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Urban – Rural Linkages:the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek
Urban – Rural Linkages:the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek
Urban – Rural Linkages:the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek
Urban – Rural Linkages:the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek
Urban – Rural Linkages:the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek
Urban – Rural Linkages:the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek
Urban – Rural Linkages:the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek
Urban – Rural Linkages:the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek
Urban – Rural Linkages:the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek
Urban – Rural Linkages:the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek
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Urban – Rural Linkages: the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek

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  • Majority will stay in the City. Under desperate health conditions, 93.1% of the sample population will stay in the city. GIRMA: if I look at the previous slide, your graph indicates that just under 70% will remain in Addis. If I add together the responses for who people rely on; it comes to 76.8% (which makes sense). But I’m not sure if it matches to the 93.1% you mention above? WHY? Was this asked in the survey? Or is this speculation? Girma suggested that this is due to : Migrants in the city are aware of the low level of medical infrastructure in the rural areas. Returning to the rural areas - even if there are relatives to lean on – is not viewed as an option.
  • Majority will stay in the City. Under desperate health conditions, 93.1% of the sample population will stay in the city. GIRMA: if I look at the previous slide, your graph indicates that just under 70% will remain in Addis. If I add together the responses for who people rely on; it comes to 76.8% (which makes sense). But I’m not sure if it matches to the 93.1% you mention above? WHY? Was this asked in the survey? Or is this speculation? Girma suggested that this is due to : Migrants in the city are aware of the low level of medical infrastructure in the rural areas. Returning to the rural areas - even if there are relatives to lean on – is not viewed as an option.
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    • 1. Urban – Rural Linkages: the role of an interlinked livelihood system and implications for urban health in Addis Ababa, Johannesburg and Windhoek Scott Drimie, Girma Kassie & Jo Vearey University of the Witwatersrand Forced Migration Studies Programme Health and Migration Initiative
    • 2. Urban – rural linkages implications for urban health <ul><li>Urban migrants are part of an interlinked livelihoods system that connects them with another place. </li></ul><ul><li>This system involves various reciprocal relationships that change depending on the urban context. </li></ul>
    • 3. An interlinked livelihood system <ul><li>Remittances connect urban migrants with their (predominantly) rural home. </li></ul>$ FOOD GOODS
    • 4. SENDING RECEIVING 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Addis Ababa: Receive JHB: Receive Namibia: Receive Relative frequency (%) Money Food Goods
    • 5. The impact of sickness on interlinked livelihood systems if the urban migrant becomes too sick to work …. <ul><li>Johannesburg & Windhoek </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of respondents report that they will return “home” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Addis Ababa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of respondents report that they will remain in the city </li></ul></ul>
    • 6. Sickness and HIV in Johannesburg : if the individual in the city becomes too sick to work, the majority will return back home Support 54% 67% Importance of food Burden on the household back home. Urban livelihood that supports another household ‘back home’ would be affected. 65% informal 48% formal
    • 7. Sickness and HIV in Johannesburg : if someone ‘back home’ becomes sick with HIV/AIDS Send money home Return home to provide care 33% 19% Nothing 34% Bring to JHB 14% 63% 11% 6% 21% Informal Formal n = 457 Chi-square = 40.796; p = <0.001
    • 8. Sickness and HIV in Windhoek: if the individual in the city becomes too sick to work, the majority will return home 60%
    • 9. Sickness and HIV in Addis Ababa: if the individual in the city becomes too sick to work, the majority will remain in the city <ul><ul><li>Those who stay in Addis depend on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>67% family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.8% volunteers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.4% neighbours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.8% friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.8% themselves </li></ul></ul>
    • 10. Key messages <ul><li>No longer appropriate to conceptualise rural – urban migration and urbanisation as a linear process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a complex system of reciprocity between rural and urban areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The importance of an interlinked livelihood system between the city and another place (predominantly rural): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These interlinked livelihood systems manifest in different ways in different cities; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural-urban linkages; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remittances; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of ‘care as a commodity’. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sickness and HIV affect this livelihood system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban – rural linkages mitigate the ill health of urban migrants </li></ul></ul>

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