Urban – Rural Linkages: the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek

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  • Majority will stay in the City. Under desperate health conditions, 93.1% of the sample population will stay in the city. GIRMA: if I look at the previous slide, your graph indicates that just under 70% will remain in Addis. If I add together the responses for who people rely on; it comes to 76.8% (which makes sense). But I’m not sure if it matches to the 93.1% you mention above? WHY? Was this asked in the survey? Or is this speculation? Girma suggested that this is due to : Migrants in the city are aware of the low level of medical infrastructure in the rural areas. Returning to the rural areas - even if there are relatives to lean on – is not viewed as an option.
  • Majority will stay in the City. Under desperate health conditions, 93.1% of the sample population will stay in the city. GIRMA: if I look at the previous slide, your graph indicates that just under 70% will remain in Addis. If I add together the responses for who people rely on; it comes to 76.8% (which makes sense). But I’m not sure if it matches to the 93.1% you mention above? WHY? Was this asked in the survey? Or is this speculation? Girma suggested that this is due to : Migrants in the city are aware of the low level of medical infrastructure in the rural areas. Returning to the rural areas - even if there are relatives to lean on – is not viewed as an option.

Transcript

  • 1. Urban – Rural Linkages: the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek Scott Drimie, Girma Kassie & Jo Vearey University of the Witwatersrand Forced Migration Studies Programme Health and Migration Initiative
  • 2. Urban – rural linkages implications for urban health
    • Urban migrants are part of an interlinked livelihoods system that connects them with another place.
    • This system involves various reciprocal relationships that change depending on the urban context.
  • 3. An interlinked livelihood system
    • Remittances connect urban migrants with their (predominantly) rural home.
    $ FOOD GOODS
  • 4. SENDING RECEIVING 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Addis Ababa: Receive JHB: Receive Namibia: Receive Relative frequency (%) Money Food Goods
  • 5. The impact of sickness on interlinked livelihood systems if the urban migrant becomes too sick to work ….
    • Johannesburg & Windhoek
      • The majority of respondents report that they will return “home”
    • Addis Ababa
      • The majority of respondents report that they will remain in the city
  • 6. Sickness and HIV in Johannesburg : if the individual in the city becomes too sick to work, the majority will return back home Support 54% 67% Importance of food Burden on the household back home. Urban livelihood that supports another household ‘back home’ would be affected. 65% informal 48% formal
  • 7. Sickness and HIV in Johannesburg : if someone ‘back home’ becomes sick with HIV/AIDS Send money home Return home to provide care 33% 19% Nothing 34% Bring to JHB 14% 63% 11% 6% 21% Informal Formal n = 457 Chi-square = 40.796; p = <0.001
  • 8. Sickness and HIV in Windhoek: if the individual in the city becomes too sick to work, the majority will return home 60%
  • 9. Sickness and HIV in Addis Ababa: if the individual in the city becomes too sick to work, the majority will remain in the city
      • Those who stay in Addis depend on:
      • 67% family
      • 4.8% volunteers
      • 3.4% neighbours
      • 0.8% friends
      • 0.8% themselves
  • 10. Key messages
    • No longer appropriate to conceptualise rural – urban migration and urbanisation as a linear process
      • There is a complex system of reciprocity between rural and urban areas
    • The importance of an interlinked livelihood system between the city and another place (predominantly rural):
      • These interlinked livelihood systems manifest in different ways in different cities;
      • Rural-urban linkages;
      • Remittances;
      • The importance of ‘care as a commodity’.
    • Sickness and HIV affect this livelihood system:
      • Urban – rural linkages mitigate the ill health of urban migrants