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Play in children ppt presentation Play in children ppt presentation Presentation Transcript

  • THERAPEUTIC PLAY: Therapeutic play is the specialised play activities by which a child acts out or expresses his unconscious feelings. It is a central mechanism in which children cope, communicate, learn & master a traumatic experience such as hospitalisation.
  • IMPORTANCE OF PLAY: CHILD:  Enhance coping abilities  Express fear, anxiety, tension, anger, fantasies.  Understand hospital procedures.  Communicate & reduce emotional trauma.  Continue growth & development.  Get rid of boredom.
  • IMPORTANCE OF PLAY: Health team members:  Gain co-operation & trust of the child.  Diagnose child’s feelings & behaviour.  Find out & correct misconceptions & beliefs  Reassure the parent  Promote parent participation in child care
  • FUNCTIONS 0F PLAY:  Provides diversion  Brings about relaxation  Helps feel secure  Lessen stress of separation & home sickness  Release tension, expression of feelings  Encourages interaction  Develop positive attitudes towards others  Outlet for creative ideas or interests  Opportunity for choices & be in control  Accomplish therapeutic goals.
  • TYPES OF PLAYS: Emotional outlet/dramatic play:  Used to express child’s anxiety  Solve conflicts  Diagnostic tool
  • Instructional play:  Instruction is given for therapeutic play according to their past experiences, coping abilities & physiological status
  • Physiological enhancing play:  Used to improve & maintain physical health & body functions  Selected to treat pathological condition
  • SOCIAL PLAYS: 1. Onlooker play:  Watch other children play  No interest in participation
  • 2. Solitary play:  Play alone with different toys used by other children  Enjoys others presence but no effort to speak or get close
  • 3. Parallel play:  Children play independently with toys as that of other children  No group association  Characteristic play of toddlers
  • 4. Associative play:  Play together & engaged in similar activities  Never directs others action or establishes rules  No group goal, one child initiates an activity & others follow
  • 5. Co-operative play:  Organised & they play in groups  Set goals & try to attain it  Organisation of activities, division of labour & playing roles  Leader follower relationship is established
  • PLAY THERAPY: Non-directive play therapy:  Client centred or unstructured play therapy  If allowed to play freely, children resolve their own problem & work towards their own solution  Few boundaries & can be used at any age
  • Directive play therapy:  Directions given for play  Causes faster change & more structured than non-directive play  Games chosen by the child, therapists give directions
  • CATEGORIES OF PLAY: Physical play:  Social in nature- involves other children  Provides exercise, which is essential for normal development  Eg. Run, jump etc.
  • Expressive play:  Gives opportunity to express feelings  Parents take an active role  Eg. Play using coloured pencils, crayons, markers, water colours etc..
  • Manipulative play:  Children control or master their environment  Starts in infancy  Move objects like puzzle pieces to understand it better  Eg: Drops a toy, Wait for the parent to pick it, clean it & return it, & they drop it again.
  • Symbolic play:  Helps explain child’s problem in a symbolic way  No rules, can use to reinforce, learn about, & imaginatively alter painful experiences Dramatic play:  Child act out situations experienced by them  Either spontaneous, guided or therapeutic
  • Surrogate play:  For children who are severely ill  Parent/another child is a surrogate  Watching the surrogate play, stimulates the sick child
  • COMMON PROBLEMS:  Challenge, as child cant voluntarily engage  Parents need to understand the importance  Play activities vary depending on cultural & socio-economic circumstances  Not knowing the group languages
  • SAFETY ISSUES:  Should be washable  Should have no sharp edges & no small parts  Tossing ball to a child with cast fall  Chasing ball falls, collisions  If toy is used for a long time, can use it in unsafe way
  • NURSES RESPONSIBILITIES:  Organise play activities  Flexibility in play time  Play materials should b placed in separate room  Age appropriate play articles should be provided  Involve all members for play  Interact during play  Observe & record child’s behaviour  Protect & guide children when aggressive  Participate with the children during play  Teach the importance of play
  • PREVENTING OR MINIMIZING SEPARATION  Primary goal  Welcome the presence of parents  Family centred care  Provide support- both parents & child  Frequent parental visits  Leave a favourite article, if the parents can’t room-in
  • MINIMIZING LOSS OF CONTROL:  Promoting freedom of movements  Place child on parent’s lap during procedures  Mechanical freedom can be provided  Maintain child’s routines  Encouraging independence  Concept of self care  Promote understanding  Inform children about their rights
  • PREVENTING OR MINIMIZING FEAR OF BODILY INJURY:  Preparation of children for painful procedures  Manipulating procedural techniques  Stress the reason for a procedure & evaluate child’s understanding  Employ pain reduction techniques
  • STRATEGIES TO COPING & NORMAL DEVELOPMENT:  Focus on physiological, psychosocial & developmental needs  Promote effective coping  Provide developmentally appropriate activities like rooming in, therapeutic play & therapeutic recreation & child life programs
  • CHILD LIFE PROGRAMS:  Focuses on psychosocial needs of hospitalised child  Professional child specialist, Para professionals & volunteers –staff  Plan age appropriate play  Assist children in working through feeling about illness  Eg. Playing with medical equipment  Child specialist & nurses together assist children in their needs
  • ROOMING IN:  Have a parent stay in child’s hospital room  Parent should assist in child care  Communication between nurse & parent, so that parent’s desire for involvement is supported
  • THERAPEUTIC PLAY:  Helps reduce stress  Means to learn about health care, express anxieties, achieve mastery over control & frightening  Helps assess child’s knowledge of his/her illness
  • THERAPEUTIC RECREATION:  Planned recreation program for adolescents to meet development needs during hospitalisation  Telephone contact & visits from friends  Interaction with the teenagers  Physical activities that provide an outlet for stress recommended  Assist to regain control  Giving options & letting to choose promotes feeling of independence  Acutely ill child may enjoy listening to stories  Children must be taught to take care of their toys  Nurse should participate in play activities
  • REFERENCES: 1. Marlow R Dorothy, Redding A Barbara. Textbook of Paediatric Nursing. 6st ed. 2. Datta Parul. Paediatric Nursing. 2nd ed. 3. Gupta Piyush. Essential Paediatric Nursing. 2nd ed. 4. Terri Kyle. Essentials of Paediatric Nursing.1st ed. 5. Tom Lissauer, Graham Clayden. Illustrated Textbook of Paediatric. 3rd ed
  • JOURNALS:  Hirani Shela Akbar Ali. International Journal Of Nursing Care. Vol1, Issue1. Apl3, 2013. Use of play therapy in educating asthmatic & diabetic pediatric patients  Sylvia Cassel. Journal of Paediatrics. Vol71, Issue2. The role of puppet therapy on the emotional responses of children hospitalised for cardiac catherisation
  • RESEARCH STUDIES  The role of puppet therapy on the emotional responses of children hospitalized for cardiac catheterization  Use of play therapy in educating asthmatic & diabetic pediatric patients.