Dwarf Planets Solar System Debris
Planets vs Dwarf Planets <ul><li>Planets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbits the Sun directly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive ...
Official Dwarf Planets <ul><li>1. Ceres – discovered on January 1, 1801 (45 years before Neptune),  </li></ul><ul><li>2. P...
The Dwarf Planets in Comparison Name Diameter relative to Luna Mass relative to Luna Density (Kg/m 3 ) Temperature (K) Orb...
Ceres <ul><li>Found in the asteroid belt in 1801 </li></ul><ul><li>Considered a planet for half a century before reclassif...
Ceres - The numbers <ul><ul><li>Contains 1/3 the total mass  of all the asteroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbital Perio...
Ceres – Discovery <ul><li>Possibility of its existence first suggested in 1772 </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1801 by Giu...
Ceres - Characteristics  <ul><li>Surface like a C-class asteroid </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly differentiated interior? </li>...
The Dawn Mission <ul><li>Will study asteroids Vesta and Ceres </li></ul><ul><li>Will arrive at Vesta in July 2011 </li></u...
Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO) <ul><li>AKA: Trans-Neptunian Objects  (TNO) </li></ul><ul><li>Comet-like material </li></ul><ul>...
Pluto <ul><li>Considered the 9 th  planet from 1930 to 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Classified as a planet for 76 years.  </li><...
Pluto - Discovery <ul><li>Observations of Neptune showed that something was perturbing its orbit </li></ul><ul><li>In 1906...
Pluto - Discovery
Pluto in the blink comparator
Pluto -  The numbers <ul><ul><li>Orbital Period: 248 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-major axis: 39 AU </li></ul></u...
Pluto – The Orbit <ul><li>Highly eccentric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside Neptune from 79-99 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tilted 1...
Pluto – What is it really? <ul><li>Highly eccentric orbit </li></ul><ul><li>+Atmosphere thaws and freezes depending on dis...
Haumea  <ul><li>A plutoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dwarf planets beyond Neptune </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Named after the goddes...
Haumea - Discovery <ul><li>Discovered in 2004 by Mike Brown at CalTech </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery first announced by a Sp...
Haumea’s Shape <ul><li>Spins very fast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A rotation in 4 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This rotation ca...
Haumea – the numbers <ul><ul><li>Orbital Period: 285 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diameter: ~1400Km </li></ul></ul><ul...
Makemake <ul><li>Plutoid </li></ul><ul><li>Named for the creator god of Easter Island </li></ul><ul><li>No known satellite...
Makemake - Discovery <ul><li>Discovered in 2005 by Mike Brown at CalTech </li></ul><ul><li>Further from ecliptic than othe...
Makemake – the nubmers <ul><ul><li>Orbital Period: 309 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-major axis: 43.1 AU </li></ul...
Eris <ul><li>Largest dwarf planet in solar system </li></ul><ul><li>27% more massive than Pluto </li></ul><ul><li>Named fo...
Eris - Discovery <ul><li>Discovered in 2005 by Mike Brown at CalTech </li></ul><ul><li>Called the &quot;tenth planet” in m...
Eris – The numbers <ul><ul><li>Orbital Period: 557 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-major axis: 68 AU </li></ul></ul>...
Other Trans-Neptunian Objects
Pluto’s Demise
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Dwarf planets

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Lecture for the dwarf planets Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris

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Dwarf planets

  1. 1. Dwarf Planets Solar System Debris
  2. 2. Planets vs Dwarf Planets <ul><li>Planets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbits the Sun directly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has cleared the smaller bodies from its orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dwarf Planets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbits the Sun directly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has not cleared the smaller bodies from its orbit </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Official Dwarf Planets <ul><li>1. Ceres – discovered on January 1, 1801 (45 years before Neptune), </li></ul><ul><li>2. Pluto – discovered on February 18, 1930,. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Eris – discovered on January 5, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Haumea – discovered on December 28, 2004. Makemake – discovered on March 31, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>5. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Dwarf Planets in Comparison Name Diameter relative to Luna Mass relative to Luna Density (Kg/m 3 ) Temperature (K) Orbital period (yrs) Ceres 28% 1.3% 2080 167 4.6 Pluto 69% 17.8% 2000 44 248 Haumea 33% 5.7% 2600-3300 32 285 Makemake 43% ~5%? ~2000? ~30 309 Eris 78% 22.7% 2300 42 557
  5. 5. Ceres <ul><li>Found in the asteroid belt in 1801 </li></ul><ul><li>Considered a planet for half a century before reclassification as an asteroid. </li></ul><ul><li>Once considered the largest asteroid </li></ul><ul><li>Classified as a dwarf planet on September 13, 2006. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ceres - The numbers <ul><ul><li>Contains 1/3 the total mass of all the asteroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbital Period: 4.6 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-major axis: 2.8 AU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diameter: 950 Km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature: 167 K </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ceres – Discovery <ul><li>Possibility of its existence first suggested in 1772 </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1801 by Giuseppe Piazzi </li></ul><ul><li>Named for the Roman goddess of plants </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ceres - Characteristics <ul><li>Surface like a C-class asteroid </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly differentiated interior? </li></ul><ul><li>Bright spot of unknown composition </li></ul><ul><li>Possible tenuous atmosphere and frost </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Dawn Mission <ul><li>Will study asteroids Vesta and Ceres </li></ul><ul><li>Will arrive at Vesta in July 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Will arrive at Ceres in February 2015 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO) <ul><li>AKA: Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNO) </li></ul><ul><li>Comet-like material </li></ul><ul><li>Disk beyond Neptune </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pluto <ul><li>Considered the 9 th planet from 1930 to 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Classified as a planet for 76 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Named for Roman god of the underworld </li></ul><ul><li>Reclassified as a dwarf planet on August 24, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Became the first dwarf planet </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pluto - Discovery <ul><li>Observations of Neptune showed that something was perturbing its orbit </li></ul><ul><li>In 1906 the Lowell Observatory began a search for “Planet X” </li></ul><ul><li>Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto in 1930 using a blink comparator </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pluto - Discovery
  14. 14. Pluto in the blink comparator
  15. 15. Pluto - The numbers <ul><ul><li>Orbital Period: 248 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-major axis: 39 AU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diameter: 2300 Km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature: 44  K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 known moons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charon : more than ½ the size of Pluto </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydra </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Pluto – The Orbit <ul><li>Highly eccentric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside Neptune from 79-99 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tilted 17º from ecliptic </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pluto – What is it really? <ul><li>Highly eccentric orbit </li></ul><ul><li>+Atmosphere thaws and freezes depending on distance from Sun </li></ul><ul><li>+Highly inclined from ecliptic </li></ul><ul><li>= comet </li></ul>
  18. 18. Haumea <ul><li>A plutoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dwarf planets beyond Neptune </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Named after the goddess of the island of Hawaii </li></ul><ul><li>Has two known moons </li></ul>
  19. 19. Haumea - Discovery <ul><li>Discovered in 2004 by Mike Brown at CalTech </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery first announced by a Spanish team …BUT! </li></ul><ul><li>They stole the data </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted as a dwarf planet on September 17, 2008. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Haumea’s Shape <ul><li>Spins very fast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A rotation in 4 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This rotation causes it to deform </li></ul><ul><li>Formed into football shape </li></ul>
  21. 21. Haumea – the numbers <ul><ul><li>Orbital Period: 285 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diameter: ~1400Km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-major axis: 43.1 AU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature: <50 K </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Makemake <ul><li>Plutoid </li></ul><ul><li>Named for the creator god of Easter Island </li></ul><ul><li>No known satellites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique among large KBOs </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Makemake - Discovery <ul><li>Discovered in 2005 by Mike Brown at CalTech </li></ul><ul><li>Further from ecliptic than other dwarfs </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted as a dwarf planet on July 11, 2008. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Makemake – the nubmers <ul><ul><li>Orbital Period: 309 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-major axis: 43.1 AU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclination: 29º </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diameter: 1500Km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature: 30-35 K </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Eris <ul><li>Largest dwarf planet in solar system </li></ul><ul><li>27% more massive than Pluto </li></ul><ul><li>Named for Greek goddess of discord </li></ul>
  26. 26. Eris - Discovery <ul><li>Discovered in 2005 by Mike Brown at CalTech </li></ul><ul><li>Called the &quot;tenth planet” in media reports </li></ul><ul><li>Originally named Xena </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted as a dwarf planet on September 13, 2006. </li></ul>Eris? Really? Me again.
  27. 27. Eris – The numbers <ul><ul><li>Orbital Period: 557 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-major axis: 68 AU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diameter: 2400? Km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature: 42.5 K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 known moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dysnomia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Other Trans-Neptunian Objects
  29. 29. Pluto’s Demise
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