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A Review on Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for Disaster Management

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Disasters management and emergency services …

Disasters management and emergency services
warning , landslide monitoring, earthquake rescue operation , volcano monitoring, and fire protection. Timely report and res
especially important for reducing the number of sufferers and damages from incidents. In such cases, the communicati
may not function well. This makes it hard to gain information about the incident, and then to respond to the incident rapi
properly. Sensor networks can provide a good solution to these problems through actively monitoring and
emergency incidents to base station. Our objective on this topic aim to study different sensor network protocols to resolve
technical problems in this area, thus identify the energy efficient wireless sensor network archite
disaster management . We also analyze the WSN protocol based on metrics such as Energy efficiency, location awareness, network
lifetime. It furthermore focuses the advantages and performance for disaster management.

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  • 1. International Journal of Computer Applications Technology aVolume 2A Review on Wireless Sensor Network Protocol forDisaster ManagementM. Sheik DawoodSethu Institute ofTechnologyPulloor, IndiaJ. SuganyaSethu institute ofTechnologyPulloor, IndiaAbstract: Disasters management and emergency serviceswarning , landslide monitoring, earthquake rescue operation , volcano monitoring, and fire protection. Timely report and resespecially important for reducing the number of sufferers and damages from incidents. In such cases, the communicatimay not function well. This makes it hard to gain information about the incident, and then to respond to the incident rapiproperly. Sensor networks can provide a good solution to these problems through actively monitoring andemergency incidents to base station. Our objective on this topic aim to study different sensor network protocols to resolvetechnical problems in this area, thus identify the energy efficient wireless sensor network architedisaster management . We also analyze the WSN protocol based on metrics such as Energy efficiency, location awareness, networklifetime. It furthermore focuses the advantages and performance for disaster management.Keywords: —Disaster management, Sensor network, Energy Efficiency, Lifetime1. INTRODUCTIONDisaster Management is a colossal task. They could hardlyenclose to any particular location that neither do theydisappear as quickly they appear. It is important abomanagement to optimize efficiency of planning and response.Due to limited resources collective efforts occurred. The levelof association requires a coordinated and organized effort tomilitate against, prepare for, respond to, and recover fromemergencies and their effects in the shortest possible time[18].A disaster is an event of natural or man-made causes that leadto sudden disruption of normalcy within society, causingdamage to life and property, to reduce this damage effectivemanagement of information is important in the disastermanagement sector. The sectors from emergency responseplanning to short-range early warning to longmitigation and prevention planning are applied [19].2. SENSOR NETWORK FORLANDSLIDE MONITORINGAlberto Rosi et al. Proposing their research in “LandslideMonitoring with sensor network”. This paper report on theimplementation and deployment of a system for LandslideMonitoring in the Northern Italy Apennines and analyze thepositive results and achieved it. Here efficient ‘data collectionalgorithm’ is used to receive the data correctly when disasteris occurring. [14]Distributed detection strategy for landslide prediction usingWSN”. Propose by Prakshep Mehta (2007) et al. Theresearchers furthermore explained the use of variousdistributed algorithms for landslide prediction using WSN.The distributed vector based detection with independentcluster (DVBD-IC) algorithm stated that each CH sends thecalculated likelihood ratio ( LR) to the base station thmultihop. They assumed that the data from the nodes withinthe cluster correlated but the data from different clusters areInternational Journal of Computer Applications Technology and ResearchVolume 2– Issue 2, 141 - 146, 2013A Review on Wireless Sensor Network Protocol forDisaster ManagementJ. SuganyaSethu institute ofechnologyPulloor, IndiaR. Karthika DeviSethu institute ofTechnologyPulloor, IndiaPSNA College of Engg&Dindigul, Indiamanagement and emergency services used to protect a person or society from the cost of disasterswarning , landslide monitoring, earthquake rescue operation , volcano monitoring, and fire protection. Timely report and resespecially important for reducing the number of sufferers and damages from incidents. In such cases, the communicatimay not function well. This makes it hard to gain information about the incident, and then to respond to the incident rapiproperly. Sensor networks can provide a good solution to these problems through actively monitoring andemergency incidents to base station. Our objective on this topic aim to study different sensor network protocols to resolvetechnical problems in this area, thus identify the energy efficient wireless sensor network architecture for significant improvement ofWe also analyze the WSN protocol based on metrics such as Energy efficiency, location awareness, networklifetime. It furthermore focuses the advantages and performance for disaster management.Disaster management, Sensor network, Energy Efficiency, LifetimeDisaster Management is a colossal task. They could hardlyenclose to any particular location that neither do theydisappear as quickly they appear. It is important about propermanagement to optimize efficiency of planning and response.Due to limited resources collective efforts occurred. The levelof association requires a coordinated and organized effort tomilitate against, prepare for, respond to, and recover fromemergencies and their effects in the shortest possible timemade causes that leadto sudden disruption of normalcy within society, causingdamage to life and property, to reduce this damage effectivent of information is important in the disastermanagement sector. The sectors from emergency responserange early warning to long-rangemitigation and prevention planning are applied [19].Rosi et al. Proposing their research in “LandslideMonitoring with sensor network”. This paper report on theimplementation and deployment of a system for LandslideMonitoring in the Northern Italy Apennines and analyze thet. Here efficient ‘data collectionalgorithm’ is used to receive the data correctly when disasterDistributed detection strategy for landslide prediction usingWSN”. Propose by Prakshep Mehta (2007) et al. Theplained the use of variousdistributed algorithms for landslide prediction using WSN.The distributed vector based detection with independentIC) algorithm stated that each CH sends thecalculated likelihood ratio ( LR) to the base station throughmultihop. They assumed that the data from the nodes withinthe cluster correlated but the data from different clusters areindependent. The result of this paper shows that high Energyconsumption of WSN protocol. [12].Rehana Raj T et al, described their current research in FaultTolerant energy saving Clustering scheme in WSN forLandslide Area Monitoring to reduce communication andprocessing overhead. The proposed approach, whichorganizes the whole network into smaller cluster and subcluster groups as shown in figureconsiderable reduction of Communication and processingoverhead. Sub clusters formation also gives the possibility todeal skillfully with sensor nodes, node leader, and clusterhead failures.Figure- 1A Review on Wireless Sensor Network Protocol forG. AthishaPSNA College of Engg.& TechnologyDindigul, Indiadisasters such as tsunamiwarning , landslide monitoring, earthquake rescue operation , volcano monitoring, and fire protection. Timely report and responses areespecially important for reducing the number of sufferers and damages from incidents. In such cases, the communication structure thatmay not function well. This makes it hard to gain information about the incident, and then to respond to the incident rapidly andproperly. Sensor networks can provide a good solution to these problems through actively monitoring and well-timed reportingemergency incidents to base station. Our objective on this topic aim to study different sensor network protocols to resolve some keycture for significant improvement ofWe also analyze the WSN protocol based on metrics such as Energy efficiency, location awareness, networkindependent. The result of this paper shows that high Energyheir current research in FaultTolerant energy saving Clustering scheme in WSN forLandslide Area Monitoring to reduce communication andprocessing overhead. The proposed approach, whichorganizes the whole network into smaller cluster and subgroups as shown in figure -1 for enabling aconsiderable reduction of Communication and processingoverhead. Sub clusters formation also gives the possibility todeal skillfully with sensor nodes, node leader, and cluster
  • 2. International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and ResearchVolume 2– Issue 2, 141 - 146, 2013www.ijcat.com 142On this approach failed data prediction is being achieved by afuzzy control system [6]. Dominating Set based Algorithmused for fixing Cluster heads to improve the energyefficiency of network.Siti Khairunniza-Bejo (2011) et al, proposed that “HistoricalAnalysis of the Land Movement in Landslide Area UsingElastic Image Registration and Conditional StatementApproach”. An elastic image registration and change-unchanged conditional statements procedure appropriate forhistorical analysis of the land movement in a landslide areapresented herein. Landslide areas detected using the numberof pixel movements during the registration process. It showsthat the size of pixel movement used to detect changes inlandslide areas. The more sequences of changed images wereused, and the more information about the history of the areacan be gathered [15].G. P. Ganapathy (2010) et al reported their current research in“Need and Urgency of Landslide Risk Planning for NilgiriDistrict, Tamil Nadu State, India”. The landslide is one of themajor natural hazards that are commonly experienced in hillyterrains all over the world. In this, paper LandslideVulnerability Index Risk analysis involves assessing the threatand these affected the people and property. It furthermore,provided an overview of risk management processes onLandslide Monitoring and relief operation. [16].Kohei Arai (2012) analyzed their current research in “SensorNetwork for Landslide Monitoring with Laser RangingSystem, Avoiding Rainfall Influence on Laser Ranging byMeans of Time Diversity and Satellite Imagery Data BasedLandslide disaster relief”. Sensor networks for LandslideMonitoring with a laser ranging system developed togetherwith landslide disaster relief with remote sensing satelliteimagery data. Experimental results show that the proposedprotocol does work for the situation like rainfall influence andfor landslide disaster relief [17].Energy efficient sensor network protocol for landslide areamonitoring proposed by sheik Dawood et.al (2012). The workfurthers explained the Energy efficient modulation with twotier clustering Architecture for the fault tolerant sensornetwork. The improved lifetime of this protocol can be usefulfor the disastrous condition like Landslide Monitoring andmanagement. [20].3. WSN FOR AIR POLLUTIONMONITORINGKavi k.Khedo (2010) et al. Report on a “WSN air pollutionmonitoring system (WAPMS)”.Indeed with the increasingnumber of vehicles on our roads and rapid urbanization airpollution has considerably increased in last decades. Toreduce this problem they use ‘Recursive Convergingalgorithm’ and duplicate elimination technique.both thetechniques are represented by authors shown in figure-2The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates,filter out invalid readings and summarize to simple formwhich significantly reduce the quantity of data to betransmitted to the sink and thus saving Energy [1].4. WSN FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSEA Location aware WSN protocol for emergency response taskwhen disaster happens is described by Ashok Kumar (2009).In this paper localization, Communication is the main aspectsof disaster-aided network (DAN).In localization aspects, a‘ranging and position estimation methodology’ for patientlocalization at disaster site is proposed. As the result showsthat DAN system supports efficient resource planning, quickevacuating of the patient and increase of situation awarenessduring disaster management [13]G.Ragunath (2012) et al. Analyze “Deployment of the WSNfor real time monitoring and disaster management”. It is veryessential to have a robot during disaster conditions like anearthquake or Bomb blast, where we have to identify livinghuman beings as quickly as possible to save life; the authorsexplained the use of two mobile Robots for Surveillance(Target robot) and Rescue operation. The Target robot couldeasily navigate through rough terrain without being stuck andit can detect obstacles , fire, poisonous gases, Enemy remotevehicles. The Rescuer robot uses to detect a human, using theIR radiation emerging from the live humans and contactlesssensor microwave Impulse radar (MIR) for detecting theheartbeat of human. The robot has a scissor Lift for Liftingheavier debris or Metal Rods and rescues the human. Thispaper is considered as very effective and life saving protocolfor earthquake, landslides and other natural disasters [2]
  • 3. International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and ResearchVolume 2– Issue 2, 141 - 146, 2013www.ijcat.com 143Multihop routing of data during a collection instance andillustration of duplicate elimination techniqueFigure -25. WSN FOR EARTHQUAKEDETECTIONRui tan (2010) et al. Describing in their current research in“Quality driven Volcanic Earthquake Detection using WSN”.In this paper, they described novel qualities driven approachto achieve real time, long-lived volcanic detection. Theseapproaches based on ‘collaborative signal processingalgorithm’. The result of this is minimizing sensor’s Energyconsumption subject to sense quality requirement [11].Makoto Suzuki (2007) et al. Proposing “A high densityearthquake monitoring system using WSNs”. For highprecision monitoring, they developed Pavenet OS, which ishard real time operating system for sensor nodes, andaccelerate the sensor board. In this model work in wirelessmode and acceleration sensor board for necessary earthquakemonitoring. As a result, they have easily preliminaryevaluation of high precision and high density earthquakemonitoring system [10].Naveed Ahmad (2011) et al, propsed a architecture for Ad-hoc wirelesses Sensor Network for Disaster SurvivorDetection as shown in figure-3 .Wireless Ad hoc sensor nodesare playing a vital role in wireless data transmissioninfrastructure.The proposed model for the disaster survivor detection basedon extremely critical disaster situations where this Energyefficient Architecture can successfully trace and locatethousands of people in critical circumstances. The emphasisof this paper focuses on earthquake based disasters. [7].6. WSN FOR FORECASTINGVictor seal (2012) et al. Describing “A simple floodforecasting scheme using wireless sensor network” This workpresents a forecasting model designed using WSNs to predictflood in rivers using a simple and fast calculations to providereal time results and, save the lives of people who may beaffected by the flood. The novel algorithm is used to predictfrom the flood forecasting and use the independent number ofguidelines. Figure-4 depicts the WSN deployment scheme in aflood prone river basin. The result is to give awareness to thepeople and, save their life [5].Figure-3Cholatip Yawut (2011) et al proposed that “A WSN forWeather and disaster Alarm Systems” In this paper, presenteda system used to avoid massive damage from natural disasters.In this system, a WSN based on ZIGBEE used as a weatherstation network sending information and disasters’ alerts. Thisproposed system takes advantage of WSNs that can sendsignals over far distances by using a mesh topology; thistransfer the data and consumes low power. Therefore, thissystem installed in locations has no access to electricity [4].
  • 4. International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and ResearchVolume 2– Issue 2, 141 - 146, 2013www.ijcat.com 144Figure-47. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OFDISASTER MANAGEMENTPROTOCOLSMohamed youis (2004) et al, analyzed that “On HandlingQOS Traffic in WSN” Many new routing and MAC layerprotocols have been proposed for WSNs tackling the issuesraised by the resource constrained unattended sensor nodes inlarge-scale deployments. Transmission of data in such casesrequires the Energy and QOS aware network management toensure efficient usage of the sensor resources and effectiveaccess to the gathered measurements. They highlight thearchitectural and operational challenges of handling of QOStraffic in sensor networks [8].Sanjay Patel (2011) report On an “Interfacing of SensorNetwork to Communication Network for DisasterManagement”.This work with the sensor network andCommunication network for disaster management using GSMmodem which the concerned authorities dealing with disastermanagement get the message on their mobile phones aboutdisaster information. Figure-5 given a general block diagramfor Interfacing of Sensor Network to CommunicationNetwork for Disaster Management.The GSM modem sends and receives data through radiowaves. Now a day’s number of small disasters like fire,chemical leakage, pollution etc, happens frequently and needimmediate relief action. The result of this paper release theimmediate information for quick action to such events [3].Figure-5WSNDM is a wireless sensor network protocol for disastermanagement is proposed by Saha, S. Matsumoto, M. Theauthors have proposed this protocol with an updated hybridnetwork framework. In this paper, the performance ofWSNDM protocol compared with LEACH.it furthermoregave a solution to collapsed base station problem. In sensornetworks, average Energy dissipation measured performance,system lifetime, successful data delivery and the number oflive nodes. Their simulation, considered those performancefactors. Simulation results prove that WSNDM outperformsLEACH protocol . [22]A natural disaster management system based on locationaware distributed sensor networks is presented by Kumar(2005) to achieve maximum lifetime in WSNs in disastermanagement applications. The authors propose a systembased on hierarchical transmission of packets from sensornodes to the base station by identifying a path from one headto a subsequent head along the route. The algorithm dividesthe entire sensor network into logical concentric zones basedon Energy of transmission of the packet is transmitted from ahead node to one of the head nodes in the next zone withlesser distance. The implementation profoundly uses thelocation awareness of sensor nodes for better routing and,hence is applicable only to those situations where such datacan be made available at the time of installation. They furtherprovide the concept of multiple memberships of sensor nodesto different heads within its area of reach thereby handlingdisaster conditions where a head fails without notification toits primary members [21].
  • 5. International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and ResearchVolume 2– Issue 2, 141 - 146, 2013www.ijcat.com 1458. WSN FOR ENVIRONMENTALMONITORINGAl-Sakib Khan Pathan (2006) et al. Analyzing “Smarteningthe Environment is using WSNs in a developing country”. Inthis paper, they explore the prospects of wireless sensornetworks and propose a design level framework fordeveloping the smart environment using WSNs. Here updatethe information about flood, water level, traffic andcontrolling, environmental frequently. If any changes mean,they used two phases. First phase used to collect the data andsend to the local base station. The second phase involves datadistribution network, where the processed data sent todifferent factors involved in network [9].9. CONCLUSIONThis survey studies the role of sensor network in disastermanagement. It furthermore studied the different types ofdisaster management protocols and their application inextremely disastrous conditions. The performance suchprotocols are studied based on Energy efficiency, locationawareness and network lifetime.10. REFERENCES[1] Kavi k khedo, Rajiv perseedoss.2010. Avinash Mungar,“A wireless sensor network air pollution monitoringsystem”, International Journal of wireless &MobileNetworks(IJWMN),Vol.2,No.2.[2] G. Ragunath & Dinesh Kumar.2012. "Deployment of theWSN for real time monitoring and disastermanagement”, Indian Journal of Innovation &developments, Vol.1.[3] Sanjay Patel, O.P, Vyas.2012. “Interfacing of SensorNetwork to Communication Network for DisasterManagement” International Journal of Soft computing &Engineering (IJSCE), Vol.2.[4] Cholatip yawut & Sathapath kilaso.2011. “A WirelessSensor Network for Weather and disaster AlarmSystems” in proceedings of International conference onInformation & Electronics Engineering.[5] Victor Seal, Arnab Raha, Shovan Maity.2012. “A simpleflood forecasting scheme using wireless sensor network”,International Journal of Adhoc Sensor & UbiquitousComputing (IJASUC) Vol.3, No.1.[6] Rehna Raj, Maneesha Ramesh, V. and SangeethKumar.2008. “Fault Tolerant Clustering Approaches inWireless Sensor Network for Landslide AreaMonitoring”in Proceedings of the InternationalConference on Wireless Networks (ICWN’08), Vol. 1,pp. 107–113[17] Naveed Ahmad, Naveed Riaz, Mureed Hussain.2011.“Ad hoc wirelesses Sensor Network Architecture forDisaster Survivor Detection”, International journal ofadvance science and technology, vol 34, September2011.[8] Mohamed youis.2004.“On Handling QoS Traffic inWireless Sensor Network”, in proceedings of theInternational conference, January 2004.[9] Al-Sakib Khan Pathan, Choong Seon Hong, Hyung-WooLee.2006. “Smartening the Environment using wirelesssensor networks in a developing country”, IEEE ICACT,Volume I.[10] Makoto Suzuki, Narito Kurata, Hiroyuki Morikawa,Shunsuke Saruwatari.2007. “A high density earthquakemonitoring system using wireless sensor networks”,International conference on Embedded network sensorsystem[11] Rui Tan, Guoliang Xing, Jinzhu Chen, Wen-Zhan Song,Renjie Huang. 2010. in inproceedings on “Quality drivenVolcanic Earthquake Detection using wireless sensornetwork”, Real time system symposium.[12] Prakshep Mehta, Bhushan Jagyasi, Kalyana Tejaswi,Rajat Bansal, Chandresh Parekh, Anmol Sheth, S. N.Merchant, T. 2007.’Distributed detection strategies forlandslide prediction using Wireless sensor networks, inproceedings of first international global informationinfrastructure Symposium, Morocco. Pp 195-198[13]Ashok Kumar.2009. “A Location aware wireless sensornetwork for assisting emergency response to disaster”International journal of computer science andinformation security, Vol 2, June 2009.[14] Alberto Rosi, Nicola Bicocchi, Gabriella Castelli, MarcoMamei, Franco Zambonelli..2011. “LandslideMonitoring with sensor network” published in theInternational journal of signal and imaging systemsengineering. Vol. 10 No.3.[15] Siti Khairunniza-Bejo, Abdul Rashid MohamedShariff.2011. “Historical Analysis of the LandMovement in Landslide Area Using Elastic ImageRegistration and Conditional Statement Approach”International Journal of Multimedia and UbiquitousEngineering Vol. 6, No. 3.[16] G. P. Ganapathy, K. Mahendran, S.K Sekar.2010. “Needand Urgency of Landslide Risk Planning for NilgiriDistrict, Tamil Nadu State, India” International journalof genetics and Geosciences volume 1, no 1.[17] Kohei Arai.2012.“Sensor Network for LandslideMonitoring With Laser Ranging System AvoidingRainfall Influence on Laser Ranging by Means of TimeDiversity and Satellite Imagery Data Based LandslideDisaster Relief” International Journal of AppliedSciences (IJAS), Vol 3,No.1 .[18] ”Disaster management”.2008 an article published onlinein the Virtual University for Small States of theCommonwealth (VUSSC) .[19] Aloysius J. Rego.2001. “National Disaster ManagementInformation Systems & Networks” June 2001.[20] M. Sheik Dawood, Sajin Salim, S. Sadasivam, G.Athisha.2012.”Energy Efficient Modulation Techniquesfor Fault Tolerant Two-Tiered Wireless SensorNetworks,Journal of Asian scientific research. Vol.2,No.3, pp.124-131.[21] Ranjan, G. , Kumar, A. 2005. A natural disastermanagement system based on location aware distributedsensor networks, in proceeding of IEEE InternationalConference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, 7Nov. 2005 pp. - 182
  • 6. International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and ResearchVolume 2– Issue 2, 141 - 146, 2013www.ijcat.com 146[22] Saha, S. , Matsumoto, M.2006. PerformanceAnalysis of WSNDM (Wireless Sensor Network Protocol forDisaster Management) , International Conference onCommunication Technology, ICCT 06.2006 , pp 1 - 4