Stimulus Equivalence

  • 2,083 views
Uploaded on

 

More in: Spiritual , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,083
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • 2-19-03 160 Student: verbatim
  • 2-19-03 160 Student:verbatim hesitated at …screen second..true.
  • 2-19-03 160 Student: verbatim
  • 2-19-03 160 Student: verbatim
  • 2-19-03 160 Student: verbatim
  • 2-19-03 160 Student: verbatim..oh [after chime] looking for scantron
  • 2-19-03 160 Student: verbatim, oh left click your answer.
  • These next several-question sequence needs work. The feedback slides are bouncing visually. Font needs to be bigger. “This” and “it” needs to be spelled out. Specify and spell out when talking about stimuli and responses in the matching—it’s unclear or ambiguous.
  • These next several-question sequence needs work. The feedback slides are bouncing visually. Font needs to be bigger. “This” and “it” needs to be spelled out. Specify and spell out when talking about stimuli and responses in the matching—it’s unclear or ambiguous. Revised for Fall 2002. The W02 and S02 data show many errors on 10 and 11, but there was an incorrect link and misdirection from 10 to 11 that probably caused the students to put a misplaced answer on the scantron.
  • These next several-question sequence needs work. The feedback slides are bouncing visually. Font needs to be bigger. “This” and “it” needs to be spelled out. Specify and spell out when talking about stimuli and responses in the matching—it’s unclear or ambiguous.
  • The S02 version had some hyperlink problem, but I think the errors were still high due to the question.
  • I’m hiding these for the W02 semester. Not clear what the objective is. Bouncing, broken feedback I think. S02: These may be a necessary prerequisite to understanding what goes in the diagrams in the next section.
  • Behavioral chaining is Chapter 20, after this. Could refer to the chaining experiment and dual functioning stimuli in the lab, as most students would have this history.
  • For Fall 02, added “called identity matching” because about 10% in summer put c for #15 For W03, added (they’re the same thing) for same reason, though many put B.
  • This sequence has slides feedback slides that jump around and feedback callouts that come up only after pushing the arrow key—should come up automatically. Also it’s not clear sometimes what part of the diagram the question is about. Also, depends a lot on the students’ memory of the example rather than the general concepts. 2-28-02. meeting. This question is very distant from the material stating that Dawn trained this relation. Changed question from “ Dawn trained Al to touch Mark’s photo upon hearing “Mark.” Emergent relation?” To the above for W03.
  • This sequence has slides feedback slides that jump around and feedback callouts that come up only after pushing the arrow key—should come up automatically. Also it’s not clear sometimes what part of the diagram the question is about. Also, depends a lot on the students’ memory of the example rather than the general concepts. 2-28-02. meeting. This question is very distant from the material stating that Dawn trained this relation. Changed question from “ Dawn trained Al to touch Mark’s photo upon hearing “Mark.” Emergent relation?” To the above for W03.
  • This sequence has slides feedback slides that jump around and feedback callouts that come up only after pushing the arrow key—should come up automatically. Also it’s not clear sometimes what part of the diagram the question is about. Also, depends a lot on the students’ memory of the example rather than the general concepts. 2-28-02. meeting. This question is very distant from the material stating that Dawn trained this relation. Changed question from “ Dawn trained Al to touch Mark’s photo upon hearing “Mark.” Emergent relation?” To the above for W03.
  • Have to fix top, left relation because Al wasn’t trained that way.
  • Have to fix top, left relation because Al wasn’t trained that way.
  • Have to fix top, left relation because Al wasn’t trained that way.
  • 2-28-02, 4/7 in one section. Rewrote question so it wasn’t ambiguous about whether is either of the two individually or without written—for W03.
  • 2-28-02, 4/7 in one section. Rewrote question so it wasn’t ambiguous about whether is either of the two individually or without written—for W03.
  • 2-28-02, 4/7 in one section. Rewrote question so it wasn’t ambiguous about whether is either of the two individually or without written—for W03.
  • 2-28-02 meeting. 4/7 in one section.

Transcript

  • 1. Stimulus Equivalence Workshow Revisions by: Kristen Gaisford Created by: Greg Partlo Conny Raaymakers Jason Otto Click the arrow to advance 26 Questions. Approximately 45 minutes to complete.
  • 2. There’s one or two more things. you will mark your answer on the scantron for this homework. When you see a question and this picture, Mark your answer on the scantron with the #2 pencil in your course pack before you left click the answer here on the screen. Your form is anonymous. And you will not lose points for incorrect answers, but we do want your own answer. Click me if you already know how to control the workshow Form Question #
  • 3. So when you see this picture, you mark your paper form first, then you click your answer on the screen second. A. True B. False Form Question # Left-click your answer
  • 4. So when you see this picture, you mark your paper form first, then you click your answer on the screen second. (This time you won’t mark the scan-tron form.) A. True B. False Form Question #
  • 5. So when you see this picture, you mark your paper form first, then you click your answer on the screen second. (This time you won’t mark the scan-tron form.) A. True B. False Right on. Now dive in by hitting the arrow at the bottom Form Question #
  • 6. A few illegal beers, no seatbelt, a fast pickup truck, a missed curve and a sudden impact with an unyielding oak tree caused extensive, diffuse brain damage in 19-year old Al .
  • 7. And now, after 11 years in a traditional brain-injury rehab program, Al still couldn’t identify the therapists he saw daily. Can I ask you a question? Who are you??
  • 8.
    • Al’s inability to do people-name symbolic matching limited his independence.
    Now it was time to implement some behavioral training. Al’s therapist, Dawn, was ready to take on this challenge.
  • 9. So, Dawn started a process called Symbolic Matching to Sample Dawn said the name “Mark” and then Al was shown three pictures (sample stimulus) “ MARK” SPOKEN SAMPLE Then Al pointed to a color photo of Mark (comparison stimulus) Dawn said, “That’s right!” “ That’s Right!”
  • 10. Let’s look at the reinforcement contingency of this procedure Al has no praise Al points to “Mark’s” photo Al has praise S D : Dawn says, “Mark”
  • 11. For the next month, Dawn and Al did matching to sample with Dawn speaking the different names of Al’s three therapists. Dawn started a new trial by saying the name “Bev.” But this time Al pointed to Mark’s photo instead of Bev’s photo. Dawn said, “Try again.” Then Al pointed to Bev’s photo and Dawn said, “ That’s right!” “ Bev” Spoken Sample
  • 12. Here is the extinction contingency of when Al points to “Mark” when the S D is “Bev” Al has no praise Al points to “Mark’s” photo Al has no praise S D : Dawn says, “Bev”
  • 13. So there is one thing we need to get straight before we move on…
    • You need to understand the difference between identity matching and symbolic matching.
    “ MARK” An example of symbolic matching would be Dawn saying “Mark”, which is symbolic of Mark’s photo.
  • 14. Identity Matching… Here is an example of identity matching where matching occurs between the written name of Mark on one piece of paper and the written name of Mark on another piece of paper. Mark Sally Tom Mark Sally Tom Identity matching occurs when the sample and comparison stimuli are physically identical.
  • 15. So now let’s test your knowledge to make sure you understand the difference. Mark Sally Tom So, what is the example above? A. Symbolic matching B. Identity matching “ MARK”
  • 16. So now lets test your knowledge to make sure you understand the difference. Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” So, what is the example above? A. Symbolic matching B. Identity matching No, The auditory stimulus “Mark” and the written word Mark are not identical, so they are just symbols of each other.
  • 17. So now lets test your knowledge to make sure you understand the difference. Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” Yes, You’ve got it! The auditory stimulus, “Mark” is symbolic of the visual, written Mark. So, what is the example above? A. Symbolic matching B. Identity matching
  • 18. So now lets test your knowledge to make sure you understand the difference. So, what is the example above? A. Symbolic matching B. Identity matching
  • 19. So now lets test your knowledge to make sure you understand the difference. So, What type of matching is this? A. Symbolic matching B. Identity matching No. The sample teddy bear is identical to the comparison teddy bear. They are not symbols of each other.
  • 20. So now lets test your knowledge to make sure you understand the difference. So, What type of matching is this? A . Symbolic matching B. Identity matching Yes, You’ve got it! When the sample teddy bear is identical to the comparison teddy bear, they are not symbols of each other.
  • 21. So now lets test your knowledge to make sure you understand the difference. Computer So, What type of matching is this? A. Symbolic matching B. Identity matching
  • 22. So now lets test your knowledge to make sure you understand the difference. So, What type of matching is this? A. Symbolic matching B. Identity matching Computer No. The auditory stimulus, “Computer” is symbolic of the computer itself. They are not identical samples, so they can be symbolic of each other.
  • 23. So now lets test your knowledge to make sure you understand the difference. So, What type of matching is this? A. Symbolic matching B. Identity matching Computer Yes, You’ve got it! The auditory stimulus, “computer” is symbolic of the computer itself! Great Job!
  • 24. “ MARK” SPOKEN SAMPLE It is selecting a comparison stimulus Corresponding to a sample stimulus So now that you have that figured out, you need to remember the definition of Matching to sample.
  • 25.
    • When Dawn used Symbolic Matching To Sample, she had Al match…
    A. Comparison Stimulus to a sample stimulus B. Comparison Response to a sample stimulus C. Sample stimulus to a sample stimulus D. None of the above Left-click your answer
  • 26.
    • When Dawn used Symbolic Matching To Sample, she had Al match…
    Yes! Al, is matching the spoken name “Mark” with a picture of Mark. Great Job! A. Comparison Stimulus to a sample stimulus B. Comparison Response to a sample stimulus C. Sample stimulus to a sample stimulus D. None of the above
  • 27.
    • When Dawn used Symbolic Matching To Sample, she had Al match…
    No. The picture of “ Mark” or “Deb,” is not a response compared to a sample stimulus. Keep trying A. Comparison Stimulus to a sample stimulus B. Comparison Response to a sample stimulus C. Sample stimulus to a sample stimulus D. None of the above
  • 28.
    • When Dawn used Symbolic Matching To Sample, she had Al match…
    A. Comparison Stimulus to a sample stimulus B. Comparison Response to a sample stimulus C. Sample stimulus to a sample stimulus D. None of the above No. Al did not receive praise when he pointed to Mark’s photo after hearing the name “Deb.” Left-click your answer
  • 29.
    • When Dawn used Symbolic Matching To Sample, she had Al match…
    A. Comparison Stimulus to a sample stimulus B. Comparison Response to a sample stimulus C. Sample stimulus to a sample stimulus D. None of the above Sorry, the answer is above. Keep trying! Left-click your answer
  • 30.
    • Al hears the name “Deb”
    • Al says “Mark ”
    • Al looks at the picture Mark
    • Al hears the spoken name “Mark”
    What is the S D for Al’s behavior? Al’s behavior of pointing to Mark’s picture can be described through a Discriminative Stimulus diagram. ? S D S-DELTA Al receives no praise BEFORE Al points to Mark’s photo BEHAVIOR Al receives praise AFTER Al receives no praise AFTER
  • 31. What is the S D for Al’s behavior? Al receives no praise Al points to Marks photo Al receives praise Al receives no praise BEFORE BEHAVIOR S D S-DELTA AFTER AFTER
    • Al hears the name “Deb”
    • Al says “Mark”
    • Al looks at the picture Mark
    • Al hears the spoken name “Mark”
    No. Al, did not Receive praise when he pointed To “Marks” picture when Dawn spoke the name “Deb”.
  • 32. What is the S D for Al’s behavior?
    • Al hears the name “Deb”
    • Al says “Mark”
    • Al looks at the picture Mark
    • Al hears the spoken name “Mark”
    Al receives no praise Al points to Marks photo Al receives praise Al receives no praise S D S-DELTA BEFORE BEHAVIOR AFTER AFTER The S D must also past the stimulus test, therefore it can’t be a behavior of the behaver.
  • 33. What is the S D for Al’s behavior?
    • Al hears the name “Deb ”
    • Al says “Mark ”
    • Al looks at the picture Mark
    • Al hears the spoken name “Mark ”
    Al receives no praise Al points to Marks photo Al receives praise Al receives no praise S D S-DELTA BEFORE BEHAVIOR AFTER AFTER No. Al may look at the picture of Mark but that is not the stimulus in the presence of which Al’s behavior will be reinforced.
  • 34. What is the S D for Al’s behavior?
    • Al hears the name “Deb ”
    • Al says “Mark”
    • Al looks at the picture Mark
    • Al hears the spoken name “Mark”
    Al receives no praise Al points to Marks photo Al receives praise Al hears Dawn say “ Mark” Al hears Dawn say “ Deb” Al receives no praise S D S-DELTA BEFORE BEHAVIOR AFTER AFTER Yes! Al hears Dawn say the name “ Mark” which is the S D and the S-delta is Dawn saying any other name but “Mark”
  • 35.
    • Now back to Al…
    “ MARK” Dawn trained Al to point at Mark’s photo when she said, “Mark.”
  • 36. “ MARK” As a result of that training, when Dawn pointed to the photo, Al could also say the name “Mark”.
  • 37. The picture of Mark evoking the response “Mark” is Novel Stimulus Control “ MARK” “ MARK”
  • 38. You may be tempted to say, “Of course if Al knows this is Mark’s photo, then he knows that “Mark” is the name of the guy in the photo. BUT THAT ISN”T NECESSARILY TRUE “ MARK” “ MARK”
  • 39. So here is our theory… First, Dawn said “Mark” then Al touched Mark’s photo while he said “Mark” but perhaps covertly (Under his breath). “ MARK” “ Mark” (Covertly)
  • 40. So here is our theory… Then Dawn said, “That’s right,” reinforcing both Al’s touching Mark’s photo and his covertly saying, “Mark”. “ MARK” “ Mark” (Covertly) Al has no praise Al points to Mark’s photo and covertly says “Mark ” Al has praise REINFORCEMENT
  • 41. So here is our theory… So when Dawn pointed to Mark’s photo and asked “who is this.” it was easy for Al to increase the intensity to an out loud “Mark,” from covert “Mark,” a response that had been reinforced throughout the preceding trials. “ MARK” “ Mark” (Covertly) Al has no praise Al points to Mark’s photo and covertly says “Mark ” Al has praise REINFORCEMENT
  • 42.
    • First, Dawn said “Mark” then Al touched Mark’s photo and said “Mark” but perhaps covertly (under his breath).
    • Al knows this is “Mark’s” photo
    • Al has been trained in the past to pick the photo when he heard the name “Mark,” so he can also say the name when he sees the photo
    • Al thinks this is “Mark’s” photo
    • Al feels this is “Mark’s photo
    So why can Al say Mark’s name when shown the picture? “ MARK” “ Mark” (Covertly)
  • 43.
    • Al knows this is “Mark’s” photo
    • Al has been trained in the past to pick the photo when he heard the name “Mark,” so he can also say the name when he sees the photo
    • Al thinks this is “Mark’s” photo
    • Al feels this is “Mark’s photo
    So why can Al say Mark’s name when shown the picture? No. “Knows” is not specific enough. So here is our theory… First, Dawn said “Mark” then Al touched Mark’s photo and said “Mark” but perhaps covertly (under his breath). “ MARK” “ Mark” Covertly
  • 44.
    • Al knows this is “Mark’s” photo
    • Al has been trained in the past to pick the photo when he heard the name “Mark,” and also said his name under his breath, which was reinforced, so he can also say the name when he sees the photo
    • Al thinks this is “Mark’s” photo
    • Al feels this is “Mark’s photo
    So why can Al say Mark’s name when shown the picture? Right! So here is our theory… First, Dawn said “Mark” then Al touched Mark’s photo and said “Mark” but perhaps covertly (under his breath). “ MARK” “ Mark” Covertly
  • 45.
    • Al knows this is “Mark’s” photo
    • Al has been trained in the past to pick the photo when he heard the name “Mark,” so he can also say the name when he sees the photo
    • Al thinks this is “Mark’s” photo
    • Al feels this is “Mark’s photo
    So why can Al say Mark’s name when shown the picture? No. Thinks is a common-sense, mentalistic word which gets too sloppy in our analysis. So here is our theory… First, Dawn said “Mark” then Al touched Mark’s photo and said “Mark” but perhaps covertly (under his breath). “ MARK” “ Mark” Covertly
  • 46.
    • Al knows this is “Mark’s” photo
    • Al has been trained in the past to pick the photo when he heard the name “Mark,” so he can also say the name when he sees the photo
    • Al thinks this is “Mark’s” photo
    • Al feels this is “Mark’s photo
    So why can Al say Mark’s name when shown the picture? No. Feels is a common-sense, mentalistic word which gets too sloppy in our analysis. So here is our theory… First, Dawn said “Mark” then Al touched Mark’s photo and said “Mark” but perhaps covertly (under his breath). “ MARK” “ Mark” Covertly
  • 47.
    • After Dawn trained Al to touch the photo with her saying “Mark” as the S D , Al was able to say the name Mark out loud in the presence of another stimulus
    What is the S D for Al’s behavior of saying Mark?
    • Dawn is saying Mark
    • Dawns finger is touching Mark’s photo
    • Another therapist is saying Mark
    • None of the above
    Al receives no praise BEFORE Al says “Mark” BEHAVIOR Al receives praise AFTER Al receives no praise AFTER ? S D S-DELTA
  • 48.
    • After Dawn trained Al to touch the photo with her saying “Mark” as the SD, Al was able to say the name Mark out loud in the presence of another stimulus
    • Dawn is saying Mark
    • Dawns finger is touching Mark’s photo
    • Another therapist is saying Mark
    • None of the above
    What is the S D for Al’s behavior of saying Mark? No. Dawn did say Mark but that isn’t the S D for Al’s behavior of saying Mark. Try again. Al receives no praise BEFORE Al says “Mark” BEHAVIOR Al receives praise AFTER Al receives no praise AFTER S D S-DELTA
  • 49.
    • After Dawn trained Al to touch the photo with her saying “Mark” as the SD, Al was able to say the name Mark out loud in the presence of another stimulus
    • Dawn is saying Mark
    • Dawns finger is touching Mark’s photo
    • Another therapist is saying Mark
    • None of the above
    What is the S D for Al’s behavior of saying Mark? Yes. Dawn is touching Mark’s photo, which is the S D for Al saying the name “Mark”. Al receives no praise BEFORE Al says “Mark” BEHAVIOR Al receives praise AFTER Al receives no praise AFTER Finger on photo of Mark S D Finger on any other photo S-DELTA
  • 50.
    • After Dawn trained Al to touch the photo with her saying “Mark” as the SD, Al was able to say the name Mark out loud in the presence of another stimulus
    • Dawn is saying Mark
    • Dawns finger is touching Mark’s photo
    • Another therapist is saying Mark
    • None of the above
    What is the S D for Al’s behavior of saying Mark? No. No other therapist has been involved in Al training. Try again. Al receives no praise BEFORE Al says “Mark” BEHAVIOR Al receives praise AFTER Al receives no praise AFTER S D S-DELTA
  • 51.
    • After Dawn trained Al to touch the photo with her saying “Mark” as the SD, Al was able to say the name Mark out loud in the presence of another stimulus
    • Dawn is saying Mark
    • Dawns finger is touching Mark’s photo
    • Another therapist is saying Mark
    • None of the above
    What is the S D for Al’s behavior of saying Mark? No. The answer is above. Try again. Al receives no praise BEFORE Al says “Mark” BEHAVIOR Al receives praise AFTER Al receives no praise AFTER S D S-DELTA
  • 52. Now, lets take it back to the Skinner box. You could train symbolic matching with a nonverbal organism like Polly. When we present the color green, we reinforce pecks on the word “green.” Following just the training above, we will not see Polly then touch the color green in the presence of the word “green.” Yellow Green S D Green S D
  • 53. A hasty analysis might be that in the presence of the word “green,” Polly would be able to peck the color green because Polly already knows how to peck the “green” key in the presence of the color green.
    • That’s the trouble with using common-sense mentalistic words such as “knows.”
    • Because Polly can say “green” to herself
    • Because Polly can’t say to herself “green”
    After you reinforce pecking the word “green” in the presence of the color green, why can’t she do the above? Green S D
  • 54. A hasty analysis might be that in the presence of the word “green,” Polly would be able to peck the color green because Polly already knows how to peck the “green” key in the presence of the color green.
    • That’s the trouble with using common-sense mentalistic words such as “knows.”
    After you reinforce pecking the word “green” in the presence of the color green, why can’t she do the above? Green
    • Because Polly can say “green” to herself
    • Because Polly can’t say to herself “green”
    No. Polly the pigeon is not a verbal organism. She can’t covertly say “green” to herself. S D
  • 55. A hasty analysis might be that in the presence of the word “green,” Polly would be able to peck the color green because Polly already knows how to peck the “green” key in the presence of the color green.
    • That’s the trouble with using common-sense mentalistic words such as “knows.”
    After you reinforce pecking the word “green” in the presence of the color green, why can’t she do the above? Green
    • Because Polly can say “green” to herself
    • Because Polly can’t say to herself “green”
    Yes. Your right! Polly can’t say to herself “green.” Yet, Al can because he is a verbal organism. S D
  • 56. So, what is this all called?
    • Symmetry means when Al was trained in one direction, the other direction emerged without direct training…
    Symmetry “ MARK” “ Mark” So lets break this down. When Dawn says “Mark,” Al is trained to touch the photo of Mark. And he also says “Mark” covertly, so saying “Mark” is also reinforced.
  • 57.
    • Symmetry means when Al was trained in one direction, the other direction emerged without direct training…
    So after this training above, when Dawn touches Mark’s photo, Al can say the name “Mark” because covertly saying the name “Mark” has been previously reinforced . And his covertly saying “Mark” was only reinforced when he was touching the photo of Mark. “ Mark” “ MARK” “ MARK”
  • 58. “ MARK” “ MARK” You’ll learn more about the importance of Al saying “Mark” covertly later. For now the easy way to identify a symmetrical relationship is to see if the S D and response are simply switched around.
  • 59. A. Yes B. No Dawn has trained Al to touch the bear when he hears “bear.” Would the procedure on top be symmetrical to the training below it? “ Bear” “ Shirt”
  • 60. Dawn has trained Al to touch the bear when he hears “bear.” Would the procedure on top be symmetrical to the training below it?
    • Yes
    • No
    No, symmetrical relationships involve the same responses and stimuli, while the shirt was not part of the training at all. “ Bear” “ Shirt”
  • 61. Dawn has trained Al to touch the bear when he hears “bear.” Would the procedure on top be symmetrical to the training below it?
    • Yes
    • No
    Correct, the shirt is not relevant to the symmetrical relationship with the bear and “bear.” “ Bear” “ Shirt”
  • 62. A. Yes B. No Now is the matching on the bottom symmetrical to the matching on top? “ Bear” “ Bear” BEAR SHIRT CUP
  • 63. A . Yes B. No No, symmetrical relationships involve the same responses and stimuli, while the written word, bear was not part of the training at all. Now is the matching on the bottom symmetrical to the matching on top? “ Bear” “ Bear” BEAR SHIRT CUP
  • 64. Correct, the written word, bear is not relevant to the symmetrical relationship with the bear and “bear.” A. Yes B. No Now is the matching on the bottom symmetrical to the matching on top? “ Bear” “ Bear” BEAR SHIRT CUP
  • 65. A. Yes B. No Now is the matching on the bottom symmetrical to the matching on top? “ Bear” “ Bear”
  • 66. A. Yes B. No Now is the matching on the bottom symmetrical to the matching on top? No, symmetrical relationships involve the same responses and stimuli, as we have here. “ Bear” “ Bear”
  • 67. Correct, Al can point to the bear after hearing “bear,” as well as say “bear” after Dawn points to the bear. A. Yes B. No Now is the matching on the bottom symmetrical to the matching on top? “ Bear” “ Bear”
  • 68. Great. You’ve got it! This is symmetry! “ Bear” “ Bear”
  • 69. Moving on to an important point that you should understand… Even before training with Dawn, Al could match the written names with the spoken name. Al had been trained previously but this response was not a result of Dawn’s training “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom
  • 70. In other words, when Dawn touched Mark’s photo Al would touch Mark’s written name Now after many training trials of matching the photo to the spoken name, it turns out that Al could also match the written names to the photo. Mark Sally Tom
  • 71. Mark Sally Tom Al could match the correct response of touching Mark’s written name to Dawn touching Mark’s photo, without the response ever being reinforced in the past!
  • 72. Let’s recap for a moment. First, Al could touch the written word when she said “Mark”. Now after training, Al can also touch Mark’s picture after hearing “Mark.” “ MARK” “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom
  • 73. As a result of the two previous trainings, Al can touch the written word when Dawn touches Mark’s photo. Keep in mind that touching the written word has never been reinforced in the presence of Dawn touching the photo. Mark Sally Tom
  • 74. So what exactly is this transitive stimulus control that we call transitivity? Click on the right arrow key to find out
  • 75. Well, first Al hears “Mark,” which is a stimulus. The auditory stimulus, “Mark” controlled Al’s pointing to the written word Mark, which was achieved through prior training. Mark Sally Tom “ MARK”
  • 76. And, with much reinforcement from Dawn, the auditory stimulus, “Mark” also controlled pointing to the photo of Mark. And now, without ANY training for pointing to the written name in the presence of the photo, Al could do so. This novel stimulus control is called transitivity. “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom
  • 77. Let’s see if you really understand stimulus control. What part of this symbolic matching is under stimulus control (the other part is the stimulus exerting control)? Please select either A or B Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” A. B.
  • 78.
    • Response
    • Stimulus
    Let’s see if you really understand stimulus control. No, Al touching the name “Mark” is the response under stimulus control. So, what is part “A” of the symbolic matching? Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” A. B. 13
  • 79. Let’s see if you really understand stimulus control. Yes, you’ve got it! Al touching the name “Mark” is under stimulus control!
    • Response
    • Stimulus
    So, what is part “A” of the symbolic matching? Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” A. B. 13
  • 80. Let’s see if you really understand stimulus control. No. Dawn saying “Mark” is a stimulus for Al touching the name “Mark.” It is not a response Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” A. B.
  • 81. Let’s see if you really understand stimulus control. Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” A. B. Yes, you’ve got it! When Dawn says the name “Mark” this is a stimulus for Al touching the written name “Mark.”
  • 82. So here is our theory again. When Al sees Mark’s photo, he says, “Mark,” either overtly or covertly, as he learned from training. And he was already able to match the written names to Dawn’s Spoken names So in the transitive relation, he just matches the written name “Mark” to his own speaking of the name “Mark”. “ MARK” “ Mark” “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom Mark Sally Tom “ Mark”
  • 83. Now we have what is called a behavioral chain; a sequence of stimuli and responses. Each response produces a change in the environment that acts as a discriminative stimulus or operandum for the next response. S D Photo of “ Mark” Behavior Al speaks the name “Mark” S D Sound of Mark’s name “ MARK” “ MARK” Behavior Al touches Written name Mark Sally Tom
  • 84. “ MARK” “ MARK”
    • Transitivity
    • Symmetry
    Now, lets see if you know the difference between Transitivity and Symmetry! What is the above diagram?
  • 85.
    • Transitivity
    • Symmetry
    No, look closely at the diagrams “ MARK” “ MARK” Now, lets see if you know the difference between Transitivity and Symmetry! What is the above diagram?
  • 86.
    • Transitivity
    • Symmetry
    “ MARK” “ MARK” Now, lets see if you know the difference between Transitivity and Symmetry! What is the above diagram? Yes. Since Al can touch Mark’s photo when Dawn say’s “Mark” he can also say “Mark,” when Dawn touches Mark’s photo. And this is called Symmetry!
  • 87. Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom A. Transitivity B. Symmetry Now, what is the above diagram?
  • 88.
    • Transitivity
    • Symmetry
    Yes.You’ve got it! Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom Now, what is the above diagram?
  • 89. A. Transitivity B. Symmetry No, look closely at the diagrams Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom Now, what is the above diagram?
  • 90. Polly’s matching red with red. Similarly, even before Dawn’s training, Al could match written word with identical written words. Mark Sally Tom Mark Sally Tom Reflexivity refers to the results of simple, non-symbolic or identity matching. So whenever there is matching between identical samples, called identity matching, you have reflexivity (they’re the same thing)! We need to talk about one more term that goes with symmetry and transitivity and that is…REFLEXIVITY
  • 91.
    • Example A is symbolic matching
    • Example B is symbolic matching
    So, which one of these examples is symbolic matching? “ MARK” A . Mark Sally Tom Mark Sally Tom B . Left-click your answer
  • 92.
    • Example A is symbolic matching
    • Example B is symbolic matching
    So, which one of these examples is symbolic matching? No. “A”, is the correct answer because Dawn saying “Mark” is symbolic to Al touching Mark’s photo “ MARK” A . Mark Sally Tom Mark Sally Tom B . Left-click your answer
  • 93.
    • Example A is symbolic matching
    • Example B is symbolic matching
    So, which one of these examples is symbolic matching? Yes, you’ve got it! When Dawn says “Mark” it is symbolic to Al touching Mark’s photo! This is an example of symbolic matching “ MARK” A . Mark Sally Tom Mark Sally Tom B . Left-click your answer
  • 94. A. B. So, what is example “B”? A . Symbolic Matching B. Identity Matching C. Reflexivity D. B & C “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom Mark Sally Tom
  • 95. A. B. No. “A”, isn’t the correct answer for example “B”. Example “A” is symbolic matching because Dawn saying “Mark” is symbolic to Al touching Mark’s photo. So, what is example “B”?
    • Symbolic Matching
    • Identity Matching
    • Reflexivity
    • B & C
    “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom Mark Sally Tom
  • 96. A. B. You are close. Yes, “B” is identity but could it also be something else? Try again! So, what is example “B”? A. Symbolic Matching B. Identity Matching C. Reflexivity D. B & C “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom Mark Sally Tom
  • 97. A. B. You are close. Yes, “B” is reflexive but could it also be something else? Try again! So, what is example “B”? A. Symbolic Matching B. Identity Matching C. Reflexivity D. B & C “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom Mark Sally Tom
  • 98. A. B. Yes, You’ve got it! Dawn pointing to Mark’s written name is not symbolic with Al pointing to Mark’s written name because they are both identical samples. So that is identity matching. And since they are identical samples, this is called Reflexivity! A. Symbolic Matching B. Identity Matching C. Reflexivity D. B & C “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom Mark Sally Tom
  • 99. REFLEXIVE SYMMETRICAL So, what exactly is Stimulus Equivalence? Most behavior analysts says it is a set of stimuli such as a set of: And….. Mark Sally Tom Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” “ MARK”
  • 100. And TRANSITIVE stimulus relations + Equivalence classes result from stimulus-equivalence training the sort of symbolic matching to sample Al did. Some of the reflexive, symmetrical, and transitive stimulus-control relations emerge when just a few of the combinations are explicitly trained, as was the case with Al. Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom
  • 101. Those stimulus-control relations that emerge without being explicitly trained are called Emergent Relations REFLEXIVE SYMMETRICAL TRANSITIVE + First when symmetrical matching occurred, when Dawn touched Mark’s picture and Al said Marks name this was emergent because it had not been previously trained Also, when transitive matching occurred, When Dawn touched Mark’s photo and Al could touch Mark’s written name this was emergent because it also had not been previously trained Mark Sally Tom Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom
  • 102. Let’s Review on what has been trained and what hasn’t… First Dawn trained Al to touch mark’s photo when she said “Mark” As a result of this training Al could say “Mark” when Dawn pointed to Mark’s photo without previous training. Also as a result of training (but not trained itself) Al could point to Mark’s written name when Dawn pointed to Mark’s photo. Mark Sally Tom “ MARK” “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom
  • 103. Al’s Equivalence Class
    • Yes
    • No
    Dawn trained Al to touch Mark’s photo upon hearing “ Mark.” Is this an emergent relation? “ MARK”
  • 104. Al’s Equivalence Class
    • Yes
    • No
    Yes! You’ve got it. There was training involved, so it can’t be emergent! Dawn trained Al to touch Mark’s photo upon hearing “ Mark.” Is this an emergent relation? “ MARK”
  • 105. Al’s Equivalence Class
    • Yes
    • No
    No. An emergent relation is one that occurs without previous training. Dawn trained Al to touch Mark’s photo upon hearing “ Mark.” Is this an emergent relation? “ MARK”
  • 106.
    • Yes
    • No
    Trained by Dawn We know Dawn TRAINED Al to touch Mark’s photo upon hearing Mark’s name… However now Al can now also touch Mark’s written name when Dawn touches Mark’s photo: Is this an emergent relation? “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom
  • 107. Trained by Dawn
    • Yes
    • No
    We know Dawn TRAINED Al to touch Mark’s photo upon hearing Mark’s name… However now Al can now also touch Mark’s written name when Dawn touches Mark’s photo: Is this an emergent relation? Actually this relation is emergent. Training was not involved with the matching between the photo and the written name. “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom
  • 108. Trained by Dawn
    • Yes
    • No
    We know Dawn TRAINED Al to touch Mark’s photo upon hearing Mark’s name… However now Al can now also touch Mark’s written name when Dawn touches Mark’s photo: Is this an emergent relation? Yes, You‘ve got it! There was no previous training of matching the photo with the written name. “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom Left-click your answer
  • 109.
    • Yes
    • No
    Now lets look at the next matching between Dawn saying the name “Mark” and Al touching the name Mark. He could do this before training so is it an emergent relation? “ MARK” Trained by Dawn Mark Sally Tom Emergent Relation: Transitive & Symmetrical
  • 110.
    • Yes
    • No
    You’ve got it. Al had been trained in the past to touch the name with the spoken name. Even though Dawn did not train this response. Now lets look at the next matching between Dawn saying the name “Mark” and Al touching the name Mark. He could do this before training so is it an emergent relation? “ MARK” Trained by Dawn Mark Sally Tom Emergent Relation: Transitive & Symmetrical
  • 111.
    • Yes
    • No
    Try again. Al had been trained in the past to touch the written name when he heard the spoken name. He may not have been trained by Dawn but he was trained in the past. Now lets look at the next matching between Dawn saying the name “Mark” and Al touching the name Mark. He could do this before training so is it an emergent relation? “ MARK” Trained by Dawn Mark Sally Tom Emergent Relation: Transitive & Symmetrical
  • 112.
    • Yes
    • No
    Ok, one more step. Was the matching between Dawn touching the photo of “Mark” and Al saying the name “Mark” emergent? Mark Sally Tom “ MARK”
  • 113.
    • Yes
    • No
    There was no previous training of Al saying the name “Mark” when Dawn would touch the picture of “Mark” Ok, one more step. Was the matching between Dawn touching the photo of “Mark” and Al saying the name “Mark” emergent? Mark Sally Tom “ MARK”
  • 114.
    • Yes
    • No
    Yes, You’ve got it. Al had not been trained to say the name “Mark” when Dawn touched the photo of “Mark.” Ok, one more step. Was the matching between Dawn touching the photo of “Mark” and Al saying the name “Mark” emergent? Mark Sally Tom “ MARK”
  • 115. Learned Earlier: Symmetrical Emergent Relation: Symmetrical Trained by Dawn Let’s Review… Mark Sally Tom Emergent Relation: Both symmetrical and transitive “ MARK”
  • 116. So here is one more concept you need to understand…
    • A stimulus class (concept) is a set of stimuli all of which have some common physical property.
    For example, red apples is a concept that has such common physical properties as color, size, shape, and taste But an equivalence class is a set of arbitrary symbolic stimuli that do not need to have common physical properties. For example… The spoken and written name share no common physical properties with each other. Instead they are symbolic stimuli. “ MARK” Mark Sally Tom
  • 117. So, lets check and see if you really understand the difference between Stimulus classes and Equivalence classes?
    • Stimulus Class
    • Equivalence Class
    Are actual varieties of shoes a stimulus class or an equivalence class?
  • 118.
    • Stimulus Class
    • Equivalence Class
    Are actual varieties of shoes a stimulus class or an equivalence class? Yes, you’ve got it! Shoes have common physical properties as color and shape. So it is a stimulus class
  • 119.
    • Stimulus Class
    • Equivalence Class
    Are actual varieties of shoes a stimulus class or an equivalence class? No, its not an equivalence class because all shoes are not symbolic of each other, they have common physical properties.
  • 120. “ Shirt”
    • Stimulus Class
    • Equivalence Class
    Now, lets try another one. “Shirt” (written and spoken) and actual shirts an example of a/an…
  • 121. “ Shirt”
    • Stimulus Class
    • Equivalence Class
    Now, lets try another one. “Shirt” (written and spoken) and actual shirts an example of a/an… Yes. When Dawn said “shirt” this was symbolic of Al touching the shirt. This is an equivalence class .
  • 122. “ Shirt”
    • Stimulus Class
    • Equivalence Class
    Now, lets try another one. “Shirt” (written and spoken) and actual shirts an example of a/an… No. When Dawn said “shirt” this was symbolic of Al touching the shirt. This is an equivalence class . Not a stimulus class because they don’t have similar physical properties.
  • 123. Now let’s test how well you understand stimulus equivalence.
    • Transitivity
    • Symmetry
    Is this matching symmetrical or transitive? Dawn trained Al to touch the clock when she said “clock.” As a result Al was able to say “clock” when Dawn touched the clock. “ Clock” “ Clock”
  • 124. Now let’s test how well you understand stimulus equivalence .
    • Transitivity
    • Symmetry
    Is this matching symmetrical or transitive? No. This matching is not transitive. It is symmetrical because Dawn trained Al to touch the clock. Al was able to say the name because he was previously reinforced. Try again. Dawn trained Al to touch the clock when she said “clock.” As a result Al was able to say “clock” when Dawn touched the clock. “ Clock” “ Clock”
  • 125. Now let’s test how well you understand stimulus equivalence. Dawn trained Al to touch the clock when she said “clock.” As a result Al was able to say “clock” when Dawn touched the clock.
    • Transitivity
    • Symmetry
    Is this matching symmetrical or transitive? Yes. Good Job. Al’s behavior of touching the clock was symmetrical to Al saying the clock. “ Clock” “ Clock”
  • 126. Now let’s test how well you understand stimulus equivalence.
    • Symbolic
    • Identity
    What kind of matching do we have? Dawn trained Al to touch the clock when she said “clock.” As a result Al was able to say “clock” when Dawn touched the clock. “ Clock” “ Clock”
  • 127. Now let’s test how well you understand stimulus equivalence. What kind of matching do we have?
    • Symbolic
    • Identity
    Dawn trained Al to touch the clock when she said “clock.” As a result Al was able to say “clock” when Dawn touched the clock. Yes. Good Job. The matching between Dawn and Al’s behavior was symbolic. “ Clock” “ Clock”
  • 128. Now let’s test how well you understand stimulus equivalence. What kind of matching do we have?
    • Symbolic
    • Identity
    Dawn trained Al to touch the clock when she said “clock.” As a result Al was able to say “clock” when Dawn touched the clock. No. This matching is not identity matching. The samples are not identical. Dawn saying “clock” matched with Al physically touching the clock is not identical! “ Clock” “ Clock”
  • 129. Now let’s test how well you understand stimulus equivalence.
    • Emergent
    • Not Emergent
    Was Al’s saying “clock” in the presence of Dawn touching the clock emergent? Dawn trained Al to touch the clock when she said “clock.” As a result Al was able to say “clock” when Dawn touched the clock. “ Clock” “ Clock”
  • 130. Now let’s test how well you understand stimulus equivalence. Was Al’s saying “clock” in the presence of Dawn touching the clock emergent?
    • Emergent
    • Not Emergent
    Yes. Al behavior of saying “clock,” was not trained. So it the behavior was emergent! Dawn trained Al to touch the clock when she said “clock.” As a result Al was able to say “clock” when Dawn touched the clock. “ Clock” “ Clock”
  • 131. Now let’s test how well you understand stimulus equivalence.
    • Emergent
    • Not Emergent
    Was Al’s saying “clock” in the presence of Dawn touching the clock emergent? Dawn trained Al to touch the clock when she said “clock.” As a result Al was able to say “clock” when Dawn touched the clock. No. Al’s behavior of saying “clock” was not trained. So the behavior is emergent. “ Clock” “ Clock”
  • 132. Before this training Al was able to touch the written word clock when Dawn said “clock.”
    • Symmetrical
    • Transitive
    Is the last symbolic matching symmetrical or transitive? Now Al can touch the written word, clock when Dawn touches the clock. CLOCK BEAR CUP “ Clock”
  • 133. Before this training Al was able to touch the written word clock when Dawn said “clock.”
    • Symmetrical
    • Transitive
    Is the last symbolic matching symmetrical or transitive? No. Al behavior of touching the written name clock is not symmetrical to Dawn touching the clock. TRY AGAIN! Now Al can touch the written word, clock when Dawn touches the clock. CLOCK BEAR CUP “ Clock”
  • 134. Before this training Al was able to touch the written word clock when Dawn said “clock.” Now Al can touch the written word, clock when Dawn touches the clock.
    • Symmetrical
    • Transitive
    Is the last symbolic matching symmetrical or transitive? Yes. Al behavior of touching the written name clock is transitive of Dawn physically touching the clock. CLOCK BEAR CUP “ Clock”
  • 135. The stimuli involved in the matching below make up what kind of class?
    • Equivalence class
    • Stimulus class
    CLOCK BEAR CUP “ Clock” “ Clock”
  • 136. The stimuli involved in the matching below make up what kind of class?
    • Equivalence class
    • Stimulus class
    CLOCK BEAR CUP Yes. The matching between Dawn saying “clock,” and Al touching the clock is an equivalence class because they do not have common physical properties. “ Clock” “ Clock”
  • 137. The stimuli involved in the matching below make up what kind of class?
    • Equivalence class
    • Stimulus class
    CLOCK BEAR CUP No. Dawn saying “clock,” and Al touching the clock does not have common physical properties, so it can’t be a stimulus class. “ Clock” “ Clock”
  • 138.
    • GREAT JOB ON FINISHING THE STIMULUS EQUIVALENCE WORKSHOW
    • THE END!!!
  • 139. Original Creators: Becky Kehe Jason Otto Revised (Spring 2005): Greg Partlo Conny Raaymakers Revised Fall 2005/ Spring 2006 Kristen Gaisford