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Links as follows. Chapter Presentation: “Table of Contents” Visual Concepts: all Visual Concepts in order of occurrence Transparencies: all sheets which instruct pickup of transparency art Standardized Test Prep: First page of “Standardized Test Prep” Sample Problems: all sample problems in order of occurrence
Link each section title to the first page of that section (“Objectives”)
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Pick up Visual Concepts: Chapter 20, Section 1: Ways of Inducing a Current in a Circuit #70689
Pick up Visual Concepts: Chapter 20, Section 1: Lenz's Law for Determining the Direction of the Induced Current #70690
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Pick up Visual Concepts: Chapter 20, Section 2:Function of a Generator #70691
Pick up Visual Concepts: Chapter 20, Section 2: Comparing AC and DC Generators #70692
Pick up Visual Concepts: Chapter 20, Section 2: DC Motors #70693
Recognize that relative motion between a conductor and a magnetic field induces an emf in the conductor.
Describe how the change in the number of magnetic field lines through a circuit loop affects the magnitude and direction of the induced electric current.
Apply Lenz’s law and Faraday’s law of induction to solve problems involving induced emf and current.
Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism Chapter 20
5.
Electromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic induction is the process of creating a current in a circuit by a changing magnetic field.
A change in the magnetic flux through a conductor induces an electric current in the conductor.
The separation of charges by the magnetic force induces an emf.
Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism Chapter 20
6.
Electromagnetic Induction in a Circuit Loop Chapter 20 Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism
7.
Electromagnetic Induction, continued
The angle between a magnetic field and a circuit affects induction.
A change in the number of magnetic field lines induces a current.
Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism Chapter 20
8.
Ways of Inducing a Current in a Circuit Chapter 20 Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism
9.
Characteristics of Induced Current
Lenz’s Law
The magnetic field of the induced current is in a direction to produce a field that opposes the change causing it.
Note: the induced current does not oppose the applied field, but rather the change in the applied field.
Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism Chapter 20
10.
Lenz's Law for Determining the Direction of the Induced Current Chapter 20 Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism
11.
Characteristics of Induced Current, continued
The magnitude of the induced emf can be predicted by Faraday’s law of magnetic induction.
Faraday’s Law of Magnetic Induction
Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism Chapter 20
The magnetic flux is given by M = AB cos
12.
Sample Problem
Induced emf and Current
A coil with 25 turns of wire is wrapped around a hollow tube with an area of 1.8 m 2 . Each turn has the same area as the tube. A uniform magnetic field is applied at a right angle to the plane of the coil. If the field increases uniformly from 0.00 T to 0.55 T in 0.85 s, find the magnitude of the induced emf in the coil. If the resistance in the coil is 2.5 Ω, find the magnitude of the induced current in the coil.
Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism Chapter 20
13.
Sample Problem, continued
Induced emf and Current
1. Define
Given:
∆ t = 0.85 s A = 1.8 m 2 = 0.0º
N = 25 turns R = 2.5 Ω
B i = 0.00 T = 0.00 V•s/m 2
B f = 0.55 T = 0.55 V•s/m 2
Unknown:
emf = ?
I = ?
Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism Chapter 20
14.
Sample Problem, continued
Induced emf and Current
1. Define, continued
Diagram: Show the coil before and after the change in the magnetic field.
Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism Chapter 20
15.
Sample Problem, continued
Induced emf and Current
2. Plan
Choose an equation or situation. Use Faraday’s law of magnetic induction to find the induced emf in the coil.
Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism Chapter 20 Substitute the induced emf into the definition of resistance to determine the induced current in the coil.
16.
Sample Problem, continued
Induced emf and Current
2. Plan, continued
Rearrange the equation to isolate the unknown. In this example, only the magnetic field strength changes with time. The other components (the coil area and the angle between the magnetic field and the coil) remain constant.
Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism Chapter 20
17.
Sample Problem, continued
Induced emf and Current
3. Calculate
Substitute the values into the equation and solve.
Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism Chapter 20
18.
Sample Problem, continued
Induced emf and Current
4. Evaluate
The induced emf, and therefore the induced current, is directed through the coil so that the magnetic field produced by the induced current opposes the change in the applied magnetic field. For the diagram shown on the previous page, the induced magnetic field is directed to the right and the current that produces it is directed from left to right through the resistor.
Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism Chapter 20
19.
Objectives
Describe how generators and motors operate.
Explain the energy conversions that take place in generators and motors.
Describe how mutual induction occurs in circuits.
Section 2 Generators, Motors, and Mutual Inductance Chapter 20
20.
Generators and Alternating Current
A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Generators use induction to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
A generator produces a continuously changing emf.
Section 2 Generators, Motors, and Mutual Inductance Chapter 20
21.
Induction of an emf in an AC Generator Chapter 20 Section 2 Generators, Motors, and Mutual Inductance
22.
Function of a Generator Chapter 20 Section 2 Generators, Motors, and Mutual Inductance
23.
Generators and Alternating Current, continued
Alternating current is an electric current that changes direction at regular intervals.
Alternating current can be converted to direct current by using a device called a commutator to change the direction of the current.
Section 2 Generators, Motors, and Mutual Inductance Chapter 20
24.
Comparing AC and DC Generators Chapter 20 Section 2 Generators, Motors, and Mutual Inductance
25.
Motors
Motors are machines that convert electrical energy to mechanical energy.
Motors use an arrangement similar to that of generators.
Back emf is the emf induced in a motor’s coil that tends to reduce the current in the coil of a motor.
Section 2 Generators, Motors, and Mutual Inductance Chapter 20
26.
DC Motors Chapter 20 Section 2 Generators, Motors, and Mutual Inductance
27.
Mutual Inductance
The ability of one circuit to induce an emf in a nearby circuit in the presence of a changing current is called mutual inductance.
In terms of changing primary current, Faraday’s law is given by the following equation, where M is the mutual inductance:
Section 2 Generators, Motors, and Mutual Inductance Chapter 20
Distinguish between rms values and maximum values of current and potential difference.
Solve problems involving rms and maximum values of current and emf for ac circuits.
Apply the transformer equation to solve problems involving step-up and step-down transformers.
Section 3 AC Circuits and Transformers Chapter 20
30.
Effective Current
The root-mean-square (rms) current of a circuit is the value of alternating current that gives the same heating effect that the corresponding value of direct current does.
rms Current
Section 3 AC Circuits and Transformers Chapter 20
31.
Effective Current, continued
The rms current and rms emf in an ac circuit are important measures of the characteristics of an ac circuit.
Resistance influences current in an ac circuit.
Section 3 AC Circuits and Transformers Chapter 20
32.
rms Current Chapter 20 Section 3 AC Circuits and Transformers
33.
Sample Problem
rms Current and emf
A generator with a maximum output emf of 205 V is connected to a 115 Ω resistor. Calculate the rms potential difference. Find the rms current through the resistor. Find the maximum ac current in the circuit.
Section 3 AC Circuits and Transformers Chapter 20
1. Define
Given:
∆ V rms = 205 V R = 115 Ω
Unknown:
∆ V rms = ? I rms = ? I max = ?
34.
Sample Problem, continued
rms Current and emf
2. Plan
Choose an equation or situation. Use the equation for the rms potential difference to find ∆ V rms .
∆ V rms = 0.707 ∆ V max
Rearrange the definition for resistance to calculate I rms .
Section 3 AC Circuits and Transformers Chapter 20
Use the equation for rms current to find I rms .
I rms = 0.707 I max
35.
Sample Problem, continued
rms Current and emf
2. Plan, continued
Rearrange the equation to isolate the unknown. Rearrange the equation relating rms current to maximum current so that maximum current is calculated.
Section 3 AC Circuits and Transformers Chapter 20
36.
Sample Problem, continued
rms Current and emf
3. Calculate
Substitute the values into the equation and solve.
Section 3 AC Circuits and Transformers Chapter 20 4. Evaluate The rms values for emf and current are a little more than two-thirds the maximum values, as expected.
37.
Transformers
A transformer is a device that increases or decreases the emf of alternating current.
The relationship between the input and output emf is given by the transformer equation.
Section 3 AC Circuits and Transformers Chapter 20
38.
Transformers Chapter 20 Section 3 AC Circuits and Transformers
39.
Transformers, continued
The transformer equation assumes that no power is lost between the primary and secondary coils. However, real transformers are not perfectly efficient.
Real transformers typically have efficiencies ranging from 90% to 99%.
The ignition coil in a gasoline engine is a transformer.
Section 3 AC Circuits and Transformers Chapter 20
40.
A Step-Up Transformer in an Auto Ignition System Chapter 20 Section 3 AC Circuits and Transformers
41.
Objectives
Describe what electromagnetic waves are and how they are produced.
Recognize that electricity and magnetism are two aspects of a single electromagnetic force.
Explain how electromagnetic waves transfer energy.
Describe various applications of electromagnetic waves.
Section 4 Electromagnetic Waves Chapter 20
42.
Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light and are associated with oscillating, perpendicular electric and magnetic fields.
Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves ; that is, the direction of travel is perpendicular to the the direction of oscillating electric and magnetic fields.
Electric and magnetic forces are aspects of a single force called the electromagnetic force.
44.
Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves, continued
All electromagnetic waves are produced by accelerating charges.
Electromagnetic waves transfer energy. The energy of electromagnetic waves is stored in the waves’ oscillating electric and magnetic fields.
Electromagnetic radiation is the transfer of energy associated with an electric and magnetic field. Electromagnetic radiation varies periodically and travels at the speed of light.
Section 4 Electromagnetic Waves Chapter 20
45.
The Sun at Different Wavelengths of Radiation Chapter 20 Section 4 Electromagnetic Waves
46.
Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves, continued
High-energy electromagnetic waves behave like particles.
An electromagnetic wave’s frequency makes the wave behave more like a particle. This notion is called the wave-particle duality.
A photon is a unit or quantum of light. Photons can be thought of as particles of electromagnetic radiation that have zero mass and carry one quantum of energy.
Section 4 Electromagnetic Waves Chapter 20
47.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from very long radio waves to very short-wavelength gamma waves.
The electromagnetic spectrum has a wide variety of applications and characteristics that cover a broad range of wavelengths and frequencies.
Section 4 Electromagnetic Waves Chapter 20
48.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum, continued
Radio Waves
longest wavelengths
communications, tv
Microwaves
30 cm to 1 mm
radar, cell phones
Infrared
1 mm to 700 nm
heat, photography
Visible light
700 nm (red) to 400 nm (violet)
Ultraviolet
400 nm to 60 nm
disinfection, spectroscopy
X rays
60 nm to 10 –4 nm
medicine, astronomy, security screening
Gamma Rays
less than 0.1 nm
cancer treatment, astronomy
Section 4 Electromagnetic Waves Chapter 20
49.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum Chapter 20 Section 4 Electromagnetic Waves
50.
Multiple Choice
1. Which of the following equations correctly describes Faraday’s law of induction?
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
51.
Multiple Choice, continued
1. Which of the following equations correctly describes Faraday’s law of induction?
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
52.
Multiple Choice, continued
2. For the coil shown at right, what must be done to induce a clockwise current?
F. Either move the north pole of a magnet down into the coil, or move the south pole of the magnet up and out of the coil.
G. Either move the south pole of a magnet down into the coil, or move the north pole of the magnet up and out of the coil.
H. Move either pole of the magnet down into the coil.
J. Move either pole of the magnet up and out of the coil.
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
53.
Multiple Choice, continued
2. For the coil shown at right, what must be done to induce a clockwise current?
F. Either move the north pole of a magnet down into the coil, or move the south pole of the magnet up and out of the coil.
G. Either move the south pole of a magnet down into the coil, or move the north pole of the magnet up and out of the coil.
H. Move either pole of the magnet down into the coil.
J. Move either pole of the magnet up and out of the coil.
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
54.
Multiple Choice, continued
3. Which of the following would not increase the emf produced by a generator?
A. rotating the generator coil faster
B. increasing the strength of the generator magnets
C. increasing the number of turns of wire in the coil
D. reducing the cross-sectional area of the coil
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
55.
Multiple Choice, continued
3. Which of the following would not increase the emf produced by a generator?
A. rotating the generator coil faster
B. increasing the strength of the generator magnets
C. increasing the number of turns of wire in the coil
D. reducing the cross-sectional area of the coil
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
56.
Multiple Choice, continued
4. By what factor do you multiply the maximum emf to calculate the rms emf for an alternating current?
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
57.
Multiple Choice, continued
4. By what factor do you multiply the maximum emf to calculate the rms emf for an alternating current?
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
58.
Multiple Choice, continued
5. Which of the following correctly describes the composition of an electromagnetic wave?
A. a transverse electric wave and a magnetic transverse wave that are parallel and are moving in the same direction
B. a transverse electric wave and a magnetic transverse wave that are perpendicular and are moving in the same direction
C. a transverse electric wave and a magnetic transverse wave that are parallel and are moving at right angles to each other
D. a transverse electric wave and a magnetic transverse wave that are perpendicular and are moving at right angles to each other
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
59.
Multiple Choice, continued
5. Which of the following correctly describes the composition of an electromagnetic wave?
A. a transverse electric wave and a magnetic transverse wave that are parallel and are moving in the same direction
B. a transverse electric wave and a magnetic transverse wave that are perpendicular and are moving in the same direction
C. a transverse electric wave and a magnetic transverse wave that are parallel and are moving at right angles to each other
D. a transverse electric wave and a magnetic transverse wave that are perpendicular and are moving at right angles to each other
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
60.
Multiple Choice, continued
6. A coil is moved out of a magnetic field in order to induce an emf. The wire of the coil is then rewound so that the area of the coil is increased by 1.5 times. Extra wire is used in the coil so that the number of turns is doubled. If the time in which the coil is removed from the field is reduced by half and the magnetic field strength remains unchanged, how many times greater is the new induced emf than the original induced emf ?
F. 1.5 times
G. 2 times
H. 3 times
J. 6 times
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
61.
Multiple Choice, continued
6. A coil is moved out of a magnetic field in order to induce an emf. The wire of the coil is then rewound so that the area of the coil is increased by 1.5 times. Extra wire is used in the coil so that the number of turns is doubled. If the time in which the coil is removed from the field is reduced by half and the magnetic field strength remains unchanged, how many times greater is the new induced emf than the original induced emf ?
F. 1.5 times
G. 2 times
H. 3 times
J. 6 times
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
62.
Multiple Choice, continued
7. From left to right, what are the types of the two transformers?
A. Both are step-down transformers.
B. Both are step-up transformers.
C. One is a step-down transformer; and one is a step-up transformer.
D. One is a step-up transformer; and one is a step-down transformer.
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20 Use the passage below to answer questions 7–8. A pair of transformers is connected in series, as shown in the figure below.
63.
Multiple Choice, continued
7. From left to right, what are the types of the two transformers?
A. Both are step-down transformers.
B. Both are step-up transformers.
C. One is a step-down transformer; and one is a step-up transformer.
D. One is a step-up transformer; and one is a step-down transformer.
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20 Use the passage below to answer questions 7–8. A pair of transformers is connected in series, as shown in the figure below.
64.
Multiple Choice, continued
8. What is the output potential difference from the secondary coil of the transformer on the right?
F. 400 V
G. 12 000 V
H. 160 000 V
J. 360 000 V
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20 Use the passage below to answer questions 7–8. A pair of transformers is connected in series, as shown in the figure below.
65.
Multiple Choice, continued
8. What is the output potential difference from the secondary coil of the transformer on the right?
F. 400 V
G. 12 000 V
H. 160 000 V
J. 360 000 V
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20 Use the passage below to answer questions 7–8. A pair of transformers is connected in series, as shown in the figure below.
66.
Multiple Choice, continued
9. What are the particles that can be used to describe electromagnetic radiation called?
A. electrons
B. magnetons
C. photons
D. protons
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
67.
Multiple Choice, continued
9. What are the particles that can be used to describe electromagnetic radiation called?
A. electrons
B. magnetons
C. photons
D. protons
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
68.
Multiple Choice, continued
10. The maximum values for the current and potential difference in an ac circuit are 3.5 A and 340 V, respectively. How much power is dissipated in this circuit?
F. 300 W
G. 600 W
H. 1200 W
J. 2400 W
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
69.
Multiple Choice, continued
10. The maximum values for the current and potential difference in an ac circuit are 3.5 A and 340 V, respectively. How much power is dissipated in this circuit?
F. 300 W
G. 600 W
H. 1200 W
J. 2400 W
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
70.
Short Response
11. The alternating current through an electric toaster has a maximum value of 12.0 A. What is the rms value of this current?
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
71.
Short Response, continued
11. The alternating current through an electric toaster has a maximum value of 12.0 A. What is the rms value of this current?
Answer:
8.48 A
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
72.
Short Response, continued
12. What is the purpose of a commutator in an ac generator?
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
73.
Short Response, continued
12. What is the purpose of a commutator in an ac generator?
Answer:
It converts ac to a changing current in one direction only.
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
74.
Short Response, continued
13. How does the energy of one photon of an electromagnetic wave relate to the wave’s frequency?
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
75.
Short Response, continued
13. How does the energy of one photon of an electromagnetic wave relate to the wave’s frequency?
Answer:
The energy is directly proportional to the wave’s frequency ( E = hf ).
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
76.
Short Response, continued
14. A transformer has 150 turns of wire on the primary coil and 75 000 turns on the secondary coil. If the input potential difference across the primary is 120 V, what is the output potential difference across the secondary?
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
77.
Short Response, continued
14. A transformer has 150 turns of wire on the primary coil and 75 000 turns on the secondary coil. If the input potential difference across the primary is 120 V, what is the output potential difference across the secondary?
Answer:
6.0 10 4 V
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
78.
Extended Response
15. Why is alternating current used for power transmission instead of direct current? Be sure to include power dissipation and electrical safety considerations in your answer.
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
79.
Extended Response, continued
15. Answer:
For electric power to be transferred over long distances without a large amount of power dissipation, the electric power must have a high potential difference and low current. However, to be safely used in homes, the potential difference must be lower than that used for long-distance power transmission. Because of induction, the potential difference and current of electricity can be transformed to higher or lower values, but the current must change continuously (alternate) for this to happen.
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20
80.
Extended Response, continued
16. Why must the current enter the coil just as someone comes up to the table?
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20 Base your answers to questions 16–18 on the information below. A device at a carnival’s haunted house involves a metal ring that flies upward from a table when a patron passes near the table’s edge. The device consists of a photoelectric switch that activates the circuit when anyone walks in front of the switch and of a coil of wire into which a current is suddenly introduced when the switch is triggered.
81.
Extended Response, continued
16. Why must the current enter the coil just as someone comes up to the table?
Answer: The change in current in the coil will produce a changing magnetic field, which will induce a current in the ring. The induced current produces a magnetic field that interacts with the magnetic field from the coil, causing the ring to rise from the table.
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20 Base your answers to questions 16–18 on the information below. A device at a carnival’s haunted house involves a metal ring that flies upward from a table when a patron passes near the table’s edge. The device consists of a photoelectric switch that activates the circuit when anyone walks in front of the switch and of a coil of wire into which a current is suddenly introduced when the switch is triggered.
82.
Extended Response, continued
17. Using Lenz’s law, explain why the ring flies upward when there is an increasing current in the coil?
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20 Base your answers to questions 16–18 on the information below. A device at a carnival’s haunted house involves a metal ring that flies upward from a table when a patron passes near the table’s edge. The device consists of a photoelectric switch that activates the circuit when anyone walks in front of the switch and of a coil of wire into which a current is suddenly introduced when the switch is triggered.
83.
Extended Response, continued
17. Using Lenz’s law, explain why the ring flies upward when there is an increasing current in the coil?
Answer: According to Lenz’s law, the magnetic field induced in the ring must oppose the magnetic field that induces the current in the ring. The opposing fields cause the ring, which can move freely, to rise upward from the coil under the table’s surface.
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20 Base your answers to questions 16–18 on the information below. A device at a carnival’s haunted house involves a metal ring that flies upward from a table when a patron passes near the table’s edge. The device consists of a photoelectric switch that activates the circuit when anyone walks in front of the switch and of a coil of wire into which a current is suddenly introduced when the switch is triggered.
84.
Extended Response, continued
18. Suppose the change in the magnetic field is 0.10 T/s. If the radius of the ring is 2.4 cm and the ring is assumed to consist of one turn of wire, what is the emf induced in the ring?
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20 Base your answers to questions 16–18 on the information below. A device at a carnival’s haunted house involves a metal ring that flies upward from a table when a patron passes near the table’s edge. The device consists of a photoelectric switch that activates the circuit when anyone walks in front of the switch and of a coil of wire into which a current is suddenly introduced when the switch is triggered.
85.
Extended Response, continued
18. Suppose the change in the magnetic field is 0.10 T/s. If the radius of the ring is 2.4 cm and the ring is assumed to consist of one turn of wire, what is the emf induced in the ring?
Answer: 1.8 10 –4 V
Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20 Base your answers to questions 16–18 on the information below. A device at a carnival’s haunted house involves a metal ring that flies upward from a table when a patron passes near the table’s edge. The device consists of a photoelectric switch that activates the circuit when anyone walks in front of the switch and of a coil of wire into which a current is suddenly introduced when the switch is triggered.
86.
Ways of Inducing a Current in a Circuit Chapter 20 Section 1 Electricity from Magnetism