• Like
Stimulus Generalization
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Stimulus Generalization

  • 891 views
Published

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
891
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Get rid of bottom stuff when top comes up.
  • Of course 50/50 depends on the specific VR schedule, but shouldn’t get into that here. Errors here because several students said “no reinforcer” which is consistent with a lean schedule, but I think Eric’s point here was to say that it was random, regardless of the richness of the schedule.
  • Changed bubble from “ Intermittent reinforcement means that we only reinforced the key pecks occasionally and not each time the stimulus was presented.” because there were several errors (maybe 10%) in next question, F02.
  • Many students on the posttest answered incorrectly to different response mode (A. less, B. more), but answered incorrectly in only one direction. I’ll add a question here in that MC modality and in the opposite direction (different prompt/SD). Intermittent reinforcement affects resistance to extinction because of _________. (1) deprivation-satiation effect stimulus generalization
  • Many students on the posttest answered incorrectly to different response mode (A. less, B. more), but answered incorrectly in only one direction. I’ll add a question here in that MC modality and in the opposite direction (different prompt/SD).
  • Was 11 in F02 (screwed up the previous question for W03)
  • 2-28-02 look at error analysis
  • 2-28-02. meeting-- 4/11. 1/7. 1/10. 1/9. The after condition says pigeon has food! This should be extinction! Noticed post W03.
  • NEW after W03.
  • This was 20 in W03.

Transcript

  • 1. STIMULUS GENERALIZATION GRADIENT Push the mouse’s left button to advance Eric Chubb Jason Otto 27 Questions. Approximately 35 minutes to complete.
  • 2. Alright. You must have left clicked your mouse. When you left click the mouse you advance through the show. Push it now. When you’re prepared to go on, left click the mouse. When you see a button or multiple choice question, then you will use the mouse to left click your answer.
    • Here, try it.
    • Left-click me
    • B. Bla bla bla
    Click me if you already know how to control the workshow Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 3.
    • Here, try it.
    • Cool
    • B. Bla bla bla
    When you get the right answer, you will continue by clicking the mouse again. Do this now.
  • 4. There’s one or two more things. you will mark your answer on the scantron for this homework. When you see a question and this picture, Mark your answer on the scantron with the #2 pencil in your course pack before you left click the answer here on the screen. Your form is anonymous . And you will not lose points for incorrect answers, but we do want your own, first answer. Form Question #
  • 5. So when you see this picture, you mark your paper form first, then you click your answer on the screen second. (This time you won’t mark the scan-tron form.) A. True B. False Form Question # Left-click your answer
  • 6. So when you see this picture, you mark your paper form first, then you click your answer on the screen second. (This time you won’t mark the scan-tron form.) A. True B. False Form Question #
  • 7. So when you see this picture, you mark your paper form first, then you click your answer on the screen second. (This time you won’t mark the scan-tron form.) A. True B. False Right on. Now dive in by hitting the right arrow key. Form Question #
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13.
    • We will be examining:
    stimulus discrimination, stimulus generalization gradients, and everything else relating to Stimulus Generalization
  • 14. Stimulus discrimination review
    • Responding occurs more frequently
    • in the presence of one stimulus and
    • less frequently in the presence of
    • another stimulus.
    Stimulus Discrimination: So organisms respond to different stimuli in different ways.
  • 15.
    • Young Rod loves animal crackers, especially
    • the elephants. He sorts through the animal
    • crackers his mother gives him and picks out all of the elephants to eat.
    Does his picking only the elephants demonstrate stimulus discrimination?
    • Yes
    • No
    Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 16.
    • Young Rod loves animal crackers, especially
    • the elephants. He sorts through the animal
    • crackers his mother gives him and picks out all of the elephants to eat.
    Does his picking only the elephants demonstrate stimulus discrimination?
    • Yes
    • No
    When he picks just the elephants, his picking behavior is under the stimulus control of the shape of cookie. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 17.
    • Young Rod loves animal crackers, especially
    • the elephants. He sorts through the animal
    • crackers his mother gives him and picks out all of the elephants to eat.
    Does his picking only the elephants demonstrate stimulus discrimination?
    • Yes
    • No
    Excellent! Rod is discriminating between the various shapes of the crackers.
  • 18.
    • When Rod’s mother picks him up from his after-school day care, she notices that he never has a problem picking his shoes out from the giant pile of children’s shoes.
    Does Rod’s ability to pick out his shoes demonstrate stimulus discrimination?
    • Yes
    • No
    Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 19.
    • When Rod’s mother picks him up from his after-school day care, she notices that he never has a problem picking his shoes out from the giant pile of children’s shoes.
    Does Rod’s ability to pick out his shoes demonstrate stimulus discrimination?
    • Yes
    • No
    Sorry, but if you reread the text you’ll see that Rod is discriminating. Try again Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 20.
    • When Rod’s mother picks him up from his after-school day care, she notices that he never has a problem picking his shoes out from the giant pile of children’s shoes.
    Does Rod’s ability to pick out his shoes demonstrate stimulus discrimination?
    • Yes
    • No
    Correct, Rod is discriminating between his shoes and the other kids shoes.
  • 21.
    • Dawn took away Rod’s favorite toy because he was making messes. Rod got upset and for the rest of the day he would make mean faces at Dawn and any other woman he saw.
    Do Rod’s facial gestures at all of the women and Dawn demonstrate stimulus discrimination?
    • Yes
    • No
    Dawn Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 22.
    • Dawn took away Rod’s favorite toy because he was making messes. Rod got upset and for the rest of the day he would make mean faces at Dawn and any other woman he saw.
    Do Rod’s facial gestures at all of the women and Dawn demonstrate stimulus discrimination?
    • Yes
    • No
    Dawn We wish he were discriminating, but he isn’t. Otherwise he would only make those mean faces at his mother and not the rest of us. Try again. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 23.
    • Dawn took away Rod’s favorite toy because he was making messes. Rod got upset and for the rest of the day he would make mean faces at Dawn and any other woman he saw.
    Do Rod’s facial gestures at all of the women and Dawn demonstrate stimulus discrimination?
    • Yes
    • No
    Dawn Good job, Rod wasn’t discriminating and now we’ll take a look at what he was doing. Please arrow forward.
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. Stimulus generalization review
    • The behavioral contingencies in the presence of one stimulus affects the frequency of the response in the presence of another stimulus.
    Stimulus Generalization: So an organism is responding to different stimuli in the same way.
  • 31. So when a stimulus generalizes, there is a failure to discriminate between two or more different stimuli. And an organism responds to physically similar stimuli in the same way. This is what Rod was doing when he made faces at all of the other women and not just Dawn, even though they were all different.
  • 32. Which answer best represents Rod’s reactions to the other women and his mother?
    • Much stimulus generalization
    • Much stimulus discrimination
    In Rod’s case, the concept of Dawn (a female) generalized to all other women. He was not discriminating Dawn from any other woman he saw, so he made faces at all of them. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 33. Which answer best represents Rod’s reactions to the other women and his mother?
    • Much stimulus generalization
    • Much stimulus discrimination
    In Rod’s case, the concept of Dawn (a female) generalized to all other women. He was not discriminating Dawn from any other woman he saw, so he made faces at all of them. Sorry, but if you reread the text you’ll see that Rod is not discriminating. Try again Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 34. In Rod’s case, the concept of Dawn (a female) generalized to all other women. He was not discriminating Dawn from any other woman he saw, so he made faces at all of them. Which answer best represents Rod’s reactions to the other women and his mother?
    • Much stimulus generalization
    • Much stimulus discrimination
    GREAT JOB!! Always remember that generalizing is the opposite of discriminating.
  • 35. Young Rod has a dog named Chester. Whenever Rod sees another dog, he always says “Chester”. Does Rod’s calling all dogs “Chester” demonstrate stimulus generalization? Chester!!! A. Yes B. No Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 36. Young Rod has a dog named Chester. Whenever Rod sees another dog, he always says “Chester”. Does Rod’s calling all dogs “Chester” demonstrate stimulus generalization? Chester!!! A. Yes B. No Sorry that’s wrong. The behavioral contingencies in the presence of Chester are affecting the frequency of Rod’s responses when he is in the presence of other dogs. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 37. Young Rod has a dog named Chester. Whenever Rod sees another dog, he always says “Chester”. Does Rod’s calling all dogs “Chester” demonstrate stimulus generalization? Chester!!! A. Yes B. No Excellent!!! This is clearly an example of stimulus generalization at work. Arrow forward to continue.
  • 38.
    • Whenever Rod goes to take his nap in his pre-school class, he sometimes grabs other students’ blankets and not his own blankie.
    A. Yes B. No Does Rod’s accidental theft of the other kid’s blankets demonstrate stimulus generalization? R O D Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 39.
    • Whenever Rod goes to take his nap in his pre-school class, he sometimes grabs other students’ blankets and not his own blankie.
    A. Yes B. No Does Rod’s accidental theft of the other kid’s blankets demonstrate stimulus generalization? R O D Sorry chief, but Rod would be discriminating if he could pick out his blankie, but he can’t. So is he generalizing? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 40.
    • Whenever Rod goes to take his nap in his pre-school class, he sometimes grabs other students’ blankets and not his own blankie.
    A. Yes B. No Does Rod’s accidental theft of the other kid’s blankets demonstrate stimulus generalization? R O D Right on!!! Did anyone ever tell you that you might make a fine Behavior Analyst?
  • 41.
    • When Rod is finally done with a tough day of pre-school, he goes to his cubbyhole and grabs his bear. He never has a problem picking out his cubbyhole from all of the others.
    A. Yes B. No ROD JUAN ANGELIQUE Does Rod’s mastery of finding his cubbyhole demonstrate stimulus generalization? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 42.
    • When Rod is finally done with a tough day of pre-school, he goes to his cubbyhole and grabs his bear. He never has a problem picking out his cubbyhole from all of the others.
    A. Yes B. No ROD JUAN ANGELIQUE Does Rod’s mastery of finding his cubbyhole demonstrate stimulus generalization? Nope, if Rod can pick his cubbyhole and not pick others, then he is making a discrimination, not a generalization. Try again. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 43.
    • When Rod is finally done with a tough day of pre-school, he goes to his cubbyhole and grabs his bear. He never has a problem picking out his cubbyhole from all of the others.
    A. Yes B. No ROD JUAN ANGELIQUE Does Rod’s mastery of finding his cubbyhole demonstrate stimulus generalization? Yes!! This is clearly an example of a discrimination. Let’s keep going.
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49.  
  • 50.  
  • 51.  
  • 52.  
  • 53.  
  • 54.  
  • 55. Stimulus Generalization Experiment
    • Once upon a time,
    two psychologists named Kalish and Guttman decided to experiment and find out how generalization works. Generalization Hmm Guttman, maybe we should take this one to the Skinner box. Let’s get to work. Discrimination
  • 56. Training Phase First, they intermittently reinforced the key pecks of a pigeon. This means that they only occasionally followed the key peck with a reinforcer. So we reinforce the key peck, but not after each time the pigeon pecks the key. We used a variable-interval schedule.
  • 57.
    • Reinforcer
    • No reinforcer
    • It’s random, so I can’t predict
    Okay, by looking at the chart showing a variable (random) schedule, what do you think would happen for key Peck #8? What would follow key peck #8? Key peck #1 Reinforcer Key peck #2 No reinforcer Key peck #3 No reinforcer Key peck #4 No reinforcer Key peck #5 Reinforcer Key peck #6 No reinforcer Key peck #7 Reinforcer Key peck #8 ? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 58.
    • Reinforcer
    • No reinforcer
    • It’s random, so I can’t predict
    Nice try, but think about what the best option is. Remember, that this is a variable schedule we are dealing with. What would follow key peck #8? Key peck #1 Reinforcer Key peck #2 No reinforcer Key peck #3 No reinforcer Key peck #4 No reinforcer Key peck #5 Reinforcer Key peck #6 No reinforcer Key peck #7 Reinforcer Key peck #8 ? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 59.
    • Reinforcer
    • No reinforcer
    • It’s random, so I can’t predict
    Nope, look at the chart and see if it fits any schedule of reinforcement. Then try again. What would follow key peck #8? Key peck #1 Reinforcer Key peck #2 No reinforcer Key peck #3 No reinforcer Key peck #4 No reinforcer Key peck #5 Reinforcer Key peck #6 No reinforcer Key peck #7 Reinforcer Key peck #8 ? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 60.
    • Reinforcer
    • No reinforcer
    • It’s random, so I can’t predict
    That’s great. Since it is an intermittent schedule, either of the two conditions could follow the key peck. What would follow key peck #8? You’ll learn more about schedules like a variable interval schedule later this semester, but for now just know that the pigeon pecked the key many more times than it received reinforcers, and that the reinforcers were delivered randomly. Key peck #1 Reinforcer Key peck #2 No reinforcer Key peck #3 No reinforcer Key peck #4 No reinforcer Key peck #5 Reinforcer Key peck #6 No reinforcer Key peck #7 Reinforcer Key peck #8 ?
  • 61. The Training Stimulus
    • During the training phase, Kalish and Guttman intermittently reinforced the key pecks only in the presence of a training stimulus-
    a yellow-green light projected in the Skinner box. TRAINING STIMULUS When the yellow-green light was off, key pecks were never reinforced.
  • 62. The Training Stimulus
    • During the training phase, Kalish and Guttman intermittently reinforced the key pecks only in the presence of a training stimulus-
    a yellow-green light projected in the Skinner box. TRAINING STIMULUS Did we reinforce every key peck when the training stimulus was presented? Yes or No Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 63. The Training Stimulus
    • During the training phase, Kalish and Guttman intermittently reinforced the key pecks only in the presence of a training stimulus-
    a yellow-green light projected in the Skinner box. TRAINING STIMULUS Did we reinforce every key peck when the training stimulus was presented? Yes or No Since we this was an intermittent reinforcement procedure, we did not reinforce every key peck. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 64. The Training Stimulus
    • During the training phase, Kalish and Guttman intermittently reinforced the key pecks only in the presence of a training stimulus-
    a yellow-green light projected in the Skinner box. TRAINING STIMULUS Wonderful!! You are absolutely correct. Now let’s examine this in more detail.
  • 65. The Training Stimulus
    • Because they only occasionally reinforced key pecks in the presence of the training stimulus,
    TRAINING STIMULUS Note that this is not a standard discrimination training procedure, where we would reinforce most of the responses in the presence of the stimulus. most of the total key pecks did not get reinforced.
  • 66. You’ll see that in the next stage of the experiment key pecks won’t be reinforced. The intermittent schedule also makes the key pecks more resistant to extinction (it will take more unreinforced key pecks to reduce key pecking). And the experimenters did not want the key peck response to be too sensitive to extinction.
  • 67. Now suppose you are in the rat lab and, in the presence of the light, you only reinforce chain pulls with water sometimes (but not always). A. Yes B. No During extinction, would chain pulling be more resistant to extinction if you reinforced each and every chain pull? Left-click your answer
  • 68. Now suppose you are in the rat lab and, in the presence of the light, you only reinforce chain pulls with water sometimes (but not always). A. Yes B. No During extinction, would chain pulling be more resistant to extinction if you reinforced each and every chain pull? Sorry my friend, but reinforcing each and every chain pull in training would allow the stimulus conditions in training and extinction to be so different that the behavior would not be very resistant to extinction.
  • 69. During extinction, would chain pulling be more resistant to extinction if you reinforced each and every chain pull? A. Yes B. No Now suppose you are in the rat lab and, in the presence of the light, you only reinforce chain pulls with water sometimes (but not always). Good analysis, now how about another one.
  • 70. Now suppose you are in the rat lab and, in the presence of the light, you reinforce each and every chain pull with water. A. More B. Less During extinction, would chain pulling be more or less resistant to extinction if you reinforced chain pulls only once in a while? Left-click your answer
  • 71. During extinction, would chain pulling be more or less resistant to extinction if you reinforced chain pulls only once in a while? A. More B. Less Now suppose you are in the rat lab and, in the presence of the light, you reinforce each and every chain pull with water. Sorry my friend, but reinforcing few of the chain pulls in training would allow the stimulus conditions in training and extinction to be so similar that the behavior would be more resistant to extinction.
  • 72. Now suppose you are in the rat lab and, in the presence of the light, you reinforce each and every chain pull with water. A. More B. Less During extinction, would chain pulling be more or less resistant to extinction if you reinforced chain pulls only once in a while? Good analysis, continuous reinforcement makes behavior less resistant to extinction than intermittent reinforcement. The more the training procedure is similar to extinction, the longer it takes to extinguish the response
  • 73. Training Procedure Behavior The pigeon pecks the key. After The pigeon has food. Training Stimulus ? Before The pigeon has no food. What was the training stimulus? A. The presentation of any light B. The intermittent presentation of the reinforcer C. A light with the color dimension of yellow-green Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 74. A. The presentation of any light B. The intermittent presentation of the reinforcer C. A light with the color dimension of yellow-green Training Procedure Behavior The pigeon pecks the key. After The pigeon has food. Training Stimulus ? Before The pigeon has no food. What was the training stimulus? The presentation of a light was part of the training stimulus, but we wanted to train a specific color as an S D . Try again. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 75. A. The presentation of any light B. The intermittent presentation of the reinforcer C. A light with the color dimension of yellow-green Training Procedure Behavior The pigeon pecks the key. After The pigeon has food. Training Stimulus ? Before The pigeon has no food. What was the training stimulus? The presentation of the reinforcer was how they established stimulus control by the training stimulus. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 76. A. The presentation of any light B. The intermittent presentation of the reinforcer C. A light with the color dimension of yellow-green Training Procedure Behavior The pigeon pecks the key. After The pigeon has food. Training Stimulus Yellow-Green Light Before The pigeon has no food. What was the training stimulus? Good answer, the pigeons were trained on the color dimension of the light. Keep going and we will show you why we did this.
  • 77.  
  • 78.  
  • 79.  
  • 80.  
  • 81.  
  • 82.  
  • 83.  
  • 84.  
  • 85. The Testing Procedure Once they had the pigeon responding reliably in the presence of the yellow-green light, Kalish and Guttman tested for stimulus generalization. Generalization Discrimination What’s our next step, Guttman? Well old friend, it’s time to test for stimulus generalization by using an extinction procedure. By testing for stimulus generalization, we mean we’ll present other colors to see how often the pigeon pecks the key.
  • 86. They used intermittent reinforcement in the training phase and extinction in the testing phase. A. So responding would reduce quickly while they presented the other colors B. So responding would still occur to some extent, even though they weren’t reinforced Why did they want the key pecks to be resistant to extinction for testing? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 87. They used intermittent reinforcement in the training phase and extinction in the testing phase. A. So responding would reduce quickly while they presented the other colors B. So responding would still occur to some extent, even though they weren’t reinforced Why did they want the key pecks to be resistant to extinction for testing? Sorry, but they need to have some responding, some resistance to extinction in order to measure stimulus generalization. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 88. They used intermittent reinforcement in the training phase and extinction in the testing phase. A. So responding would reduce quickly while they presented the other colors B. So responding would still occur to some extent, even though they weren’t reinforced Why did they want the key pecks to be resistant to extinction for testing? Right on, they need to have some responding, some resistance to extinction in order to measure stimulus generalization.
  • 89. The Testing Stimuli They used a range of colors from blue to red to test the pigeon. Blue and red are the two colors least similar to the training stimulus out of all the colors presented. Training stimulus
  • 90. The Testing Stimuli This was the stimulus in the presence of which key pecks were reinforced. Training stimulus
  • 91. The Testing Stimuli Then, during testing, all of the colors were presented one by one, by themselves, and no pecks were reinforced. Training stimulus
  • 92. The pigeon had previously been exposed to only one of the colors of the testing stimuli, the training color ( yellow-green ). They presented the testing stimuli (the colors from blue to red , including yellow-green ), in a random sequence. A. The pigeon had not seen any of the colors B. The pigeon had seen only one of the colors C. The pigeon had seen all of the colors Prior to testing, which of the following was true? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 93. A. The pigeon had not seen any of the colors B. The pigeon had seen only one of the colors C. The pigeon had seen all of the colors The pigeon had previously been exposed to only one of the colors of the testing stimuli, the training color ( yellow-green ). They presented the testing stimuli (the colors from blue to red , including yellow-green ), in a random sequence. Prior to testing, which of the following was true? Sorry, but the pigeon had been exposed to at least one of the colors, as indicated by including the training stimulus as part of the testing stimulus. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 94. A. The pigeon had not seen any of the colors B. The pigeon had seen only one of the colors C. The pigeon had seen all of the colors The pigeon had previously been exposed to only one of the colors of the testing stimuli, the training color ( yellow-green ). They presented the testing stimuli (the colors from blue to red , including yellow-green ), in a random sequence. Prior to testing, which of the following was true? You might want to try again, this time pay attention to how we presented the testing and training stimuli. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 95. A. The pigeon had not seen any of the colors B. The pigeon had seen only one of the colors C. The pigeon had seen all of the colors The pigeon had previously been exposed to only one of the colors of the testing stimuli, the training color ( yellow-green ). They presented the testing stimuli (the colors from blue to red , including yellow-green ), in a random sequence. That’s great!!! Kalish and I love to work with brilliant students. Let’s move on and make you a little more brilliant. Prior to testing, which of the following was true?
  • 96. Stimulus generalization: The behavioral contingencies in the presence of one stimulus affects the frequency of the response in the presence of another stimulus. If we examine our definition of stimulus generalization again, we can understand why they designed the study this way.
  • 97. In this experiment, the definition would be written like this: So reinforcing key pecks in the presence of the yellow-green light affected the frequency of key pecks in the presence of other colors. But the key pecks in the presence of those other test colors do NOT occur because they were reinforced in the presence of those test colors. The behavioral contingencies (no food key peck food) in the presence of the yellow-green light affects the frequency of the key peck in the presence of any of the other testing colors.
  • 98. They only reinforced key pecks in the presence of the training stimulus , because if they had reinforced key pecks in the presence of all of the colors , then they could not be certain if the responses to the test colors were due to reinforcement in the presence of these colors OR due to stimulus generalization.
    • Because of the history of reinforcement in the presence of the yellow-green training stimulus , or
    • B. Because of the history of reinforcement in the presence of those other testing colors
    In the study, did the presentation of the colors other than yellow-green evoke a response…… Left-click your answer
  • 99.
    • Because of the history of reinforcement in the presence of the yellow-green training stimulus , or
    • B. Because of the history of reinforcement in the presence of those other testing colors
    In the study, did the presentation of the colors other than yellow-green evoke a response…… They only reinforced key pecks in the presence of the training stimulus , because if they had reinforced key pecks in the presence of all of the colors , then they could not be certain if the responses to the test colors were due to reinforcement in the presence of these colors OR due to stimulus generalization. We only reinforced pecks in the presence of the training stimulus and never reinforced pecks in the presence of the other test colors. If we had reinforced pecks in the presence of the other colors, then we would not be able to know if generalization was occurring. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 100.
    • Because of the history of reinforcement in the presence of the yellow-green training stimulus, or
    • B. Because of the history of reinforcement in the presence of those other testing colors
    In the study, did the presentation of the colors other than yellow-green evoke a response…… They only reinforced key pecks in the presence of the training stimulus , because if they had reinforced key pecks in the presence of all of the colors , then they could not be certain if the responses to the test colors were due to reinforcement in the presence of these colors OR due to stimulus generalization. Good answer!! We designed the study this way, so that we could be certain that we were studying stimulus generalization. Keep going.
  • 101. Now suppose that you were presenting the yellow light to the pigeon, and it responded by pecking the key in the presence of the yellow light. Is this an example of stimulus generalization? A. Yes or B. No (after it had been trained with the yellow-green light) Training stimulus Reinforced key pecks No Reinforced key pecks Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 102. Training stimulus Reinforced key pecks No Reinforced key pecks Now suppose that you were presenting the yellow light to the pigeon, and it responded by pecking the key in the presence of the yellow light. Is this an example of stimulus generalization? A. Yes or B. No Pecking in the presence of the yellow light would represent a lack of discrimination, because we had only reinforced key pecks in the presence of the yellow-green light and none in the presence of the yellow light. What is the opposite of discrimination? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 103. Training stimulus Reinforced key pecks No Reinforced key pecks Now suppose that you were presenting the yellow light to the pigeon, and it responded by pecking the key in the presence of the yellow light. Is this an example of stimulus generalization? A. Yes or B. No That’s right. The stimulus generalized from the training color to the testing color, so the pigeon responded to the yellow testing light. Now let’s move on, this giant pigeon is scaring me.
  • 104. Now suppose that you were presenting the yellow light to the pigeon, and it responded by pecking the key in the presence of the yellow light. A. Yes or B. No Wait a minute Kalish, there is a little more to it than that. What about responding to the light onset? Doesn’t that mean a discrimination was being made between responding in the presence of light and responding when no light was present? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 105. Now suppose that you were presenting the yellow light to the pigeon, and it responded by pecking the key in the presence of the yellow light. A. Yes or B. No The pigeon is only making the response when light is presented and doesn’t respond when it is absent. So key pecking is under discriminative stimulus control of light on and light off. But the pigeon pecks the key in the presence of colors that were never presented, so that shows stimulus generalization, right? You may want to consider Guttman’s question like this. Although the pigeon is generalizing between the colors of light, it is also discriminating between when any light is present and when there is no light. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 106. A. Yes or B. No Good job!!!! The pigeon discriminated between the light being on versus the light being off. This is the stimulus discrimination component of the response. The stimulus generalization component dealt with the color dimension of the light we presented. When dealing with stimulus generalization, the organism discriminates between concepts (sets of stimuli similar along physical dimensions- like the color of the light) and generalizes within the concept (responding to untrained colors as well as the training color). So what you two geniuses are talking about is the fact that there is typically at least some discrimination and generalization occurring in these situations? That’s right giant pigeon!!!! Kalish, I think it’s time to move on.
  • 107.
    • They used an extinction procedure during the test phase.
    • This means that no key pecks were reinforced in the presence of any of the colors.
    Is the key peck for the red stimulus reinforced? A. Yes B. No COLOR Key Peck Reinforced? Orange 1 NO Yellow-green 2 NO Blue 3 NO Red 4 ? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 108.
    • They used an extinction procedure during the test phase.
    • This means that no key pecks were reinforced in the presence of any of the colors.
    A. Yes B. No Is the key peck for the red stimulus reinforced? Sorry, but the key peck would not be reinforced, because this is an extinction procedure. COLOR Key Peck Reinforced? Orange 1 NO Yellow-green 2 NO Blue 3 NO Red 4 ? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 109.
    • They used an extinction procedure during the test phase.
    • This means that no key pecks were reinforced in the presence of any of the colors.
    A. Yes B. No Is the key peck for the red stimulus reinforced? Good job!!! The key peck is not reinforced, because the testing was done under extinction. COLOR Key Peck Reinforced? Orange 1 NO Yellow-green 2 NO Blue 3 NO Red 4 ?
  • 110.  
  • 111.  
  • 112.  
  • 113.  
  • 114.  
  • 115.  
  • 116.  
  • 117.  
  • 118.  
  • 119.  
  • 120. Testing Procedure Behavior The pigeon pecks the key. After The pigeon has no food. Testing Stimulus ? Before The pigeon has no food. What were the testing stimuli? A. The yellow-green light B. Any one of the light colors besides yellow-green C. Any one of the light colors Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 121. A. The yellow-green light B. Any one of the light colors besides yellow-green C. Any one of the light colors Testing Procedure Behavior The pigeon pecks the key. After The pigeon has no food. Testing Stimulus ? Before The pigeon has no food. What were the testing stimuli? Sorry, but that is not the only testing stimulus, please try again. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 122. A. The yellow-green light B. Any one of the light colors besides yellow-green C. Any one of the light colors Testing Procedure Behavior The pigeon pecks the key. After The pigeon has no food. Testing Stimulus ? Before The pigeon has no food. What were the testing stimuli? Sorry, but the those weren’t all of the colors that the testing stimuli was composed of. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 123. A. The yellow-green light B. Any one of the light colors besides yellow-green C. Any one of the light colors Testing Procedure Behavior The pigeon pecks the key. After The pigeon Has no food. Testing Stimulus ? Before The pigeon has no food. What were the testing stimuli? Excellent choice!!! We tested all of the colors to see how they would generalize.
  • 124. Testing Procedure Behavior The pigeon pecks the key. After Testing Stimulus Any one of the light colors Before The pigeon has no food. What was the testing procedure? A. Intermittent reinforcement B. Extinction Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 125. Testing Procedure Behavior The pigeon pecks the key. After The pigeon has no food. Testing Stimulus ? Before The pigeon has no food. Sorry, but that only occurs in TRAINING. Please try again. What was the testing procedure? A. Intermittent reinforcement B. Extinction Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 126. Testing Procedure Behavior The pigeon pecks the key. After The pigeon has no food. Testing Stimulus ? Before The pigeon has no food. Yep, there’s no reinforcers delivered AT ALL during testing; they delivered reinforcers in the prior TRAINING condition. What was the testing procedure? A. Intermittent reinforcement B. Extinction Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 127.  
  • 128.  
  • 129.  
  • 130.  
  • 131.  
  • 132.  
  • 133.  
  • 134.  
  • 135.  
  • 136.  
  • 137.  
  • 138. Results The pigeons made fewer and fewer responses as the colors we presented got increasingly different from the yellow-green light we trained them on. The pigeons responded the most in the presence of the yellow-green light, less with the yellow light, even less with the orange light and the least with the red light. Can you tell us in the presence of what color the pigeon responded the most? Yellow-Green Red Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 139. Results If you recall, my friend was just talking about how responding occurs more often with the yellow-green and less with the red colored light. Almost, but remember the distribution of colors that we looked at earlier. Yellow-Green Red Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 140. Results Now let’s take a look at a graph, so you can see what we are talking about. To the data, Kalish!!! That’s good, we are just testing you to make sure that you are still with us. Yellow-Green Red
  • 141.  
  • 142.  
  • 143.  
  • 144.  
  • 145.  
  • 146.  
  • 147.  
  • 148.  
  • 149.  
  • 150.  
  • 151. This responding is what you usually get with a stimulus generalization experiment. Yes, you can see that as the stimulus changes in color, the responding rates change also. So the more the stimuli differ from the training stimulus, the less the amount of generalization and the greater the discrimination. This is called a stimulus generalization gradient . It shows us how responding is affected by changes in a property of the stimulus, like color. Which colors were the pigeons able to discriminate the most from the training color? Blue and Red Green and Red Yellow-Green and Blue Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 152. Once again, the more different the two stimuli are, the less the generalization and the greater the discrimination. The yellow-green color was the training stimulus, we want to know which colors are the most easily discriminated from it. Blue and Red Green and Red Yellow-Green and Blue Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 153. Still, the more different the two stimuli are, the less the generalization and the greater the discrimination. Sorry, take a closer look at the graph and think about what Guttman keeps saying. Blue and Red Green and Red Yellow-Green and Blue Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 154. Very impressive! If you look at the arrows, you can see how the response rates are lower. That’s right Guttman. The responses are less frequent as the colors got increasingly different from yellow-green. Blue and Red Green and Red Yellow-Green and Blue
  • 155. A. Much generalization and little discrimination B. Little generalization and much discrimination C. None of the above Assuming we reinforced key pecks only in the presence of the color yellow, what does this distribution best represent? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 156. Sorry, but it is one of the two options. A. Much generalization and little discrimination B. Little generalization and much discrimination C. None of the above Assuming we reinforced key pecks only in the presence of the color yellow, what does this distribution best represent? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 157. If there were more stimulus generalization, then the response rates for the other colors would be closer to the rates for the color yellow. A. Much generalization and little discrimination B. Little generalization and much discrimination C. None of the above Assuming we reinforced key pecks only in the presence of the color yellow, what does this distribution best represent? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 158. Excellent!!! By looking at the differences in response rates, it is clear that this is much stimulus discrimination A. Much generalization and little discrimination B. Little generalization and much discrimination C. None of the above Assuming we reinforced key pecks only in the presence of the color yellow, what does this distribution best represent?
  • 159. A. Little generalization and much discrimination B. Much generalization and little discrimination C. None of the above What does this distribution best represent, if responses had been reinforced only in the presence of yellow? Left-click your answer
  • 160. We aren’t letting you off that easy! It’s definitely one of the two. A. Little generalization and much discrimination B. Much generalization and little discrimination C. None of the above What does this distribution best represent, if responses had been reinforced only in the presence of yellow? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 161. Are response rates similar or quite different? If they are similar then responding occurs the same way in the presence of different stimuli. A. Little generalization and much discrimination B. Much generalization and little discrimination C. None of the above What does this distribution best represent, if responses had been reinforced only in the presence of yellow? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 162. A wonderful choice. This is clearly an example of the color yellow generalizing to the colors that are similar to it. A. Little generalization and much discrimination B. Much generalization and little discrimination C. None of the above What does this distribution best represent, if responses had been reinforced only in the presence of yellow?
  • 163.  
  • 164.  
  • 165.  
  • 166.  
  • 167.  
  • 168.  
  • 169.  
  • 170.  
  • 171.  
  • 172. Which graph shows the most stimulus discrimination? (after being trained on the color yellow only) A B C D Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 173. Sorry chief, that is the opposite of complete stimulus discrimination. Give it another shot. Which graph shows the most stimulus discrimination? (after being trained on the color yellow only) Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 174. Which graph shows the most stimulus discrimination? (after being trained on the color yellow only) This is a high amount of stimulus discrimination, but it is not complete discrimination. Try again. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 175. Which graph shows the most stimulus discrimination? (after being trained on the color yellow only) Nope, this is stimulus generalization. Notice how the response rates are similar across the colors. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 176. Alright!! This is definitely complete stimulus discrimination. Now let’s try some more. Which graph shows the most stimulus discrimination? (after being trained on the color yellow only)
  • 177. Which graph shows the most stimulus generalization? (after being trained on the color yellow) A B C D Left-click your answer
  • 178. This is stimulus discrimination, which is the opposite of generalization. so which one is complete generalization? Which graph shows the most stimulus generalization? (after being trained on the color yellow) Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 179. Which graph shows the most stimulus generalization? (after being trained on the color yellow) This is a high amount of stimulus generalization, but it is not complete stimulus generalization. Give it another shot. Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 180. Which graph shows the most stimulus generalization? (after being trained on the color yellow) Sorry, but that graph is complete stimulus discrimination. What is the opposite? Left-click your answer Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 181. Which graph shows the most stimulus generalization? (after being trained on the color yellow) Good job!! This is complete stimulus generalization. The color dimension of the stimuli have completely generalized, so the response rates are all the same.
  • 182. Now let’s revisit our little buddy Rod. Remember how Rod called every dog that he saw by his dog Chester’s name? This represented stimulus generalization, as saying “Chester” was reinforced in the presence of Chester and not in the presence of any of the other dogs. Chester! Chester was Rod’s training stimulus and how often he says “Chester” in the presence of other dogs is a good way to examine stimulus generalization.
  • 183. Stimulus Generalization Gradient Dog 1 Dog 2 Dog 3 Assuming that saying “Chester” generalized based on the size dimension of Chester, which dog below would most likely be Dog 3? These bars represent the number of times that Rod said “Chester” when in the presence of each dog. A B C Left-click your answer Left-click your answer
  • 184. Stimulus Generalization Gradient Dog 1 Dog 2 Dog 3 Sorry, this dog might be Dog 3 if we were looking at the drooling dimension, but think about the sizes of the dogs and try again. Assuming that saying “Chester” generalized based on the size dimension of Chester, which dog below would most likely be Dog 3? Left-click your answer
  • 185. Stimulus Generalization Gradient Dog 1 Dog 2 Dog 3 Assuming that saying “Chester” generalized based on the size dimension of Chester, which dog below would most likely be Dog 3? Close, but you’re still not right. Think about the size dimension and try again. Left-click your answer
  • 186. Stimulus Generalization Gradient Assuming that saying “Chester” generalized based on the size dimension of Chester, which dog below would most likely be Dog 3? Good job!!! The bulldog was the closest in size and it evoked the response of “Chester” much more frequently than the other two dogs.
  • 187.  
  • 188.  
  • 189.  
  • 190.  
  • 191.  
  • 192.  
  • 193.  
  • 194.  
  • 195.  
  • 196.  
  • 197. The End Thanks for your participation We hope we’ve helped you understand the wonderful world of stimulus generalization! And don’t forget…. To save the world with Behavior Analysis!!
  • 198. A product of The Behavior Analysis Training System at Western Michigan University
  • 199. Action Items
    • Owner Due Date Description
    • Otto 8/30/2002 Switch feedback for #10