Stock. Etymologically, stock is simply something one keeps a stock of for use.
Stock is traditionally the product of a pot kept constantly simmering on the hob, to which odds and ends of meat, bones vegetables, etc. are added from time to time to keep up a continuous stock for flavorful broth as a basis for soups, stews, sauces, etc...
In practice, few households or restaurants have the sort of constantly available source of low heat necessary for this perpetually self-renewing stockpot, and most stock is made afresh in individual batches as needed."
Fonds De Cuisine Stocks (fonds) are the very core of classical French cooking. Indispensible ingredient in most classic sauces and soups According to Auguste Escoffier : “ Stocks are to cooking what foundations are to a house.” Meat stocks are referred as “fonds” while fish and vegetable stocks are called “fumets”.
Composition of Stocks Meat Leftover cooked meat, such as that remaining on poultry carcasses, is often used along with the bones of the bird or joint. Fresh meat makes a superior stock and cuts rich in connective tissue such as shin or shoulder of beef or veal are commonly recommended, either alone or added in lower proportions to the remains of cooked poultry to provide a richer and fresher-tasting stock. Quantities recommended are in the ratio of 1 part fresh meat to 2 parts water. Pork is considered unsuitable for stock due to its greasiness (although 19th century recipes for consomme and traditional aspic included slices of mild ham) and mutton was traditionally avoided due to the difficulty of avoiding the strong tallowy taint imparted from the fat.
Bones and carcasses must be fresh and meaty; while the bones are the basis for the body Of the stock, it is the meat that imparts the flavor required. The bones, particularly those from the joints with cartilage, add gelatin that creates richness and density and lends a silken texture to the finished stock. The amount of bone should be greater than the meat. When making white stocks, the bones should be blanched to remove excess blood that would result in a muddy color. Bones and vegetables should be cut to the size appropriate for the length of cooking : larger pieces for long term cooking ; smaller pieces for short term cooking.
Composition of Stocks Bones Veal, beef, and chicken bones are most commonly used. The flavor of the stock comes from the cartilage and connective tissue in the bones. Connective tissue has collagen in it, which gets converted into gelatin that thickens the liquid. Stock made from bones needs to be simmered for longer than stock made from meat. Pressure cooking methods shorten the time necessary to extract the flavor from the bones.
Composition of Stocks Mirepoix A combination of onions, carrots, celery, and sometimes other vegetables. Often the less desirable parts of the vegetables (such as carrot skins and celery ends) are used since they will not be eaten.
Composition of stocks Herbs and spices or Aromatics The herbs and spices used depend on availability and local traditions. In classical cuisine, the use of a bouquet garni(or bundle of herbs) consisting of parsley, bay leaves, a sprig of thyme, and possibly other herbs, is common. If placed in a sachet to make it easier to remove once the stock is cooked, it is called a sachet d’epice.
Preparation of Stocks A few basic rules are commonly prescribed for preparing stock: The stock ingredients are simmered starting with cold water. This promotes the extraction of collagen, which may be sealed in by hot water. It cannot be hurried. Stocks are simmered gently, with bubbles just breaking the surface, and not boiled. If a stock is boiled, it will be cloudy. Salt is usually not added to a stock, as this causes it to become too salty, since most stocks are reduced to make soups and sauces. Meat is added to a stock before vegetables, and the "scum" that rises to the surface is skimmed off before further ingredients are added. If the cook wants to remove the fat, after the stock is finished it is cooled and the fat which floats, separates, and solidifies into globs within the stock, can be removed with ease. Stocks can be frozen and kept indefinitely but are better fresh.
Preparation of stocks All stocks must be prepared in a large stockpot, a tall , heavy bottomed pot made especially for this task. If making a brown stock you will need a heavy roasting pan to brown the bones.
Preparation of Stocks Use the highest quality ingredients. Trim excess fat from meat and bones. Always blanch beef and veal bones to remove albumins and eliminate strong flavors. Never blanch fish bones for fumets, wash them only. Blanching will remove the gelatinous material that imparts rich flavor. The higher the ratio of solids to liquid, the more intense the flavor. Do not stir up from the bottom of the pot during the cooking process , this will also make it cloudy. Skim off fat carefully and degrease regularly during cooking. Use a clean ladle or skimmer so that you do not return fat or impurities to the pot.
Preparation of Stocks Taste throughout the cooking process. Stop the cooking process when the ingredients release their maximum flavor. When cooking is complete, stocks should be poured out carefully and passed through a chinois into a clean container. Fumets should be ladled out and passed through a chinois. All stocks and fumets should be cooled completely in an ice bath to halt bacteria growth and prevent spoilage. A properly prepared stock should be bright and clear.
The most important aspect of stock is its flavor. A strong, pure depth of flavor is best achieved through three elements: The quality of the basic ingredients Ratio of solids to liquids Length of the cooking process Quality of Ingredients : fresh bones and meat are best, the meat contributes to its flavor while the bones add the gelatin that creates the richness and density that lends a silken texture to the finished stock. Ratio of solids to liquids ; just enough to cold liquid should be added to the pot to cover the solids by no more than 2 inches. Additional liquid is required only when the amount falls below the top of the solids. Length of the cooking process: depends on the base ingredient, Larger meats and bones require longer simmering time. Brown stocks are longer than white stocks. Fumets usually requires no more than 30 minutes. Overcooked stock turns bitter , to prevent this, taste it regularly while cooking.
How to assess a good stock Clarity Start with cold water cook at a slow simmer, continually skim off fat and impurities, scum that rise at the surface Flavor Extracted from meat , bones and vegetables. Almost never seasoned with salt except for vegetable stock.
Storage All stock and soup for freezing should be cooled quickly, and all surplus fat should be removed as this separates during storage. Pack in watertight containers allowing 1/2 inch headspace for wide-topped containers and 3/4 inch headspace for narrow-topped containers. Soup may also be stored in blocks if freezer space is limited. These blocks should be prepared by freezing the liquid in loaf tins or freezer boxes lined with foil, the solid blocks being wrapped in foil for storage. Preparation and packing Prepare stock or bouillon from meat, poultry, bones and/or vegetables. Strain, cool and remove fat. To save freezer space, concentrate until liquid is reduced by half. Pack in brick or ice cube form, or in containers leaving 1 inch head-space. Thawing and serving Heat gently over direct heat and use as required. Storage time 1 month.
Assignment What is the basic ratio for the ingredients of Mire Poix? What is the difference between stocks and broths? What are the different types of stocks? Describe the composition of each.
¼ sheet yellow paper Identify the following: These are flavored water preparations. What are the 5 components of basic stocks? 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Where stocks are best stored in. True or False 8. Stocks are often called the chef’s building blocks because they form the base for many soups and sauces. 9. Stocks must be boiled. 10. Stocks must not be frozen. Enumeration: 11 – 15 Give at least 5 tips on preparing stocks
Difference Between Stocks and broth The difference between broth and stock is one of both cultural and colloquial terminology but certain definitions prevail. Stock is the thin liquid produced by simmering raw ingredients: solids are removed, leaving a thin, highly-flavoured liquid. This gives classic stock as made from beef, veal, chicken, fish and vegetable stock. Broth differs in that it is a basic soup where the solid pieces of flavoring meat or fish, along with some vegetables, remain. It is often made more substantial by adding starches such as rice, barley or pulses. Traditionally, broth contains some form of meat or fish: nowadays it is acceptable to refer to a strictly vegetable soup as a broth.
Basic Ratio of Mire poix 2 parts Onion 1 part Celery 1 part Carrots
Types of Stocks Fond Blancs and Fumets or White Stock are made by combining all of the ingredients in a cool liquid and gently simmering them over low heat. FondsBruns or Brown stocks indicate roasting or sauteing the bones and mirepoix in enough fat to produce a rich mahogany color before simmering. Dashi is a Japanese stock made from Konbu, bonito flakes and water.