dbh2  present perfect
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dbh2  present perfect dbh2 present perfect Presentation Transcript

  • PRESENT PERFECT
  • 1. Present Perfect --Form 1. Present Perfect Form The present perfect of any verb is composed of two The present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements ::the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to elements the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb. The past participle of a regular verb is main verb. The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked. For irregular base+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked. For irregular verbs, see the Table of irregular verbs verbs, see the Table of irregular verbs SUBJECT SUBJECT + AUX + + AUX + (HAVE/HAS) (HAVE/HAS) MAIN VERB (PAST PART.) MAIN VERB (PAST PART.) REGULAR VERB = BASE+ED REGULAR VERB = BASE+ED IRREGULAR VERB (3rd column) IRREGULAR VERB (3rd column)
  • Present perfect, function : The Present Perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the past. The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more interested in the result than in the action itself. The Present Perfect is used to describe: The Present Perfect is used to describe: ••Anaction or situation that started in the past and continues in the present. An action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present. Example: I Ihave lived in Bristol since 1984 (= and I Istill do.) Example: have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= and still do.) ••Anaction performed during aaperiod that has not yet finished. An action performed during period that has not yet finished. Example: She has been to the cinema twice this week (= and the week isn't Example: She has been to the cinema twice this week (= and the week isn't over yet.) over yet.) ••Arepeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now. A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now. Example: We have visited Portugal several times. Example: We have visited Portugal several times. ••Anaction that was completed in the very recent past, (expressed by 'just'). An action that was completed in the very recent past, (expressed by 'just'). Example: I Ihave just finished my work. Example: have just finished my work. ••Anaction when the time is not important. Example: He has read 'War and An action when the time is not important. Example: He has read 'War and Peace'. (the result of his reading is important) Peace'. (the result of his reading is important)
  • 1. Actions started in the past and 1. Actions started in the past and continue in the present. continue in the present. They haven't lived here for years. They haven't lived here for years. She has worked in the bank for five She has worked in the bank for five years. years. We have had the same car for ten We have had the same car for ten years. years. Have you played the piano since you Have you played the piano since you were a child? were a child?
  • 2. When the time period referred to has 2. When the time period referred to has not finished. not finished. II have worked hard this week. have worked hard this week. It has rained a lot this year. It has rained a lot this year. We haven't seen her today. We haven't seen her today.
  • 3. Actions repeated in an unspecified 3. Actions repeated in an unspecified period between the past and now. period between the past and now. They have seen that film six times. They have seen that film six times. It has already happened several times. It has already happened several times. She has visited them frequently. She has visited them frequently. We have eaten at that restaurant many We have eaten at that restaurant many times. times.
  • 4. Actions completed in the very recent 4. Actions completed in the very recent past (+just). past (+just). Have you just finished your homework? Have you just finished your homework? II have just eaten my sandwich. have just eaten my sandwich. We have just seen her new friend. We have just seen her new friend. Has he just left? Has he just left?
  • 5. When the precise time of the 5. When the precise time of the action is not important or not known. action is not important or not known. Someone has stolen my lollipop! Someone has stolen my lollipop! Have you seen ‘Home Alone'? Have you seen ‘Home Alone'? She's studied Japanese, Russian and She's studied Japanese, Russian and English. English.
  • PRESENT PERFECT + ever, never, already, yet PRESENT PERFECT + ever, never, already, yet The adverbs ever and never express the idea of an unidentified time before now The adverbs ever and never express the idea of an unidentified time before now e.g. Have you ever visited Berlin? e.g. Have you ever visited Berlin? 'Ever' 'is used 'Ever is used ••inquestions. in questions. e.g. Have you ever been to England? e.g. Have you ever been to England? Has she ever met the Lehendakari? Has she ever met the Lehendakari? ••innegative questions in negative questions e.g. Haven't they ever been to Iparralde? e.g. Haven't they ever been to Iparralde? Haven't you ever eaten Chinese food? Haven't you ever eaten Chinese food? 'Ever' 'is also used with 'The first time.... 'Ever is also used with 'The first time.... e.g. It's the first time (that) I've ever eaten snails. e.g. It's the first time (that) I've ever eaten snails. This is the first time I've ever been to England. This is the first time I've ever been to England.
  • Already Already refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now. It suggests refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now. It suggests that there is no need for repetition, e.g. that there is no need for repetition, e.g. a. I've already drunk three coffees this morning. (and you're offering me another a. I've already drunk three coffees this morning. (and you're offering me another one!) one!) b. Don't telephone John, I've already done it. b. Don't telephone John, I've already done it. Position Position already can be placed before the main verb (past participle)… already can be placed before the main verb (past participle)… ••Ihave already been to Tokyo. I have already been to Tokyo.
  • Yet Yet is used in negative statements and questions, to mean is used in negative statements and questions, to mean (not) in the period of time between before now and now, (not) in the period of time between before now and now, (not) up to and including the present. e.g. (not) up to and including the present. e.g. ••Haveyou met Galder yet? Have you met Galder yet? ••Ihaven't visited the Eiffel Tower yet. I haven't visited the Eiffel Tower yet. ••Hashe arrived yet? Has he arrived yet? ••Theyhaven't eaten yet. They haven't eaten yet. Position Position Yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence. Yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence.
  • PRESENT PERFECT ++for, ,since PRESENT PERFECT for since Using the present perfect, we can define aaperiod of time before now by considering Using the present perfect, we can define period of time before now by considering its duration, with for ++aaperiod of time, or by considering its starting point, with since its duration, with for period of time, or by considering its starting point, with since ++aapoint in time. point in time. For ++aaperiod of time For period of time for six years, for aaweek, for aamonth, for hours, for two hours. for six years, for week, for month, for hours, for two hours. I Ihave worked here for five years. have worked here for five years. Since ++aapoint in time Since point in time since this morning, since last week, since yesterday, since this morning, since last week, since yesterday, since I Iwas aachild, since Wednesday, since 22o'clock. since was child, since Wednesday, since o'clock. I Ihave worked here since 1990. have worked here since 1990.
  • present perfect with for present perfect with for She has lived here for twenty years. She has lived here for twenty years. I Ihave taught at this school for aalong time. have taught at this school for long time. Alice has been married for three months. Alice has been married for three months. They have been at the hotel for aaweek. They have been at the hotel for week. Esne Beltza have been on tour for two months. Esne Beltza have been on tour for two months. present perfect with since present perfect with since She has lived here since 1980. She has lived here since 1980. I Ihave taught at this school since 1985 have taught at this school since 1985 Alice has been married since March 2nd. Alice has been married since March 2nd. They have been at the hotel since last Tuesday. They have been at the hotel since last Tuesday. Esne Beltza have been on tour since Carnival. Esne Beltza have been on tour since Carnival. Note: Note: For and since can both be used with the past perfect. For and since can both be used with the past perfect. Since can only be used with perfect tenses, for can also be used with the Since can only be used with perfect tenses, for can also be used with the simple past. simple past.
  • Present Perfect of Simple Past? Present Perfect of Simple Past? How to choose between the Present Perfect and Simple Past Tenses How to choose between the Present Perfect and Simple Past Tenses ••Alwaysuse the Present Perfect when the time is not important, or not Always use the Present Perfect when the time is not important, or not specified. specified. ••Alwaysuse the Simple Past when details about the time or place are Always use the Simple Past when details about the time or place are specified or asked for. specified or asked for. Present Perfect I have lived in Lyon. Simple Past I lived in Lyon in 1989. They have eaten Thai food. They ate Thai food last night. Have you seen ‘Mirror, Mirror'?. Where did you see Mirror, Mirror'? When did you go to Ireland? We have been to Ireland.
  • JUST (recently) • I have just finished my homework.
  • EVER (experience?) • Have you ever eaten sushi?
  • NEVER (not experience) verb in affirmative • I have never been to New Zealand.
  • FOR (how long, how much time) • I have lived in Mungia for 12 years.
  • SINCE (…starting time) • I have worked as a teacher since 1985.
  • ALREADY (experience finished) • I have already studied for the test.
  • YET? (experience finished?) • Have you read the book yet?
  • NOT YET (not experience at this moment) • I haven’t seen Avatar yet, but I plan to see it this weekend.
  • EXAMPLES • Have you ever been to London? Yes, I have but I’ve never been to Paris, and I’d like to go there this summer. • Mum, I have already finished my homework. Can I watch TV now? • I have worked here since 1985. • I have worked here for 28 years.
  • EXAMPLES • He has lived here for 20 years and next month he’s moving to Bakio. • She has played in that band since 1993. That’s 20 years. • I have just passed my exams. Now I can have a rest. • He has just won the lottery but he hasn’t thought about what to do with all that money yet.