PLAY RANGE OF VOLUNTARY, INTRINSICALLY MOTIVATED ACTIVITIES NORMALLY ASSOCIATED WITH PLEASURE AND ENJOYMENT WORK OF THE CHILDREN A WAY OF LIVING,DAILY WORK OF THE CHILD AND IT SATISFIES THE NEED OF THE CHILD.IT ACT AS A TOOL FOR ASSESSING STRESS
CRIETERIA IT IS VOLUNTARY INTERNALLY MOTIVATED UNIQUE TO EACH CHILD ACTIVE WITH MOTION AND COGNITION
THE CHARACTERISTICSOF PLAY Play is child-chosen. Play is child-invented. Play is pretend but done as if the activity were real. Play focuses on the doing (process, not product). Play is done by the players (children), not the adults(caregivers, teachers, or parents). Play requires active involvement. Play is pleasurable It is marked by flexibility
VALUES OF PLAY PHYSICAL VALUE INTELLECTUAL VALUE MORAL VALUE CREATIVE VALUE THERAPEUTIC VALUE SOCIALIZATION
PHYSICAL VALUE Muscular & sensory abilities are developed . Infants & young children develop their sensory abilities through the tactile, visual and auditory sensations derived from playing with rattles balls & other toys Toddlers & preschool children enjoy large muscle activity such as running, climbing & exploring the environment . School age children organize their movements into more complex forms like bicycle riding, racing.
INTELLECTUAL VALUE Children learn the differences in sizes, shape, colors, textures, numbers, & names of the objects. They learn to understand special relationships, to do abstract thinking ,& to engage in problem solving activities. Distinguished what is real & what is unreal/ fantasy.
MORAL VALUE Cultural values like honesty , integrity, sportsmanship, & compassion are learned. They assumes responsibility for their own actions. should adhere to the group values & can be expelled if they don’t. CREATIVE VALUE Playing with materials like clay , paper & finger paints. Children are most creative when they are playing alone. They carry their new discoveries to the outside world of play.
THERAPEUTIC VALUE Play provides the release of stress and tension. Children express their emotions and test out frightening situations in a way that peers and adults can accept. They reveal themselves through play. Nurses can carefully observe the play of children & determine needs , concerns & feelings that cannot be put in to words. Children should be protected if they become aggressive & should be guided into less aggressive type of play
SOCIALIZATION Social & emotional development is enhanced through play. When they play with adults , parents and peers they develop social relationship.
TYPES1. PLAY WITH MOTION AND INTERACTION2. PLAY WITH OBJECTS3. PLAY WITH LANGUGE4. PLAY WITH RULES5. PLAY WITH SOCIAL MATERIAL-EXPLORE RELATION BETWEEN OBJECTS, ACTIONS, AND PEOPLE6. RITUALISTIC PLAY-IT IS THE CONTROLLED RHYTHMIC REPETETION OF ACTIVITIES (TAKING DOLL AND GOING TO BED)
CLASSIFICATION CONTENT PLAY ON LOOKER ASSOCIATIVE SOCIAL CHARECTER SOLITARY CO OPERATIVE PARALLEL
CONTENT OF PLAY This involves physical aspects of the play along with the social relationships. It follows a directional trend of simple to complex SOCIAL AFFECTIVE PLAY Play begins with social affective play, where in infants take pleasure in relationships with people. As the adults talk, touch, nuzzle etc.. to get response from the infant the child soon learns to provoke personal emotions / responses with such behaviors smiling , cooing, or initiating games
SENSE PLEASURE PLAY A non social stimulating experience. Objects in the environment like light & color, taste & odors , textures and consistencies attract children’s attention stimulates their senses & give pleasure Pleasurable experiences are derived from handling raw materials ( water , sand & food…), from body motions (swinging, bouncing , rocking… ) & from other uses of senses and abilities (smelling , humming..) SKILL PLAY After infants develops the ability to grasp and manipulates, they demonstrate & exercise their newly acquired abilities through skill play. Determination to practice a skill may be evident Pain and frustration may be felt. ( e.g. bicycle riding)
UN OCCUPIED BEHAVIOR Here children are not playful but focuses their attention on anything that strikes their interest. Children may daydream, fiddle with cloths(touch things with no particular purpose) / other objects or walks aimlessly. This is different from onlooker play (who actively observes others activity.) DRAMATIC OR PRETEND PLAY Also known as symbolic / pretend play Begins in late infancy (11- 13 months) to preschool age. By acting out events of daily life children learn and practice the role and identities , modeled by members of their family & society
GAMES Types Of Play With Specific Rules And RegulationsDRAMATIC OR PRETEND PLAY GAMES
SOCIAL CHARECTER Solitary play Children play alone with toys; make no attempt to interact Onlooker behavior Children spend most of their time watching others; may make comments but do not interact Solitary play Onlooker behavior
Parallel play Children play beside but not really with other children Associative play Children engage in rather disorganized play with other children Cooperative play Children engage in an organized form of play Parallel play Associative play Cooperative play
PLAY IN ILLNESS PLAY THERAPY it is a form of psychotherapy since 1900. Play therapy is generally employed with children aged 3 through 11 and provides a way for them to express their experiences and feelings through a natural, self-guided, self-healing process. As children’s experiences and knowledge are often communicated through play, it becomes an important vehicle for them to know and accept themselves and others.
THERAPUTIC PLAY It is the use of play specially as a languge for sick children to communicate their thoughts and feeling MEDICAL PLAY It is a type of play which concentrates on events in health care settings such as injection, or procedures
CHARACTERISTICS1. Part of its content medically themed and / or it includes the use of medical equipment.2. Play may be offered or initiated by an adult/parent, but is voluntarily maintained by the child.3. Medical play is usually enjoyable for the child and is often accompanied by laughter and relaxation. However, the process of play can be intense and aggressive.4. Medical play and preparation are not the same. They are not interchangeable. When an adult attempts to prepare a child for a medical event by demonstrating a procedure or familiarizing a child with equipment, education may occur, but not necessarily play. Play may follow familiarization if play opportunities are made available.
PURPOSES Provides diversion and brings interaction Helps to feel more secure in strange environment Lessens stress of seperation Release of tension and expression of feeling Encourage interaction and development of positive attitude An expressive outlet for creative ideas Means for accomplishing theraputic goal Provide the child an active role
TYPES OF MEDICAL PLAY ROLE REHARSAL/REVERSAL PLAY MEDICAL MEDICAL FANTASY PLAY MEDICAL ART INDIRECT MEDICAL PLAY
Role Rehearsal / Role Reversal This is the most traditional medical play. Children take on the roles of health care professionals, acting out medical procedures and events on dolls, puppets, stuffed animals or other people (children or adults). Real medical materials and equipment is used, as well as specially made toys created for medical play, such as toy doctor kits, a patient puppet, a doll sized MRI or hospital bed. Children often use this type of medical play to re-enact events they have experienced.
Medical Fantasy Play This also involves role playing medical themes. However, traditional play materials, blocks, doll houses, cars, trucks and stuffed animals are used to create roles and stories for medical play, instead of actual medical equipment. In medical fantasy play, children avoid contact with feared objects, but can still play out topics of concern. Many children who choose this type of medical play later progress to using medical equipment. No specialized materials are required for this type of medical play. Indirect Medical Play
Indirect Medical Play Hospital themed activities such as puzzles, games and songs enable familiarization, exploration and education relating to medical experiences. This type of play also uses medical materials in non-traditional ways, such as using syringes to squirt water, and using IV tubing as drinking straws. Medical Art This offers many different ways for a child to express themselves, their understanding of and reactions to their medical experience. Art activities can vary greatly, including painting, drawing, collage and 3D sculptures. Basic art materials are appropriate: paint, paper, markers and glue offer a wide range of choices. Including some medical materials, such as band aids, plasters, gauze and tongue depressors can enhance the medical theme.
DEFINITION The word “Toy” comes from an old English term that means :TOOL Toys are TOOLS for a child. With these tools, children are allowed to use their senses, fine and gross motor skills, and their imaginations. Cognitive and social skills are also increased as a child plays with toys. Toys are valuable TEACHING tools.
TYPES of TOYS Soft & Cuddling Toys Dolls, stuffed animals, etc. Manipulation/Small Motor Skill Toys Blocks, puzzles, snap, gears, games, etc. Large Motor Skill Toys Tricycles/bikes, balls, jump ropes, scooters, etc. Dramatic Play Dress-up clothes, furniture and accessories, etc.
SELECTION OF TOYS Make sure the toy is DAP Toys for age-appropriate development of the child SIZE of toy and pieces Larger than the child’s two fists No SHARP edges or points Broken toys should be fixed or thrown away NON-TOXIC materials Avoid all painted toys for babies & toddlers DURABLE, WASHABLE and CLEAN Toy’s that won’t break easily Toys that can be cleaned easily TEACH a Skill or Concept Aide in one of the 5 areas of Child Development
TOYS SAFETY Regularly check toys for damage that may have created sharp edges or loose small parts. Damaged or dangerous toys should be repaired or thrown away immediately. Keep toys intended for older children away from younger children – such toys may injure younger children. Store toys safely. Teach children to put toys away so they are not tripping hazards. Safe toys for young children are: well-made (with no shared parts or splinters and do not pinch) painted with nontoxic, lead-free paint shatter-proof easily cleaned
TOYS FOR DIFFERENT AGE GROUPAGE TOYS GENERAL CONSIDERATIONINFANCY SOFT STUFFED •BABY LIKES TO HUG TOYS ANIMALS,DOLLS, •IT SHOULD BE BRIGHT SOFT BALLS, BATH COLOURED AND WASHABLE TOYS, •IT SHOULB BE LARGE AND HAVE SMOOTH EDGES
AGE TOYS GENERAL CONSIDERATIONTODDLER POTS AND PANS,PUSH •THEY WILL HAVE A AND PULL TOYS, FAVOURITE TOY DOLLS TELEPHONE, •THEY LIKE TO PLACE ROCKING HORSE OR THINGS IN CHAIR, BALLS CONTAINERSAND TAKE THEM OUT •THEY MAY INJUR OTHERS WITH TOYS SO IT SHOULD BE WITHOUT SHARP EDGES
AGE TOYS GENERAL CONSIDERATIONPRESCHO CRYONS, SIMPLE •THEY ENJOY PARALLEL ANDOLER PUZZLES,PAINT WITH COOPERATIVE PLAY LARGE BRUSH, FINGER •THEY WILL EXCHANGE IDEAS PAINT, DOLLS, DISHES, WITH OTHERS HORNS, DRUMS, •THEY WILL ENGAGE IN SIMPLE MUSICAL ACTIVITIES , INITIATIVE, INSTRUMENTS, VIDEO IMAGINATIVE TAPES •INTERESTED IN CREATIVE AND DRAMATIC PLAY
AGE TOYS GENERAL CONSIDERATIONSCHOOLER DOLLS,DOLL HOUSE, •ATTENTION SPAN HANDI CRAFTS, TABLE INCREASES GAMES, JUMP ROPE, •PLAY IS MORE BICYCLE, DRESS UP ORGANIZED AND MATERIAL, COMPETATIVE PUPPETS,MUSIC •INTERESTED IN HOBBIES OR COLLECTION OFTHINGS
AGE TOYS GENERAL CONSIDERATIONADOLOSCENT BALLS. TELEPHONE, •REQUIRES A GREAT RADIOS, EASY EXPENDITURE OF PUZZLES, HAND ENERGY PUPPETS, CUTOUTS •PAY ATTENTION TO SPECIAL INTERESTS