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20 keybattlesincivilwar

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    20 keybattlesincivilwar 20 keybattlesincivilwar Document Transcript

    • Battle DateLocationOutcomeSignificance1. Battle of Fort SumterApril, 1861Charleston, South CarolinaConfederate VictoryThis was the battle that initiated the start of the Civil War. General P.G.T Beauregard was ordered by Jefferson Davis to attack if the federal soldiers at Fort Sumter wouldn’t surrender. General Anderson didn’t and the confederates opened fire, eventually causing him to surrender. 2. First Battle of Bull RunJuly, 1861Manassas, Virginia Confederate VictoryThis was the first actual battle of the Civil War. General McDowell, the commander of the Union army, was ordered to march his poorly trained army to fight at Manassas, Virginia. At first, it seemed as though the Union was winning, however, General “Stonewall” Jackson of the confederacy held firm and pushed the Union back. 3. Battle of Fort HenryFebruary, 1862Along the Tennessee River (Western Tennessee)Union VictoryThis battle allowed Tennessee and Cumberland River to be taken by the Union. It was one of Union’s first important victories. After the capture of Fort Henry, General Grant attacked Fort Donelson (which was nearby) causing them to surrender as well. 4. Battle of Roanoke IslandFebruary, 1862Roanoke Island, North Carolina Union VictoryThis battle allowed the Union to take control over Roanoke Island and eventually gain control of North Carolina’s coast.5. Battle of Pea RidgeMarch, 1862Northwest Arkansas Union VictoryThis battle helped secure Missouri for the Union.6. Battle of Hampton RoadsMarch, 1862Hampton Roads, Virginia Draw. Neither ship was sunk. Although, the Union claimed they won.This battle changed the way naval battles were fought. It made wooden ships obsolete and revolutionized naval battle. The Confederates placed iron on an old wooden steamship, called Merrimack and made it indestructible. Soon, the Union followed and made a same kind of ship called the Monitor. The battle never had an absolute winner since neither ship was able to do serious damage to each other. 7. Battle of ShilohApril, 1862Shiloh, Tennessee Union VictoryIn this battle, General Johnston (Confederate) led and assaulted Grant's army at Pittsburg Landing. Grant's army struggled at this unexpected attack, but was able to hold it off until General Buell showed up with his army in addition to other reinforcements at Pittsburg Landing. The Union won the battle but suffered a great loss of soldiers. For the Confederates, they lost their leader Johnston.8. Battle of New OrleansApril-May, 1862New Orleans, Louisiana Union VictoryThis wasn’t really considered a battle, but when Admiral David G. Farragut led 43 Union naval ships to lower Mississippi near New Orleans, confederate general, Mansfield Lowell fled with his troops and the Union took over the city in April 25th. On May 1st, General B.F. Butler took 15,000 troops to New Orleans and claimed the city for the rest of the war. The loss of New Orleans was considered a disastrous mistake to the Confederates. 9. Seven Days BattleJune-July, 1862Richmond, VirginiaConfederate VictoryThis was a series of battles in which the Confederates prevented the Union from capturing their capitol, Richmond. The Confederates under Robert E. Lee was able to push the Union back through Lee’s offensive strategies. The Confederates’ victory ended the Peninsula Campaign and successfully defended Richmond.10. Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)August, 1862Manassas, Virginia Confederate VictoryGeneral McClellan joined General Pope’s troops after their failure to capture Richmond. General Pope's troops were forced north by the Confederates under the command of General Lee. While retreating north, Pope's troops were attacked by General Jackson from the east. Lee and General Longstreet later joined with Jackson and they forced the Union soldiers out of the battlefield. Pope's troops retreated north and were later joined by McClellan as they fled to Washington D.C.11. Battle of AntietamSeptember, 1862Sharpsburg, MarylandInconclusive, but due to South’s retreat, North gained a strategic victory.This was one of the bloodiest battles in the Civil War. After the General Lee’s retreat, Lincoln gave the Emancipation Proclamation, in which all slaves in the South were free. As a result of this, many Africa-Americans joined the Union army.12. Battle of FredericksburgDecember, 1862Fredericksburg, Virginia Confederate VictoryGeneral Ambrose Burnside was put in charge, due to McClellan’s countless defeats. His plan was to cross the Rappahannock River with an army of 120,000 troops straight to the South’s capital of Richmond. The attack was a failure as General Lee attacked from high ground, preventing them from crossing. The casualties for the Union were about 12,500 while the Confederate suffered only 5,000 casualties. With this failed attempt, General Burnside asked to be relieved from his service.13. Battle of Murfreesboro(Stones River)December- January, 1862-1863Murfreesboro, Tennessee Union Victory In this battle, Confederate general Bragg was able to push the Union back, but the Union held strong under the command of General Rosecrans. After repeated assaults from Union, General Bragg withdrew his forces from Stones River once the Union gained reinforcements. This victory boosted Union’s morale and helped start the New Year with a win.14. Battle of ChancellorsvilleApril-May, 1863Chancellorsville, VirginiaConfederate VictoryThis battle is considered to be one of the greatest Confederacy victories because Hooker’s cavalry was no match against Jackson’s forces. Unfortunately, this battle also resulted in the death of General Thomas Jackson as one of his own men shot him at night, thinking he was from the Union. He died of blood poisoning a few days later.15. Battle of GettysburgJuly, 1863Adams County, PennsylvaniaUnion VictoryThis battle was by far the most important battle of the Civil War, as it was a turning point for the Union. General Lee tested the Union on the first day and was followed by General Longstreet on the second day. However, due to the Pickett’s disastrous charge on the third day, where only 1/3 of the Confederate soldiers survived, the Confederates suffered a huge defeat which they would never recover from. This was one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War, and a crucial victory for the Union.16. Battle of ChickamaugaSeptember, 1863Catoosa County and Walker County, GeorgiaConfederate VictoryIn this battle, General Rosecrans of the Union attempted to maneuver the Confederate army out of Tennessee. Although he succeeded in repeatedly forcing General Bragg of the Confederacy to retreat, there was flaw in which a gap was created that forced 1/3 of the union Troops to retreat. Unable to deal with the incoming Confederate troops, the Union army retreated to Chattanooga, handing the victory to the Confederates17. Battle of ChattanoogaNovember, 1863Chattanooga, TennesseeUnion VictoryThis battle occurred right after the battle of Chickamauga. General Bragg’s army laid siege on the Union army under Gen. Rosecrans at Chattanooga. The Union army was cut from various supplies. However, after a new supply line was made, the Union soldiers heavily attacked the Confederate armies. In this battle, one out of the two major armies of the Confederates was completely destroyed. 18. Battle of the WildernessMay, 1864Spotsylvania County, VirginiaInconclusiveThis was a very intense battle between the two sides led by Generals Grant and Meade of the Union and General Robert E. Lee of the Confederates. It was fought in the woods and it was so intense that even the trees caught on fire and soldiers couldn’t recognize their own side due to all the smoke. Thus, a lot of them ended up killing each other. No really won this battle, however, General Grant continued his attacking till the end.19. Battle of AtlantaJuly, 1864South Atlanta, Georgia Union VictoryAt first, General Hood of the Confederates outmaneuvered General Sherman of the Union. But, when two of Hood’s divisions ran into the Union’s reserve force, they ended up being driven back. Confederate attacks continued, and at one point they broke through the Union front at the hurt house, but Sherman’s mass attacks interrupted their progress. In the end, the Union line was restored and Hood suffered many casualties. 20. Battle of NashvilleNovember, 1864Davidson County, TennesseeUnion VictoryIn this battle, General John Hood became desperate and led his army towards Nashville in an attempt to drive out General Sherman out of Georgia for the final time. However, General Hood is once again unable to succeed in his plan due to the Union’s assault and hands the victory to the Union once more. In the end, Hood retreated to a place called Tupelo and resigned.<br />