams of NaNO 3 will dissolve in 300.0g of water at
      10.0°C? NaNO 3 ~ 50 grams Yb 2 (SO 4 ) 3 KNO 3 unsaturated ~ 240 grams (80 x 3)
    • Increasing Solubility - Solids
      • Increase the temperature
        • Why? Increases the amount of solute-solvent collisions and increases speed and energy of particles
      • Agitate the solution (stir)
        • Why? Brings more
        • solvent particles closer to
        • the solute
      • Decrease the particle size
        • Increases the surface area
        • of the solute, making it
        • easier for solvent particles to
        • surround the solute
    • Increasing Solubility – Gases
      • Decrease the temperature
      • Increase the pressure
      • If you increase the pressure,
      • think of pressing the gas
      • particles into the liquid.
      • Increasing pressure always
      • increases the amount of
      • gas that can be dissolved
      • in a liquid.
    • Rate of Solvation
      • Greater solubility = Faster solvation
      • The same factors that increase solubility, increase the rate of solvation
    • Concentration
      • The larger the ratio of solute to solvent becomes, the more concentrated the solution is.
      • Concentrated – large ratio of solute to solvent
      • Dilute – small ratio of solute to solvent
    • Rates of Reaction
      • Concentration affects the rate of reaction
      • Concentrated solutions react faster than dilute solutions
    • Molarity
      • Most commonly used in chemistry
      • Abbreviated as M
      • Moles of solute in per liter of solution
      M = moles of solute Liters of solution
    • Electrolytes
      • Electrolyte – ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts an electric current
      • – electrolyte
      • – non-electrolyte
      NaCl Sugar How many moles of ions are produced by dissolving 1 mole of NaCl in water?
    • Colligative Properties
      • Colligative - depending on the collection
      • Properties dependent on concentration , number of particles present
    • Boiling Point Elevation
      • When vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure, water boils
      • More particles = lower vapor pressure
      • Lower vapor pressure = higher boiling point
      • More particles = higher boiling point
      Which raises boiling point more, 1 mole of NaCl in water, or 1 mole of sugar in water?
    • Freezing Point Depression
      • Solute particles interfere with attraction between solvent particles
      • More particles = lower freezing point
    • Osmosis
      • Osmosis – diffusion of solvent across a semi-permeable barrier
      • Solvent goes from:
        • Area of more solvent -> Area of less solvent
    • Osmosis Semi-permeable barrier Pure Solvent Solution
    • Osmosis and Concentration
      • Higher concentration = more osmotic pressure
    • Osmosis and you
    • Colligative Properties Review Atmosphere Vapor Pressure
    • Miscible and Immiscible
      • Substances that are miscible will dissolve in each other.
        • Example: alchohol and water
      • Substances that are immiscible will mix but immediately separate.
        • Example: oil and vinegar