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Copernican revolution modern
 

Copernican revolution modern

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The final chapter of the Copernican Revolution

The final chapter of the Copernican Revolution

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    Copernican revolution modern Copernican revolution modern Presentation Transcript

    • THE COPERNICAN REVOLUTION These Modern Times
    • Fast Forward….
      • Over time, the Protestant Reformation lessened the power of the Catholic Church
    • Fast Forward….
      • The work of Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo and Newton was accepted
    • Uniting the sciences
      • Newton united physics and astronomy through his laws of motion
        • Inertia explains why planets (and others) stay in motion
        • Law of gravitation explains why things stay together
      The apple hit me on the head! LOL!
    • Uniting the sciences
      • Fraunhofer united chemistry and astronomy
        • The spectral lines from sunlight tell what elements are present
      But I didn’t know what they meant. LOL!
    • Charles Messier (1730-1817)
      • French astronomer
      • Was looking for comets
      • Kept being distracted by other fuzzy objects
      • Published catalogue of 103 “nebulae”
        • (later expanded to 110)
      I only found 13 comets. LOL?
    • William Herschel (1783-1822)
      • Musician, composer, and astronomer
      • Discovered Uranus
        • First planet discovered since ancient times
        • First planet discovered with a telescope
      • Discovered that the solar system was moving
      I can see Uranus! LOL!
    • William Herschel
      • Discovered that the solar system was moving
      • Mapped the visible stars and discovered the galaxy is disk shaped
      • Discovered infrared light in sunlight
      Infrared is hot stuff! LOL!
    • Caroline Herschel (1750-1848)
      • Discovered many comets and nebulae
      • Produced an accurate and usable star catalog
      • First woman member of Royal Astronomical Society
      I looked at more than Uranus! LOL!
    • Questions
      • Who unified physics and astronomy?
        • Newton
      • Who published a catalogue of 110 fuzzy objects?
        • Messier
      • What is William Herschel known for?
        • Discovered : Uranus, disk shaped galaxy, infrared light in sunlight
      • Who was the first woman member of Royal Astronomical Society
        • Caroline Herschel
    • Urbain Le Verrier (1811-1877)
      • United mathematics and astronomy
      • Noticed that Uranus had slight deviations in its orbit
      • Predicted that another planet was out there
      • Neptune was within 1º of his prediction
      • First planet discovered using math
      I got the credit! LOL!
    • Cincinnati Observatory
      • First observatory built in US
      • Founded 1842, first operation in 1845
      I’m going to look for Uranus! LOL!
    • Maria Mitchell (1818-1889)
      • Discovered many comets
      • First professor of astronomy at Vassar
      Don’t mess with my money! LOL!
    • Photography
      • Biggest advance since the invention of the telescope
      • Showed things too faint to see with the eye
      • Made more accurate observations than sketches
    • Questions
      • What did LeVerrier use to discover Neptune?
        • Mathematics
      • Where was the first observatory founded in the US?
        • Cincinnati
      • What is Maria Mitchell known for discovering?
        • Comets
      • What is the biggest advance in astronomy since the telescope?
        • Photography
    • Henrietta Swann Leavitt (1868-1921)
      • Worked as a computer at Harvard
      • Worked to determine the magnitudes of stars
        • Used photographs of night sky
        • Wasn’t allowed to operate a telescope
      • Discovered more variable stars than anyone else
    • Cepheid Variables
      • Leavitt plotted the variable period to the absolute brightness
      • Discovered direct relationship
      • Enabled astronomers to determine distance
        • Dimmer the star = further away
        • Mathematical relationship
      WHAT?!?
    • Size of the universe…
      • By early 20 th century, a debate was raging.
      • Was the galaxy the extent of the universe or were there others?
    • Those blobs..
      • Astronomers were intrigued by certain nebulae
      • Were they dust clouds in the Milky Way or other galaxies?
    • Edwin Hubble (1889 – 1953)
      • American astronomer
      • Observed using the 100 inch Hooker Telescope at Mt. Wilson Observatory
      • Wanted to settle the issue of the universe’s size
      • Studied the Andromeda Nebula
      100 Inch Hooker? LOL!
    • Edwin Hubble
      • 1923: studying photographic plates of Andromeda
      • Discovered a Cepheid Variable!
      • Could determine distance!
      • Andromeda was a galaxy!
    •  
    • Questions
      • Who discovered the relationship between variable period of stars and their absolute brightness?
        • Henrietta Swann Leavitt
      • What was the big debate in astronomy at the turn of the 20 th century?
        • Was the universe bigger than the Milky Way Galaxy?
      • What did Hubble find that proved Andromeda was another galaxy?
        • Cepheid variables
    • Not only is the universe bigger…
      • Hubble observed that the galaxies were moving away
      • So the universe is not only bigger than thought, it’s getting bigger
    • Run that tape backwards…
      • If the universe is expanding, it used to be a LOT smaller
      • Universe believed to have started with Big Bang
    • Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
      • 1905: Special Relativity
      • Time is not constant, only the speed of light is constant
      • Energy is equal to mass times the speed of light squared: E=mc 2
      • Explains how stars work
      It’s all relative. LOL!
    • Albert Einstein
      • 1916: General Relativity
      • Space + time = spacetime
      • Mass warps spacetime
      • The warping of spacetime is gravity
    • Questions
      • What else did Hubble discover about the universe?
        • It is expanding
      • What did Einstein's theory of Special Relativity explain?
        • How stars work
      • What did Einstein’s theory of General Relativity say warped spacetime?
        • Mass
      • What did Einstein’s theory of General Relativity say could be bent by warped spacetime?
        • Light
    • Proving general relativity
      • Einstein predicted that the Sun’s gravity would bend the light of stars behind it
      • During an eclipse would stars would appear out of place
      • Confirmed by Eddington in 1919
    • Stephen Hawking (1942-)
      • Theoretical Physicist
      • Theories about black holes before they were proven to exist
      • Theories about the early universe
      • United astronomy with theoretical physics
      Nobody knows my real voice. LOL!
    • The digital revolution
      • Computers are the biggest contribution to astronomy since photography
        • Modeling, image manipulation, telescope control etc.
      • Digital photography gives better imaging than ever
        • Back to amateurs
    • New age of telescopes
      • Telescopes now use all bands of the spectrum
      • Telescopes can adapt to focus more precisely
      • Bigger telescopes than ever!
    • New age of telescopes
      • NASA’s Great Observatories Program
        • Compton: Gamma Ray
        • Chandra: X-Ray
        • Hubble: Visible
        • Spitzer: Infrared
    • What next?
      • The more we learn, the more questions we have.
      • The revolution continues
      • Viva la revolucion!
    • Questions
      • How was General Relativity proved?
        • Light from stars behind the Sun was seen to have moved during an eclipse
      • Who united astronomy and theoretical physics?
        • Stephen Hawking
      • What’s the biggest advancement in astronomy since photography?
        • Computers