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Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness
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Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS in Agribusiness

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Performed global analysis of strategic IS practices in Agribusiness. …

Performed global analysis of strategic IS practices in Agribusiness.

Research areas included Industry Demographics, Total Industry Size, Main Products & Services, Top Global Companies by Market Share, Financial Analysis of the Industry, R&D Spending, IT Spending, Extent of Globalization, Industry Strategic Analysis, Competitive Rivalry in the Industry, Threats of New Entrants, Threat of Substitute Products or Services, Bargaining Power of Customers, Bargaining Power of Suppliers, Strategic Information Systems Analysis, Supply Chain Management, Communication Technologies, Customer Relationship Management, Precision Agriculture

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  • 1. March 5, 2012Multi-country Analysis ofStrategic ISAgribusiness Julia Allis, Chenzi Qian, Joshua Kitlas
  • 2. Allis, Qian, KitlasContents1 Industry Demographics .................................................................................................... 2 1.1 Total Industry Size...................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Main Products & Services .......................................................................................... 3 1.3 Top Global Companies by Market Share ................................................................... 3 1.4 Financial Analysis of the Industry ............................................................................. 4 1.5 R&D Spending ............................................................................................................ 4 1.6 IT Spending ................................................................................................................ 5 1.7 Extent of Globalization............................................................................................... 52: Industry Strategic Analysis ............................................................................................. 6 2.1 Competitive Rivalry in the Industry .......................................................................... 6 2.2 Threats of New Entrants ........................................................................................... 7 2.3 Threat of Substitute Products or Services ................................................................. 7 2.4 Bargaining Power of Customers ................................................................................ 8 2.5 Bargaining Power of Suppliers .................................................................................. 83: Strategic Information Systems Analysis ......................................................................... 8 3.1 Supply Chain Management ........................................................................................ 9 3.2 Communication Technologies ................................................................................... 9 3.3 Customer Relationship Management ....................................................................... 9 3.4 Precision Agriculture ............................................................................................... 10Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 11 1
  • 3. Allis, Qian, Kitlas Multi-country Analysis of Strategic IS Agribusiness1 Industry Demographics1.1 Total Industry SizeThe agribusiness industry plays a vital role in every nation, not only producing food and agriculturalproducts but also employing the largest number of workers among all the industries. In recent years, thedevelopment of technology is changing the structure of agribusiness industry, resulting in fewer farmsand farm workers (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010-2011).Agribusiness includes over 2 million employers, as of 2008. Crop production and animal productionemploy over 40% of agribusiness laborers. Smaller segments of the industry include support activities,logging, fishing, and forestry, accounting for around 15% of laborers.Distribution of total employment in agribusiness, 2008(Source: BLS Division of Industry Employment Projections, 2008)The number of large agribusiness firms is very small, accounting for less than 20% of employers.However, large firms and corporate farms produce around 75% of agricultural goods annually (Bureau ofLabor Statistics, 2010-2011).In terms of international market share, United States (36.9%), Canada (12.6%) and Singapore (10.4%) arethe largest participants among all the countries, together comprising about 60% of the total market,according to 2010 S&P statistics.2
  • 4. Allis, Qian, KitlasGlobal Agribusiness Country Breakdown (Source: S&P Global Agribusiness Indices, 2010)1.2 Main Products & ServicesThe agribusiness industry encompasses a wide range of activities and disciplines regarding foodproduction. Major functions include farming, equipment manufacturing, seed supplying, agriprocessing,packaging and distribution, marketing, and retail sales. Major products include food products such aswheat, corn, soy, livestock, eggs and diary, and non-food products including fertilizers, weed killers,growth hormones, textiles, lumber, equipment, and energy.1.3 Top Global Companies by Market ShareTop 10 Agribusiness Companies (Source: S&P Global Agribusiness Indices, 2010)The top company by global market share is Potash Corp of Saskatchewan. Among the other top nine bymarket share are five US companies, with others hailing from Brazil, Singapore, UK and Switzerland.(S&P, 2010.) These companies specialize in different products and services. For example, Potash Corp.produces fertilizers and fertilizer ingredients, while the core business of BRF and Associated British Foodsis food processing and trading. 3
  • 5. Allis, Qian, Kitlas1.4 Financial Analysis of the IndustryIn agribusiness, profitability and return on assets greatly rely on the financial performance of farms,which supply raw materials to agriprocessing companies. Financial data show that the average operatingprofit margin and average return on assets are negative for small-scale farms, but positive for large andcorporate ones (Hoppe, Korb, O‟Donoghue& Banker, 2007), indicating that bigger farms have higherlevels of sales. In terms of net income, the majority of small farms generated a positive value, though lowcompared with large and corporate farms (Hoppe, Korb, O‟Donoghue& Banker, 2007). Overall, in 2004,the average net farm income was $25,000, which was a 37% increase over 2003. Continued growth ispredicted for future years.(Source: Economic Research Service, 2007)1.5 R&D SpendingPrior to 2000, agricultural R&D spending focused on increasing the productivity. Since the 1980s, publicR&D funds in developed countries have shifted toward environmental, food quality and safety objectives.As a result, developing countries, which rely on R&D spillovers from other countries, have become moreself-reliant, investing more on R&D for their own agricultural technologies. In 2000, the percentage ofpublic agriculture investment in developing countries exceeded that in developed countries for the firsttime (Pardey, PG., Alston, JM. &Beintema, NM., 2006).4
  • 6. Allis, Qian, KitlasGlobal Public investment in agricultural R&D: 2000(Source: Pardey, PG., Alston, JM. &Beintema, NM., 2006)Starting in the mid-1980s, public investment inR&D research has leveled off, while private sector R&Dfunding is growing rapidly. Data indicates that private research expenditures have tripled between 1960and 1996, and is still growing steadily. Because of this shift and globalization pressures, research activitieshave shifted toward the private sector (Economic Research Services, 2006). For most developingcountries, private sector funding for R&D still barely meets the increasing demand for productivity, andleading multinational firms play an important role in continuing growth.1.6 IT SpendingIT funding mainly supports implementation of advanced technologies and systems utilized to facilitate allstages of agribusiness (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010-2011). Specifically, IT funding supports theproduction process to develop improved dynamic prediction models (Kuhlmann, 2005) to benefit theprocurement process. With telecommunications and data warehousing, companies can develop improvedsupply chain management, and store and transfer information for e-commerce.1.7 Extent of GlobalizationGlobalization has resulted in a norm of multinational supply chains for the entire agribusiness industry,and significant concentration of the global food system has emerged. Large multinational corporationsobtain raw materials, process products and conduct trade globally. The major agriculture products arehighly concentrated among these companies, being produced, and sold by a handful of leading firmsaround the world. Small market segments also show high levels of concentration due to duopolies andmonopolies (Wilkinson, 2009). Leading firms not only apply vertical integration throughout all phaseswithin the industry, but also grow horizontally across market sectors. Vertical and horizontal integrationis further enhanced by “strategic alliances” with complementary firms such as manufacturers, energy andchemical companies (Wilkinson, 2009). 5
  • 7. Allis, Qian, Kitlas2: Industry Strategic Analysis (Porter, 2008)We will perform a strategic industry analysis using Porter‟s „Five Forces‟ model, examining competitiverivalries, threat of substitute products or services, threats of new entrants, bargaining power of customers,and bargaining power of suppliers in the agribusiness industry. (Porter, 1979)(Porter, 2008)2.1 Competitive Rivalry in the IndustryAgribusiness is a highly complex and globalized industry where customers, partners, competitors, andvalue and supply chains are intricately connected. The industry operates at a macro level, with a handfulof large, dominant multinational organizations, as well as a micro level, comprised of small farmers andindependent family businesses.Products and services include livestock, crops, fertilizer production, heavy equipment manufacturing,logging, fishing, hunting, and trapping. Relationships between organizations blur, with a single companyselling some products to a customer and buying others from them. Country, organization, and product areoften used as measurements of success or growth. These metrics are diverse and, although useful oncertain levels, i.e. to track production and sales, they do not tell the complete story of buyers, suppliers, orcompetitors. This adds further haze to an already unclear industry definition.These dynamics make the nature of competition between companies ambiguous. Relationships betweenthem can vary depending on product involved. A definition of competitors is clouded further bygovernment regulation and intervention, as well as by the size and dominance of a few firms (Olson&Boehlje, 2010). As an object example of the diversity of agribusiness, we performed a North AmericanIndustry Classification System search for „agriculture.‟ Our search yielded the following results: NAICS Code NAICS Definition 112519 Sea plant agriculture 115115 Agriculture production or harvesting crews 333111 Harvesting machinery and equipment, agriculture, manufacturing 333111 Irrigation equipment, agriculture, manufacturing 423820 Harvesting machinery and equipment, agriculture, merchant wholesalers 541711 Biotechnology research and development laboratories or services in agriculture6
  • 8. Allis, Qian, Kitlas 541712 Agriculture research and development laboratories or services (except biotechnology research and development) 926140 Agriculture fair boards administration 926140 Pest control programs, agriculture, government 926140 Weed control, agriculture, government(Source: North American Industry Classification System)Large-scale rivals include Monsanto and Archer Daniels Midland. Small-scale rivals include local, family-owned farms. Mergers between multinationals have reduced the number of competitors, but done little tochange industry competitiveness and have effectively squeezed out smaller, independent firms.For example, Tyson Foods and Iowa Beef Processors, Inc. merged in 2001 to form a prepackaged meatgoliath (Moeller, 2003). This increased competitiveness among rivals such as Hormel Foods andSmithfield Foods, put pressure on small meat suppliers, and created a vacuum for smaller firms andfarmers. Without doubt, the greatest economic threat to farmers as independent entrepreneurs is thedeadly combination of concentration and vertical integration. Producers are vulnerable to a combinationof high levels of concentration in input supply and output processing and high levels of verticalintegration from the top down (Harl, 2000).Given the vast array of exploration possible on this topic, each of the following sections will include reviewof one or more example from different agribusiness industry segments.2.2 Threats of New EntrantsThreats of new entrants in agribusiness come locally, domestically, and globally. Due to the extensiveresources required to be a global agribusiness player, threats of new entrants on that scale are extremelylimited with the exception of new entities formed from acquisitions or mergers, such as theaforementioned Tyson Foods andIowa Beef Processors, Inc.merger.An interesting opportunity for a new entrant may come in the form of intellectual property, specificallypatent expiration. Monsanto‟s „Roundup Ready 1‟ patent on its controversial „RoundUp‟ crops--geneticallyengineered and using a herbicide with the active ingredient glyphosate--expires in 2014 (Delano, 2009).When that patent expires, so does an annual revenue stream of approximately half a billion dollars inroyalties. (Morris, 2010). Unless Monsanto can convert farmers to its latest iteration, „RoundUp Ready 2,‟an interesting space will be created for a manufacturer with the capability to produce a generic version ofRoundUp.2.3 Threat of Substitute Products or ServicesIn agribusiness, beef will not always be beef and corn will not always be corn. With the scientific andtechnological capacities available today, the genetic modification of seeds and the systematic rearing oflivestock are two areas where substitute products or services can emerge.The epidemiology of seed diseases provides opportunities for disease management through modem seedtechnology (McGee, 1995). Companies can now genetically modify seeds to withstand certain insects andenvironments as well as yield a specific amount of crop. Likewise, livestock technology presents similaropportunities. Livestock vaccination, RFID technology (Yin, Chen, Lu, Li, & Wu, 2011 ), and carcassquality (Yong, Hong-mei, Yan-yan, & Yu-jing, 2010) are but a few possibilities that broaden the playingfield to competitors with appropriate technical and scientific expertise. 7
  • 9. Allis, Qian, Kitlas2.4 Bargaining Power of CustomersThe breadth of products and interconnectedness of the industry results in a wide variety amongagribusiness customers. Examples include: Food Retail--looking to buy everything from POS data to inventory management systems Multinational Agribusiness--looking to buy logistics insights and CRM applications Small-scale family farmer--interested in farm equipment and agricultural supplies Consumer--choosing between organic and non-organic foods in the supermarketThe food retail value chain presents an interesting example of the bargaining power of customers.Retailers selling directly to consumers (e.g. supermarkets) have been collecting data via POS systems forover 25 years (Olson &Boehlje, 2010). This has enabled retailers to better understand customer-purchasing behavior and maximize product marketing and inventory management. This data hasstrengthened their bargaining power over their suppliers. The balance of power shifted from supplieradvantage to retailer advantage starting in the 1980s. Much of the impact of this shift had largely occurredbefore 2000 (Olson &Boehlje, 2010).Another example of the bargaining power of customers is Walmart‟s investment in, and adoption of, radiofrequency identification (RFID). They require all suppliers to similarly adopt the technology or they willbe removed from Walmart‟s supply chain (Narsing, 2005).2.5 Bargaining Power of SuppliersAs with the rest of the industry, agribusiness suppliers are as diverse as the industry‟s customers andcompetitors, selling everything from commercial greenhouses to spring tine cultivators to insulation.Small-scale milk cooperatives in Germany exhibit a good example of the bargaining power of suppliers.The cooperatives can collect and sell milk to dairy companies. These marketing cooperatives organizefarmers in a certain regions and then bargain for better prices by reducing the number of alternativesuppliers in a region. These organizations have a long tradition in and are supported by German law(Theuvsen, 2009).3: Strategic Information Systems AnalysisAs an industry, agribusiness is characterized by complex supply chains. Farmers, ranchers, and foresterspurchase agricultural supplies and equipment such as seed, fertilizers, pesticides, tractors, and storagefacilities from agricultural supply companies. Other companies offer services to farmers, such as water orsoil quality testing, or training in sustainability practices and land management. Farmers grow, cultivateand harvest the raw agricultural products, then sell them to processing companies which turn them intoprocessed foods, chemicals, textiles, lumber, and other finished products. The processing companies thensend their goods to retailers. These supply chains frequently stretch across international borders, asagricultural supply companies ship their goods worldwide, and processing companies stationed in onecountry buy crops from farmers in multiple other countries where the crop is grown. (Folkerts andKoehorst 1998.) For example, a textile producer might source wool from Scotland, Italy, and Australia.As such, supply chain management becomes a central strategic issue which crosses over into areas ofcommunications and customer relationship management.8
  • 10. Allis, Qian, Kitlas3.1 Supply Chain ManagementAgribusiness supply chain structures war with each other. Large companies compete for efficiencies,using technologies such as RFID (Narsing 2005) and customer relationship initiatives to cultivate closebuyer/supplier relationships, and training programs to increase product quality. (Bemis 2010.) Largeagribusiness firms which interact with large numbers of small suppliers must also bear significantadministrative and transaction costs associated with communications, account and inventorymanagement, and data tracking, making robust supply chain management systems a priority.(Choudhary and Sen 2011)Small agribusinesses and agricultural regions gain competitive advantage through undercutting thelarger, more complex supply chains of their international competitors. While they can leverage powerfulmarket forces, large supply chains isolate farmers from retailers and consumers. (OKeeffe 1998.) Withthe growing market for „natural foods‟ and sustainable produce, small farmers and regional companies aretaking advantage of that weakness by building shorter supply chains that minimize this separation. Consumers find the transparency of these supply chains and the accessibility of the farms and businessesinvolved appealing. (Marsden and Bristow 200.)3.2 Communication TechnologiesSocial media and converging communications are another source of strategic advantage--and upheaval--in supply chain management. Jean Kinsey (2000) identifies information and communicationstechnology--notably the internet--as one of the two biggest technological influences on supply chainstructure.ICT applications can now take the place of some functions historically performed by complex supply chainmanagement systems, enabling agribusinesses to cheaply and efficiently collect and aggregate data frombuyers and suppliers, and more easily manage communications. (Choudhary and Sen 201.)ICT is also driving significant changes at the level of the farmers and other small agribusinesses. Smallagribusinesses were historically at the mercy of the large intermediary firms. With crops expensive totransport and unable to be stored indefinitely, farmers in particular faced restraints, typically having tochoose from among their most immediate options. Internet and mobile communications now provide theability to track market prices even to farmers in developing countries. They can also reach potentialbuyers without having to travel, enabling them to sell their products at more competitive rates. (Choudhary and Sen 2011)3.3 Customer Relationship ManagementDue to the increasing independence of small farmers/suppliers, agriprocessing companies are competingfor the best suppliers and product by developing initiatives to cultivate closer relationships with farmers. Online account management provides farmers and other business partners with easy access andmanagement of their finances and inventories, enabling a smoother and more efficient relationship.(Arthur-Daniels-Midland 2012) Some companies are also launching initiatives to train farmers inagricultural techniques and technologies, enabling them to grow better crops more efficiently. The buyercompany benefits from a better end product, and farmer benefits from larger, more valuable crops, thusincreasing the farmer‟s loyalty to the buyer company (Bemis 2010) 9
  • 11. Allis, Qian, Kitlas3.4 Precision AgriculturePrecision agriculture is an agricultural technique that improves yields and reduces costs throughextremely tight management of time and resources (Smith, 1997). The goal of precision farming is toincrease income while reducing environmental impact. The approach benefits from technologiesincluding Geographic Information Systems, remote sensing systems, and Global Positioning Systems(Zhang, Wang M.& Wang N, 2002). These technologies can provide data with a high degree of accuracy,yet are widely available and easy to install and use (Smith, 1997).These tools have enabled small farms to optimize their strategy and mitigate risks. Large companies alsouse them to improve tracking of activities and productivity of their cooperating farms, monitoringelements such as real-time progress of crops, collecting seed information and monitoring weatherconditions. This data can be used by managers to improve predictions and plans (The World Bank, 2011).Precision agriculture is not yet being applied widely since the technique‟s economic and environmentalbenefits are still questioned by some sectors of the industry. Despite the range of technologies available,many farmers remain uncertain whether to adopt them, considering the high cost for an unknown return(Zhang, Wang M.& Wang N, 2002).Precision agriculture is most popular in the US, where over 5,000 farms have adopted GPS technology tohelp them monitor their activities. In Australia, another high-technology agricultural economy, less than200 farms have adopted the technology. In most countries, the implementation of precision agriculturehas been utilized mainly for spatially variable applications, For example, farmers may attach the GPSfunctionality to the tractors to better identify the boundaries of the fields and optimize the portioning oftheir fields for growing different kinds of crops (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010-2011).10
  • 12. Allis, Qian, KitlasBibliographyS&P Global Agribusiness Indices (2010). (2012, February 29). Retrieved from S&P Indices:http://www.standardandpoors.com/home/en/usArcher Daniels Midland Company. (2012, February 5). Promoting better lives and livelihoods for Africancocoa farmers. Retrieved from Archer Daniels Midland Company: http://www.adm.com/en-US/responsibility/2010CR/supply_chain/Pages/african_cocoa_farmers.aspxArthur-Daniels-Midland. (2012, February 27). Innovation & Technology. Retrieved from Arthur-Daniels-Midland: http://www.adm.com/en-US/products/innovation-technology/Pages/default.aspxBemis, M. (2010, October 4). Strengthening the Links: Global agricultural processor [ADM] takes aholistic approach to enhancing supply chain integrity. Retrieved from Ethisphere:http://ethisphere.com/strengthening-the-links/Bunte, F. H. (2009, Sept. 3). Thought for Food: The impact of ICT on agribusiness.LEI WageningenUniversity and Research, the Netherlands. Retrieved March 4, 2012, fromhttp://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/57989/2/Bunte.pdfBureau of Labor Statistics. (2012, March 1). Career Guide to Industries, 2010-11 Edition: Agriculture,Forestry, and Fishing. Retrieved from Bureau of Labor Statistics: http://www.bls.gov/oco/cg/cgs001.htmChoudhary, Vikas; Sen, Soham. (2011). ICT in Agriculture Module 10: ICT Applications for AgribusinessSupply Chains. World Bank. Retrieved March 4, 2012 fromhttp://www.ictinagriculture.org/ictinag/sourcebook/module-10-ict-applications-agribusiness-supply-chainsDelano, M. (2009). Roundup Ready Crops - Cash crop or third world savior? . Retrieved from MITDemoscience: http://web.mit.edu/demoscience/Monsanto/players.htmlEconomic Research Services. (2012, March 4). Agricultural R&D and Technology Adoption. Retrievedfrom United States Department of Agriculture: http://www.ers.usda.gov/Features/AgRD/index.htmEsterhuizen, D. v. (2008). An evaluation of the competitiveness of the agribusiness sector in south africa.Advances in Competitiveness Research, 31-46.Folkerts, H. &. (1998). Challenges in international food supply chains: Vertical co-ordination in theeuropean agribusiness and food industries. British Food Journal, 100(8), 385-388. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/225154437?accountid=14214Gossieaux, F. (2011, September 12). CIO 2.0 Conversation with Shirley Cunningham, CIO at Monsanto.Retrieved from CMO 2.0 Conversations: http://www.cmotwo.com/2011/09/12/cio-20-conversation-with-shirley-cunningham-cio-at-monsanto/Gray, A. W. (2004). Strategic Positioning in Agribusiness: Analysis and Options. Working Papers, PurdueUniversity, College of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, 4-13.Harl, N. E. (2000). The Structural Transformation of The Agricultural Sector. Retrieved from A FOODAND AGRICULTURAL POLICY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY:http://www.competitivemarkets.com/library/academic/21stcentury/index.htm 11
  • 13. Allis, Qian, KitlasHoppe A., K. P. (2012, March 4). Structure and Finances of U.S. Farms: Family Farm Report, 2007Edition.Retrieved from Economic Information Bulletin No. (EIB-24):http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/EIB24/International Trade Department. (2009). CLUSTERS FOR COMPETITIVENESS: A Practical Guide &Policy Implications for Developing Cluster Initiatives. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Kinsey, J. (2000, Dec.). A Faster, Leaner, Supply Chain: New Uses of Information Technology. AmericanJournal of Agricultural Economics, 82(5, Proceedings Issue), 1123-1129.Kuhlmann, F. (2012, March 3). IT Applications in Agriculture: Some Developments and Perspectives.Retrieved from http://departments.agri.huji.ac.il/economics/gelb-appli-2.pdfMarsden, T. B. (2000). Food Supply Chain Approaches: Exploring their Role in Rural Development.SociologiaRuralis, 40, 424–438. doi:10.1111/1467-9523.00158McGee, D. C. (1995). Epidemiological Approach to Disease Management Through Seed Technology.Annual Review of Phytopathology, 445-466.Moeller, D. R. (2003).Problem of Agricultural Concentration: The Case of the Tyson-IBPMerger.Retrieved from Drake Journal of Agricultural Law.Morris, F. (2010, January 12). Monsanto GMO Ignites Big Seed War. National Public Radio.Narsing, A. (2005). RFID And Supply Chain Management: An Assessment Of Its Economic, Technical,And Productive Viability In Global Operations. The Journal of Applied Business Research, 75-80.OKeeffe, M. (1998). Establishing supply chain partnerships: lessons from Australian agribusiness. SupplyChain Management, 5.OKeeffe, M. (1998).Establishing Supply Chain Partnerships: Lessons from Australian Agribusiness.Supply Chain Management, 5-5.Olson, K., &Boehlje, M. (2010).Theme overview: fundamental forces affecting agribusiness industries.Choices: The magazine of food, farm and resource issues, 1-26.Pardey, P. G. (2006). Agricultural R&D spending at a critical crossroads. Farm Policy Journal, 3(1), 1-9.Porter, M. E. (1979). How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy. Harvard Business Review, 86-93.Porter, M. E. (2008). The 5 Competitive Forces that Shape Strategy. Harvard Business Review, 78-93.Smith, G. (2008). Agri-business: Understanding the Connectedness of Internal and External StressFactors on Credit Risk .RMA Journal, 20-25.Smith, W. F. (2012, March 1). Applications of DGPS in Agriculture. Retrieved from Proceedings of the1997 National Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation, Santa Monica, CA:http://www.ion.org/search/view_abstract.cfm?jp=p&idno=56The World Bank. (2012, March 1). ICT in Agriculture, Connecting Smallholders to Knowledge, Networks,and Institutions. Retrieved from The World Bank: http://www.ictinagriculture.org/ictinag/node/10512
  • 14. Allis, Qian, KitlasTheuvsen, L. (2009). High Level Expert Group on Milk.European Commission.Treacy, M., &Wiersma, F. (1993).Customer Intimacy and Other Value Disciplines. Harvard BusinessReview, 84-93.United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA-NASS). (2007).Census of Agriculture-United States Data.Washington, DC: Census of Agriculture-United States Data.Wilkinson, J. (2012, March 3). Globalization of Agribusiness and Developing World Food Systems.Retrieved from Monthly Review: http://monthlyreview.org/2009/09/01/globalization-of-agribusiness-and-developing-world-food-systemsYin, J., Chen, Z. N., Lu, Q., Li, J., & Wu, Y. (2011 ). Provenance System for Livestock Supplied to HongKong Based on RFID Technology. Computational and Information Sciences (ICCIS), 2011 InternationalConference on (pp. 707-709). Chengdu, China: Computational and Information Sciences (ICCIS).Yong, Z., Hong-mei, L., Yan-yan, T., & Yu-jing, Z. (2010). Effect of Compound Aluminum SilicateMycotoxin Adsorbent on Immunity,Carcass Quality and Nutrient Apparent Utility of Broilers. Journal ofShenyang Agricultural University.Zhang N., W. M. (2002). Precision Agriculture - A worldwide overview. Computers and Electronics inAgriculture, 36(2-3), 113-132. 13

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