How can we save energy? - by Bianca Romanescu
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How can we save energy? - by Bianca Romanescu

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PowerPoint presentation made by the Romanian student Bianca Romanescu, 8th grade, Scoala Gimnaziala Magura.

PowerPoint presentation made by the Romanian student Bianca Romanescu, 8th grade, Scoala Gimnaziala Magura.

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    How can we save energy? - by Bianca Romanescu How can we save energy? - by Bianca Romanescu Presentation Transcript

    • Made By: Romanescu Maria Bianca, 7th grade, Scoala Gimnaziala Magura
    • • Saving energy means decreasing the amount of energy used while achieving a similar outcome of end use. Using less energy has lots of benefits – you can save money and help the environment. Generating energy requires precious natural resources, for instance coal, oil or gas. Therefore, using less energy helps us to preserve these resources and make them last longer in the future.
    • • Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using: wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships.
    • • Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaic's, solar thermal electricity and solar architecture, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the world now faces.
    • • A solar panel (also solar module, photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged, connected assembly of photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each panel is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions, and typically ranges from 100 to 320 watts.
    • • A heat pump is a device that transfers thermal energy from a heat source to a heat sink. Heat pumps can move thermal energy in a direction which is opposite to the direction of spontaneous heat flow. A heat pump uses energy to accomplish the desired transfer of thermal energy from heat source to heat sink.
    • • Solar thermal systems are systems that captures and converts solar energy into thermal energy (hot water production and / or contribution to heating) in order to reduce dependence on conventional heating systems, and related costs. A solar thermal domestic hot water production consists of: Solar panel (solar collector), composed of vacuum tubes that capture solar energy Tank, which accumulates and retains heat received from solar panel Propylene glycol (heat transfer fluid circulating through vacuum tubes) Solar controller which takes temperature of the solar collector and pump control group Solar pump group - transfer heat from the solar panels to the boiler Expansion vessels with protective role to prevent overpressure when the temperature is high and pressure maintenance when fluid is low temperature.
    • • Electric potential energy, or electrostatic potential energy, is a potential energy (measured in joules) that results from conservative Coulomb forces and is associated with the configuration of a particular set of point charges within a defined system. The term "electric potential energy" is used to describe the potential energy in systems with time-variant electric fields, while the term "electrostatic potential energy" is used to describe the potential energy in systems with timeinvariant electric fields.
    • • In physics, mechanical energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy and present in the components of a mechanical system. It is the energy associated with the motion and position of an object. The law of conservation of energy states that in an isolated system that is only subject to conservative forces, like the gravitational force, the mechanical energy is constant.
    • • Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and electricity. Nuclear power plants provide about 6% of the world's energy and 13–14% of the world's electricity, with the U.S., France, and Japan together accounting for about 50% of nuclear generated electricity. In 2007, the IAEA reported there were 439 nuclear power reactors in operation in the world, operating in 31 countries. Also, more than 150 naval vessels using nuclear propulsion have been built.
    • • Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The Geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%). The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface.
    • • Thermal energy is the part of the total internal energy of a thermodynamic system or sample of matter that results in the system temperature. This quantity may be difficult to determine or even meaningless unless the system has attained its temperature only through cooling, and not been subjected to work input or output, or any other energychanging processes.
    • • Hydropower or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower has been used for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as watermills, sawmills, textile mills, dock cranes, domestic lifts and paint making.
    • • In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe. Dark energy is the most accepted hypothesis to explain observations since the 1990s that indicate that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. In the standard model of cosmology, dark energy currently accounts for 73% of the total mass–energy of the universe.
    • • A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884. Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator – about 90% of all electricity generation in the United States (1996) is by use of steam turbines.
    • • The kinetic energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. The same amount of work is done by the body in decelerating from its current speed to a state of rest.
    • • Have your heating system professionally checked on a regular basis. • Get a carbon monoxide detector for your own safety and so leaks don’t increase your energy bill.
    • Natural Gas Saving Tips
    • • If a faucet drips at a rate of 1 drop per second, you can waste 2,700 gal. per year. • The average daily indoor water use for a single family home with no water-conserving fixtures is 74 gal.
    • • For an instant reduction in your energy use, change the way you use power at home. Plug groups of appliances into power strips and turn them off completely whenever they are not in use; when electronics are plugged into the wall, they can use "phantom" power even when turned off (see References 3). If you have home computers, unplug them when you are away from home, enable the built-in energy saving settings and make the screen go to sleep when inactive instead of using a screen saver.
    • • One of the easiest ways to save energy in an apartment or house is to replace standard light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs. According to the Energy Star website, CFL s use 75 percent less energy; they also have a longer lifetime and save more than $40 in energy costs over the life of the bulb. Make use of natural light whenever possible to reduce the need for electric light. If you can, set lights on a timer or plug lamps into smart power strips so that they automatically turn off.
    • • Insulate water heater and surrounding pipes to reduce heat loss and water consumption. • Set water heater thermostats to 120°F (or 140°F if you have a dishwasher).
    • • Take shorter showers. A 4 minute shower uses 20-40 gal. of water. • Turn off the faucet when you brush your teeth, shave, wash your face or rinse dishes. • Invest in a high efficiency toilet, or put a plastic bottle filled with sand in your toilet tank to reduce the amount of water used per flush.
    • • When washing your car, don’t run the hose until you need to rinse. This can save up to 150 gallons of water. • Use a broom to clean your driveway, front stoop or porch, rather than a hose. • When planting a garden, practice xeriscaping. Group plants according to their water needs, and plant drought-resistant plants and bushes.
    • • Collect rainwater in a rain barrel and use this to water plants. • Be sure to follow watering restrictions specific to your local area. • Position sprinklers to avoid watering the sidewalk, street, or driveway.
    • • If you are shopping for new appliances, make sure to look for the Environmental Protection Agency’s Energy Star label before making a purchase. Energy Star appliances use between 10 and 50 percent less energy and water than their conventional counterparts. They may cost more than appliances without the Energy Star designation, but in most cases they will more than make up that additional cost through energy savings.
    • • One of the least expensive and most effective changes you can make in your home is replacing your light bulbs. According to Energy Star, one of its qualified compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFL), which cost just a few dollars, “will save about $30 over its lifetime and pay for itself in about 6 months. It uses 75 percent less energy and lasts about 10 times longer than an incandescent bulb.” Although some people are concerned because CFLs contain mercury, Energy Star says that CFLs do not release any mercury when in use, and actually reduce mercury emissions because they lessen the need for electricity from power plants that emit mercury.
    • • Ducts that move air toand-from a forced air furnace, central air conditioner, or heat pump are often big energy wasters. Sealing and insulating ducts can improve the efficiency of your heating and cooling system by as much as 20 percent - and sometimes much more.
    • • An energy-efficient home will keep your family comfortable while saving you money. Whether you take simple steps or make larger investments to make your home more efficient, you'll see lower energy bills. Over time, those savings will typically pay for the cost of improvements and put money back in your pocket. Your home may also be more attractive to buyers when you sell.
    • Thank you!!..